Skip to main content

Full text of "The botany of the Antarctic voyage of H.M. discovery ships Erebus and Terror in the years 1839-1843, under the command of Captain Sir James Clark Ross, Kt. ..."

See other formats

























IN THE YEARS 1839—1843, 






Victoria Barrier and Land. Lat. /& S, Mount Ere&its active Volcano . and Mount Terror. 


0ublisneo unocr the aiutbonty of tbe JLoros Commissioners of tb: aiomirnltr. 





S?rr fHnsSt (Sracious iHnjrs'tH, 















Royal Botanic Gardens, 
Kew, May 1, 1845. 



IN the beginning of the year 1839, the British Government having determined on fit- 
ting out an Expedition, for the purpose of investigating the phenomena of Terrestrial 
Magnetism in various remote countries, and for prosecuting Maritime Geographical 
Discovery in the high southern latitudes, H.M. Ships Erebus and Terror, commis- 
sioned by Captain Sir James Clark Ross, sailed from Chatham on the 29th of Sep- 
tember 1839. In addition to carrying out the above-mentioned leading views, it was 
enjoined to the officers, that they should use every exertion to collect the various objects 
of Natural History which the many heretofore unexplored countries about to be visited 
would afford. 

On the outward voyage we touched at most of the Atlantic Islands, making a 
longer stay at some of them than is usual, on account of the nature of the observations 
that were instituted. At Madeira, which was tbe first visited, we called in the middle 
of October, and remained eleven days ; and then made Teneriffe and the Cape de Verds, 
whence we sailed for and landed upon St. Paul's Rocks*, under the Line, in long. 
29° W. St. Helena was the next destination, and the course which it was found ne- 
cessary to follow took us to the Island of Trinidad off the Brazilian coast, lat. 20° S. 

After spending a week at St. Helena, the vessels sailed for the Cape of Good Hope, 
arriving there on the 4th of April 1840. The Cape may be regarded as the starting- 

* For an admirable description of these remarkable rocks, distant 350 miles from the nearest land (the 
Island of Fernando Noronha), see Mr. Darwin's Journal, p. 8. 

54 :q 


point, whence the real object of the voyage, namely that which included South Polar 
Discovery, would commence. On the 6th of April 1840 we quitted Simon's Bay, 
and first entered a cold and inhospitable latitude (42° S.) on the 17th of the same 
month ; then, only four days after, holding a westward course, we passed to the 
south of Marion's Island, formed of fiat terraces of black volcanic rock and cone-shaped 
mountains, often of a reddish tinge, and towering to a considerable height. Here oc- 
curred the first botanical phenomenon, the Macrocystis pyrifera (a remarkable gigantic 
seaweed), being exceedingly abundant. The ships were hove to between Marion's and 
Prince Edward's Islands, with the view to going ashore the following day ; but during 
the night a heavy gale arose which drove them far to the westward, thus disappointing 
the hopes which had been formed of collecting objects of natural history on an island 
never previously explored by any scientific individual. 

On the 28th, after a succession of storms, the Crozet Islands were gained : this 
group lies far to the westward of the position that had been assigned to it, namely in 
lat. 47^° S. and long. 46-48° E. ; and here the same disappointment awaited us, for after 
being blown off, and again on the 1st of May beating up to Possession, the most east- 
ern of the cluster, the threatening appearance of the weather forbade any attempt to 
land. The Crozet Islands are all volcanic, and of the wildest and most rocky aspect ; 
the harbours are very few, and some of the islands are entirely inaccessible. The 
mountains rise in peaks and cones to an elevation of 4000-5000 feet, exhibiting patches 
of perpetual snow on the summits, while dense fogs frequently envelope their bases, 
borne from the sea, to such an elevation, that the highest points alone are visible. To 
all appearance the vegetation is equally scanty and stunted as that which Kerguelen's 
Island afterwards afforded, and the questions which were put to a party of miserable 
sealers who came off to the ship, elicited no satisfactory information as to whether the 
valuable "Cabbage" of the latter island also inhabits the Crozet group. Scudding before 
heavy westerly gales, on the 6th of May a remarkable conical rock, called Bligh's Cap, 
was descried ; it lies off the north-west extremity of Kerguelen's Island ; but thick 
weather prevented Sir James Ross from making the land, from which the ships were 
again driven to a distance of 150 miles and obliged to beat back, finally casting anchor 
in Christmas Harbour, on the 12th of May 1840. 

At Kerguelen's Island, all the plants that had been originally detected by the illus- 


trious Cook were gathered during the two and a half winter months that the " Erebus 
and Terror" staid there, together with many other species, a remarkable proof of the 
uniformity of the climate, and the comparative mildness of the winter season. The ships 
left Kerguelen's Island on the 20th of July, and arrived in the river Derwent, Van 
Diemen's Island, on the 16th of August 1840. 

On the 12th of November 1840, we quitted Hobarton for our first voyage to the 
South Pole, during which the only places visited which yielded many plants were 
Lord Auckland's Islands, lat. 50|° S., long. 166° E., where we arrived after a week's 
sail from the last-mentioned coast, and staid there during the spring months of that 
latitude, and Campbell's Island, in lat. 52J° S., long. 169° E. Quitting that island 
again on the 17th of December, the ships finally sailed for an entirely unexplored region 
of discovery. The Macrocystis and D'Urvillcea were found in large vegetating floating 
patches, nearly as far south as any open water remained free of bergs, in lat. 61° S. The 
vessels entered the pack-ice in lat. 68° S., long. 175°. 

During this voyage the vast extent of continent, since called "Victoria Land," 
was discovered*, together with the active volcano " Mount Erebus," the extinct one 
" Mount Terror," and that icy barrier, which, running east and west, in the parallel of 
78° S., prevents all farther progress towards the polef. Two small islets were landed 
upon : one in lat. 71° 49' S., long. 170° 52' E. ; the other, Franklin Island, in lat. 76° S. 
and long. 168° 59' E. ; but neither of these spots presented the slightest trace of vege- 
tation. On the return voyage the Macrocystis again occurred, floating as usual in im- 
mense masses, in lat. 51° 10' S., and long. 137° E. 

The expedition returned to Hobarton, Van Diemen's Island, late in the autumn 
(of that latitude), April 7th, 1841 ; on the 7th of July again started from Van Die- 
men's Island, and after a short visit to Sydney, cast anchor in the Bay of Islands, New 
Zealand, August 18th, 1841, where we remained three months. This time was spent 
in collecting materials for a Flora of New Zealand, in which object we received great 
assistance from Mr. Colenso and many other gentlemen, by means of whose zealous 
cooperation our collections were rendered extremely valuable. 

The second exploring voyage was commenced on the 15th of November 1841. It 
had been Captain Ross's intention to land on Chatham Island, in lat. 44° S. and 176° 

* Vide Chart. t Vide Vignette. 


W. , but the prevalence for several days of the densest fogs frustrated all attempts to 
sight the land. This was much regretted, for few* of the plants of that interesting 
group are known to botanists. After tracing the Macrocystis into the 57th parallel, tbe 
ships entered an ice-pack of immense magnitude on the 18th of December, in lat. 62° S. 
Here we were entangled till Feb. 2nd, 1842 (the midsummer of those cheerless re- 
gions), making no more progress during that time than from the latitude just mentioned 
to 68°, where we emerged into comparatively open water to the southward of a large 
body of the pack, which however trended to the westward. At this time the season 
was far advanced, and as, in the preceding year, the retreat had been commenced, through 
absolute necessity, on the 9th of February, so Captain Ross did not think proper now 
to re-enter the pack-ice, but proceeded along its edge to the westward, advancing so far 
as 187° W., and then to the southward and eastward. On the 20th of February a gale 
came on, which, though in open water, was sufficiently trying ; the wind was very high, 
and the spray which beat over the ships became frozen ere it reached the deck, forming 
every object into a mass of ice ; the coils of rope were covered by an icy incrustation 
several inches thick, and most of the running-gear about the bowsprits was carried 
away by the weight of ice formed on it. 

On the 23rd of February the expedition came in view of the grand Victoria Barrier : 
the day being fine, the voyagers approached within a mile and a half of the Barrier, finally 
reaching 78° 10' S. lat. in the long. 162° W., having made six miles farther than in the 
preceding year, the highest latitude hitherto attained. Under all circumstances, this 
was more than had been expected ; for after the long detention, the rapidly closing sea- 
son rendered any progress very difficult ; but it was a great object to verify the magnetic 
and other observations, and to ascertain still more positively the position of the pole. 
Unable to proceed eastward, the retreat was commenced, tracing the pack edge. Sea- 
weed was again met with on reaching the parallel of 64°, and occasionally seen when 
running down the parallel of 60°, from 170° W. to 80° W., and thence in great abun- 
dance to the Falkland Islands, where the ships anchored in Berkeley Sound on the 6th 
of April 1842, not having seen land for 138 days, since leaving New Zealand. 

A prolonged stay in the Falklands, though the season was winter (April to the 
beginning of September), afforded ample opportunities for thoroughly investigating the 

* These few were collected by Dr. Dieffenbach, and are now deposited in the collection of Sir W. J. Hooker. 


Flora of that interesting and now highly important group, which, though it had heen 
partially examined by Admiral D'Urville, and previously by the officers of that unfor- 
tunate ship, the " Uranie," under the command of Captain Freycinet, still afforded 
considerable novelty. 

On the Gth of September, the early spring of the southern latitudes, the " Erebus 
and Terror," with a portion of the officers, sailed from Berkeley Sound for the neighbour- 
hood of Cape Horn, and arrived there, after having been driven far out of their course by 
the equinoctial gales, on the 2 1 st, casting anchor in St. Martin's Cove, Hermit Island, lat. 
56°, within a few miles of the far-famed Cape Horn, which is immediately opposite the 
mouth of the Cove. This is the most southerly spot on the globe which possesses any- 
thing above a herbaceous vegetation. Here, in the sheltered bays, the two kinds of 
Antarctic Beech, the Evergreen and Deciduous, form a dense, though small forest, and 
ascend, in a stunted form, to an elevation of 1000 feet on the hills. Many of the plants 
gathered during Cook's first voyage, by Sir Joseph Banks and Solander, and by Forster 
during his second, as also those which Mr. Menzies had detected, when accompanying 
Vancouver's expedition, and which have not been hitherto published, were found again ; 
and when the ships returned to the Falklands in November, Captain Ross transported 
many hundreds of young Beech-trees and caused them to be planted there, in hopes that 
the productions of so near a country might be found to succeed on these treeless islands. 
Some were also sent home and have since been distributed in England, from the Royal 
Botanic Gardens of Kew. 

The third cruise to the South Polar Regions was commenced on the morning of 
the 17th of December 1842, when the expedition sailed from Berkeley Sound. An op- 
portunity was afforded again of tracing the southern limit of Seaweeds. The Macro- 
cystis was lost in lat. 55° S.,long. 57° W. ; but on attaining lat. 63°, long. 54°, another 
species appeared which had been originally discovered by Webster during the stay of 
Captain Forster's ship, the " Chanticleer," in Deception Island, one of the South Shetland 
group, and again found by the expedition of Admiral D'Urville, and has since been pub- 
lished under the name of Scytothalia Jucquinotii. On the 28th land was made, a por- 
tion of Palmer's Land, to which the name of " Terre Louis Philippe" has since been 
given by D'Urville. The ships were already in the pack-ice, through which we pene- 
trated, tracing the Lnd to 64°, and seeing a small volcanic island, lying a few miles off 


the coast (Cockburn's Island), we landed upon it. The vegetable productions only 
amounted to twenty Cryptogamic species, three of them Seaweeds. Unable, after a 
series of fruitless efforts, to penetrate farther than 65°, and after having been more or 
less entangled in the ice for thirty-seven days, Sir James Ross finally bore up, and when, 
with great difficulty, the ships had been extricated from the pack-ice, we commenced 
tracing its edge to the eastward. A succession of easterly gales rendered the pro- 
gress in the advancing season tedious, most uncomfortable, and hazardous. At last 
however, on the 22nd of February 1843, the pack was lost sight of, trending to the south- 
west. On the 28th the Antarctic Circle was recrossed, and in spite of the rapidly 
shortening days, dark nights, and continual bad weather (for throughout the month 
of February, corresponding to an English August, only one day elapsed without 
snow), the Commander persevered in holding a southerly course. On Sunday the 5th 
of March, the weather being very thick, with snow-squalls, white petrels were seen, a 
bird whose appearance affords a sure indication of the proximity of pack-ice, and on 
the afternoon of the same day a heavy pack was descried, only a few yards ahead, with 
a terrific surf beating on it. The ice here was such as not to allow of being " taken" 
(or entered), even under the most favourable circumstances, and the ships were accord- 
ingly put about in lat. 71° 30' S., long. 15° W. 

The thickness of the weather made it impossible to ascertain the course and posi- 
tion of the pack, and the Northward Voyage was commenced under violent N.E. equi- 
noctial gales. Beating to the northward, the ice occurred on both tacks, and the vessels 
were found to be in a bight of the pack, with the ocean loaded with bergs, and while the 
continued snow-squalls prevented the possibility of seeing any object ahead, the heavy 
seas and snow-laden state of the rigging rendered all human exertions ineffectual. From 
that date till the 11th of March, matters remained much the same, the ships beating to 
the northward with as much press of sail as could be exposed, trusting to Providence 
alone for guidance among the bergs. On the 1 9th the position assigned to Bouvet's 
or Circumcision Island was gained, but the weather rendered all endeavours, for three 
days, to discover land in this place of no avail. Both ships had a narrow escape of 
running foul of an iceberg, over which the sea was breaking, eighty feet high. The 
"Erebus," passing to windward, struck one of the floating masses from it ; and the 
"Terror," to windward of her consort, did not discover the danger till almost too late, 


when bearing up, she ran along the edge of the berg in the wash of the surf. On 
the 24th D'Urvillcea and Macrocystis were seen in lat. 51° S., and the last berg on 
March 25th, in lat. 47° S., the ships finally gaining the Cape of Good Hope on the 
4th of April 1843, within two days of three years after they had first quitted that port 
for the high southern latitudes. 

Respecting the climate of the various regions visited by the expedition, and especially 
that which prevails within the Antarctic Circle, little need here be said ; except that the 
vast proportion which water bears to land, tends to render the temperature uniform 
throughout the year, and the farther south is the position, the more equable does the 
climate seem to be. No analogy can prove more incorrect than that which compares 
the similar degrees of latitude in the north with those of the south. The most casual 
inspection of the map suffices to show the immense proportion of sea to land in the 
southern hemisphere, the mass of the continents terminating to the north of lat. 40° S., 
America alone dwindling away to the fifty-sixth degree. The scattered islands dis- 
covered to the south of this are therefore removed from the influence of any tracts which 
enjoy a better or continental climate. The power of the sun is seldom felt, and unless 
in the immediate neighbourhood of land, and accompanied by a comparatively dryland- 
wind, that luminary only draws up such mists and fogs as intercept its rays. After 
entering the pack-ice between 55° and 65°, the thermometer seldom, during any part 
of the summer day, rises above 32° or falls below 20° ; and while the southerly winds 
bring snow, the northerly ones transport an atmosphere laden with moisture, which, 
becoming at once condensed, covers the face of the ocean with white fogs of the densest 

All islands and lands to the southward of 45° partake more or less of this inhospi- 
table climate, which, though eminently unfavourable to a varied growth of plants, still, 
from its equable nature, causes a degree of luxuriance to pervade all the vegetable king- 
dom, such as is never seen in climates where the vegetable functions are suspended for 
a large portion of the year. The remoteness of these islands from any continent, to- 
gether with their inaccessibility, preclude the idea of their being tenanted, even in a 
single instance, by plants that have migrated from other countries, and still more 
distinctly do they forbid the possibility of man having been an active agent in the dis- 
semination of them. On the contrary, the remarkable fact that some of the most 


peculiar productions are confined to the narrowest limits, is a strong argument in favour 
of a general distribution of vegetable life over separate spots on the globe. Hence it 
will appear, that islands so situated furnish the best materials for a rigid comparison of 
the effects of geographical position and the various meteorological phenomena on vege- 
tation, and for acquiring a knowledge of the great laws according to which plants are 
distributed over the face of the globe. These subjects are however foreign to the pre- 
sent sketch, the author of which hopes, ere long, to have an opportunity of dwelling 
upon them at large and in a different form. 

Those persons who have spent a series of years on the ocean, in pursuit of a favourite 
science, know how little can be effected by the unaided efforts of one individual, and 
where much is accomplished, how large is the debt of obligation incurred, not only to the 
facilities afforded by shipmates, but to the accommodating disposition of those with 
whom he comes in daily contact, and with whom he literally shares one cabin and one 
table. The author may here be allowed to say, that no man can be more deeply sensible 
than he is of the rare privilege he enjoyed, in having messmates who were ever ready 
to sacrifice their own convenience for his accommodation. Most especially does he feel 
it incumbent on him here to return his thanks to the commanding Officer of the expe- 
dition (as is his first duty) for the opportunity afforded of accompanying him, for the 
kindness always shown during this the most important and interesting scientific voyage 
that has been accomplished since the days of Cook, and for the generous manner in 
which that officer's private cabin and library were unreservedly placed at his disposal 
during the whole time the expedition was afloat. Attached as Sir James Clark Ross has 
ever been to the various branches of Natural History, he took a pleasure in promoting 
the interests of the collections at all times, and himself gathered many of the plants 
here described. 

There were few of the officers of either ship who did not contribute something to 
the collection of plants ; but the botanist feels it peculiarly imperative on him here to 
enumerate and return his especial thanks to Mr. Lyall, Lieut. Smith, and Mr. Davis. 
Mr. Lyall indeed, as appointed to take charge of the botanical collections on board the 
" Terror," formed a most important herbarium, from which great assistance has been 
derived, amounting to no less than 1 500 species. 









Under this head will be considered the Botany of the few small islands which lie to 
the south of New Zealand, at least so far as have hitherto been examined. Of these, 
the two most important, Lord Auckland's group, in 50|° S. lat, 166° E. long., and 
Campbell's Island, lat. 52±° S. and long. 169° E., were visited by the "Erebus and 
Terror," and the former also by the French and American Discovery Ships*. 

Upon M c Quarrie's Island, lat. 55° S., long. 159° E., a very few plants have been 
collected, which are deposited in the herbarium of Mr. Brown, and some in that of Sir 
William Hooker, at Kew. I am not aware that any account has been published of these 
islands, nor of Emerald Island (lat. 57° S., long. 163° E.), the botany of which is en- 
tirely unknown, but which probably in this meridian constitutes the southern extreme of 
terrestrial vegetation. Floating masses of Macrocyslis and D'Urvilltea are found, how- 
ever, living and growing on the limits of the pack-ice, as far as the parallel of 64° S. 

The Flora of these islands is closely related to that of New Zealand, and does 
not partake in any of those features which characterize Australian vegetation. Most 
of the plants may indeed be presumed to exist on the unexplored mountains, especially 
those of the middle and southern islands, of New Zealand ; but others are doubtless 
peculiar to those higher southern latitudes which they inhabit, thus being analogous to 

* A few of the plants collected by the French have been published by two of the officers of Admira' 
D'Urville's Expedition, under the title of ' Voyage au Pole Sud, Botanique.' 

VOL. I. B 

2 FLORA ANTARCTICA. [Auckland and 

those few novel forms that appear only in the most arctic parts of America. Even 
between the floras of Lord Auckland's and Campbell's Islands a marked difference 
exists, several species growing most abundantly in the latter which are not found at all 
in the former, where also the proportion of species common to other Antarctic coun- 
tries is less, and the affinity is greater with the productions of New Zealand. 

Lord Auckland's Group. — A view of this small and very limited group, of about 
twenty miles long and eleven in its greatest breadth, as it appears on approaching from 
the sea, presents an almost equal distribution of wood, shrubs, and pasture-land. The 
mountains are low and undulating, nowhere exceeding 1400 or 1500 feet, clothed for 
their greater part, but scarcely to the very summits, with long grass, and frequently 
covered during November and December, though not generally, with snow. The 
climate is rainy and very stormy, so that on the windward sides the plants are stunted 
and checked, and resemble those of a higher southern latitude, or of an elevation several 
hundred feet above that which the same species inhabit on the sheltered parts. The 
whole group of islands appears formed of volcanic rocks, mostly of black trap, whose 
decomposition, especially among the ranker vegetation of the lower grounds, produces 
a deep rich soil. A Myrtaceous tree (Metrosideros umbellata) forms the larger pro- 
portion of the wood near the sea, and intermixed with it grow an arborescent species 
of Dracophyllum, several Coprosmas, Veronicas (frutescent) , and a Panax. Under these, 
and particularly close to the sea-beach, many Ferns abound ; conspicuous among them 
is a species with caulescent or subarborescent stems half a foot and upwards in diameter, 
crowned with handsome spreading tufts of fronds. Beyond the wooded region, some 
of the same plants, in a dwarf state, mingled with others, compose a shrubby broad 
belt, which ascends the hill to an elevation of 800 or 900 feet, gradually opening out 
into grassy slopes, and succeeded by the alpine vegetation. It is especially towards 
the summits of these hills that the most striking plants are found, vying in brightness 
of colour with the Arctic Flora, and unrivalled in beauty by those of any other Antarctic 
country. Such are the species of Gentian, and a Veronica with flowers of the intensest 
blue, several magnificent Composite, a Ranunculus, a Phyllachne, and a Liliaceous plant 
whose dense spikes of golden flowers are often so abundant as to attract the eye from a 
considerable distance. Here too the vegetable types of other Antarctic lands may be 
seen in the greatest number, and even such as are analogous to the Arctic productions, 
none of which can be more decided than a species of Hierochloe, Potentilla, Cardamine, 
Juncus, Drosera, Plantago, Epilobium, several Grasses, and Mosses belonging to the 
genera Andraa, Conostomum and Bartramia. Many of the plants in the lower grounds 
are no less striking and beautiful, as an arborescent Veronica bearing a profusion of 
white blossoms, a maritime Gentian, a handsome large-flowered Myosotis, the magnifi- 
cent Aralia polaris (Hombr. and Jacq.), two fine kinds of Anisotome, and several beau- 
tiful Ferns. 

Campbell's Islands.] FLORA ANTARCTICA. 3 

Campbell's Island, two degrees to the southward of Lord Auckland's group, is 
smaller, far more steep and rocky, with narrow sheltered valleys, and the broader faces 
of the hills much exposed, and hence bare of any but a grassy vegetation. Except in 
the bays, the coast is as iron-bound as that of St. Helena, the rocks assuming even a 
wilder and more fantastic form. Ever lashed by heavy swells, and exposed to a suc- 
cession of westerly gales, this land affords no holding-place for such trees as skirt the 
beaches of Lord Auckland's Islands. In the narrow, sinuous bays, however, the scene 
is quite changed, for they are often margined by a slender belt of brushwood, with an 
abundant undergrowth of Ferns, stretching up the steep and confined guileys. 

The geological features of the two islands are alike, and the only difference in cli- 
mate consists in that of Campbell's Island being still more forbidding and dreary. Fogs, 
snow-squalls and mists are the prevailing meteorological phenomena of these regions, 
and though such a state of atmosphere has a tendency to check the general mass of 
vegetation, still the constant moisture and equable temperature thus afforded support 
a luxuriant herbage in the very sheltered valleys. In Campbell's Island, the mountains, 
which rise very abruptly to about 1300 feet, are almost bare of vegetation, their rocky 
sides presenting a larger proportion of Grasses, Mosses and Lichens than in Lord Auck- 
land's group. Though all the handsomer plants are also found in the larger of the 
latter islands, yet, by growing here at a much lower elevation and in far greater abun- 
dance, they form a more striking feature in the landscape, the golden-flowered Liliaceous 
plant being conspicuous, from its profusion, at the distance of a mile from the shore. 


1. Ranunculus (Hecatonia) pinguis, Hook. fil. ; acaulis, carnosus, pilosus, foliis omnibus 
radicalibus longe petiolatis reniformi-rotundatis crenato-lobatis, petiolis basi late vaginantibus, sea- 
pis crassis nudis v. 1-2-bracteatis folia aequantibus unifloris, sepalis 5-8 calyce brevioribus obovato- 
cuneatis v. linearibus, nectariis 3 quandoque nullis v. obsoletis, carpellis numerosissimis in capitulum 
globosum arete congestis vix compressis utrinque subalatis dorsoque carinatis stylo valido recto bi- 
alato apice ssepe uncinato terminatis. (Tab. I.) 

Var. (3. pilosus ; minor, petiolis foliis scapis calycibusque magis pilosis, petalis linearibus sepalis J bre- 
vioribus, nectariis 3 valde distinctis. 

Var. y. rhombifolius ; minor, foliis subrotundo-rhombeis 3-5-fidis segmentis subacutis crenato-dentatis 
v. integris. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group, a and /3 in boggy places on the hills, alt. 1000 feet; and from 
the sea to the mountain tops, alt. 1 200 feet, in Campbell's Island. 7. Rocky places in Lord Auck- 
land's group, alt. 1200 feet, rare. 


4 FLORA ANTARCTICA. [Auckland and 

Radix perennis, crassa, subprsemorsa, rnagis minusve elongata, fibros pallidos camosos simplices, superne 
praecipue, emittens. Folia 1-2 una longa, 2-3 lata, omnia radicalia, patentia v. erecto-patentia, carnosula, 
crassa, pilosa (pilis deciduis), longe petiolata, reniformi-rotundata, radiatim venosa, basi lata subincurva, vel 
subrhomboidea, omnia pluri-lobata, lobis rotundatis magis minusve obtusis integris v. crenatis. Petio/i 1-3 
unciales, folio longiores, semiteretes, pilosi, basi latissime vaginati, vaginis striatis nervosis extus sspe rigide 
fibrosis e reliquiis persistentibus vaginarum vetustarum, margine membranaceis. Scapi solitarii v. bini, rarius 
plures, erecti, crassi, foliis vix longiores, teretes, pilosi, 1- v. rarissime 2-flori, nudi v. 1-2-bracteati, bractea 
elongato-cuneata integra v. obtuse 1-2-dentata. Flos majusculus, unciam latus. Calyx 5- rarius 6-sepalus, 
sepalis patentibus, ovalibus, submembranaceis, purpureo-tinctis. Petala flava, purpureo-venosa, numero varia, 
5_8-10, obovato-cuneata, v. lineari-spathulata, insequalia, calyce breviora, medio nectarifera, nectariis e glan- 
dulis 3 depressis marginatis, in totidem nervos sitis. Stamina plurima ; filamentis latis ; antheris ovalibus obtusis. 
Carpella numerosissima, in capitulum globosum magnitudine Coryli Avellana nucis, glaberrirna, lsevia, ovata, nee 
compressa, dorso carinatis, lateribus alato-marginatis, alis ad apicem styli stricti uncinati rective decurrentibus. 

A very handsome species, and quite distinct from any with which I am acquainted. It possesses, however, 
several of the peculiarities of other Ranunculi from the mountains of South America and the high southern 
latitudes, particularly in the variable form and number of the petals. In its succulent habit and undivided 
leaves it has an affinity with R. Cymbalaria, but is perhaps most nearly allied to R. nivicola (Hook. Ic. PI. 
t. 571-2) ; especially as in one of our specimens the scape is bifid, 2-flowered, and bearing a large cauline leaf, 
thus showing a disposition in the plant to become caulescent. In the less divided foliage, shape of the petals, 
&c, it widely differs from that species, and more particularly in the curious nectaries which are only observable 
in the var. /3, becoming evanescent in the larger and common state of the plant. Here they are large, and 
situated each about the middle of one of the three principal nerves, which seems to branch into three, the mid- 
dle branch being continued through the nectary, while the lateral ones are thickened and run round its edge, 
all three uniting again at its summit. This circumstance may however be only caused by the thickened margin 
of the fovea, as the nerves do not appear branched in the petals of a, nor in those of intermediate states, where 
the nectaries are only perceptible as opake spots. These singular nectaries are also common to another scapi- 
gerous single-flowered species, the R. Gunnianus of Tasmania (Hook. Journ. Bot. vol. i. p. 244. t. 133), a plant 
which has also compressed or 2-winged styles. 

Plate I. Fig. 1, sepal ; fig. 2 hfig. 3, petals ; fig. 4, petal of var. /3 ; fig. 5,"stamen ; fig. 6, ovarium ; fig. 7, 
the same cut open : — all magnified. 

2. Ranunculus (Hecatonia) acuulis, Banks et Sol.; pusillus, glaberrimus, sarmentosus, 
foliis omnibus radicalibus longe petiolatis cordatis ternatim sectis, lobis seu foliolis subpetiolulatis, 
obtusis, intermedio integro v. trifido, lateralibus integris v. inaequaliter bifidis, scapis solitariis petiolo 
brevioribus, sepalis 3-5 ovato-rotundatis, petalis 6-8 flavis late spathulatis obtusis calyce duplo lon- 
gioribus medio squamuloso-nectariferis, capitulo globoso, carpellis paucis (5-7) ovatis gibbosis laevi- 
bus stylo recto brevi subulato terminatis. (Tab. II.) — Banks et Sol. MSS. in Herb. Mm. Brit. 
DeC. Prodr. vol. i. p. 34. A. Cunn. Prodr. Fl. Nov. Zeal, in Ann. Nat. Hist. vol. iv. p. 258. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; moist places near tbe sea. 

These specimens entirely agree with others gathered in the Bay of Islands, New Zealand : the plant ap- 
parently prefers, and is perhaps confined to, the immediate neighbourhood of the sea, and in this meridian has 
a range of 16 degrees of latitude at the level of the ocean. The only species to which it has any affinity is the 
R.stenopetalus, Hook. (Ic. Plant, t. 677), from Chili, to which it is very nearly allied; the difference in the 
comparative breadth of the petals being almost the only one I have been able to detect. The situation of the 
nectary on the petals near their middle is common to a large proportion of the species of this genus in the 

Campbell's Islands.'] FLORA ANTARCTICA. 5 

southern hemisphere, but very rare in those of the northern; the R.parvifiorus being perhaps the only British 
one in which it is inserted at a considerable distance from their base. The foliage of this plant is sufficiently 
accurately described by DeCandolle from Sir Joseph Banks's New Zealand specimens, but the corolla requires 
some correction, and the fruit was unknown to that author. The calyx consists of from 3-5 membranous, 
very concave, deciduous sepals. Petals narrow, variable in number, about twice as long as the sepals, bright 
yellow, li line long, spreading and horizontal in the expanded flower during the day, 3-nerved ; nectary con- 
spicuous, sunk, and covered with a closely appressed scale, forming together a deep fovea, opening upwards, 
placed on the middle of the petal and resembling the fructification of some Davallia. Filaments short, linear- 
subulate. Anthers broadly oblong. Ovaries about 15, some abortive, gibbous at the base, with a curved fal- 
cate style. Carpels forming globose heads, few in number, 5-8 or 10, rather large, compressed, especially 
towards the axis of the receptacle ; the style straight or curved, very short or longer and subulate. 

Plate II. Fig. 1, bud ; fig. 2, flower ; fig. 3, sepal ; fig. 4, petals ; fig. 5, stamen ; fig. 6, ovarium ; fig. 7, 
head of carpels ; fig. 8, carpel removed; fig. 9, vertical section of the same; fig. 10, lateral; &nd fig. 11, front 
view of seed : — all more or less magnified. 

3. Ranunculus (Hecatonia) subscaposus, Hook. fil. ; totus pilis subrigidis appressis fulvis 
hispido-pubescens, foliis plerisque radicalibus longissime petiolatis deltoideo-cordatis profunde tri- 
partitis lobis late cuneatis inaequaliter 3-/-fidis segmentis acutis, scapis folio brevioribus unifloris 
1— 3-phylIis superne incrassatis et dense pilosis, petalis 5 calyce brevioribus obovato-oblongis infra 
medium squamuloso-neetariferis. — Hook. Ic. Plant, vol. viii. ined. 

Hab. Campbell's Island ; by the margins of rivulets in the woods, D. Lyall, Esq. 

This plant I never saw growing ; it was detected by my friend Mr. Lyall. In general appearance it very 
closely resembles the R. lappaceus, Sm., of Tasmania and the northern parts of New Zealand, a species which 
varies much in size, in the form of the leaves, and in the nature of the pubescence. The R. subscaposus is more 
slender in habit, with the hairs always closely appressed and of a tawny yellow colour ; but the most important 
distinction lies in the form and size of the petals, which in R. lappaceus are much larger than the calyx and very 
broadly obovato-cuneate, with a large triangular fleshy nectary at the very base; but in this plant they are 
smaller, of a very different shape, and the nectary consists of a minute flat round scale placed a little below the 
middle. The petioles are nearly a span long; the leaves about an inch in length and somewhat more in width. 


1. Cardamine hirsuta, L. ; var. subcarnosa ; glabra, flori bus majusculis, petalis albidis pur- 
pureisve, stylis brevibus latis, stigmatibus subsessilibus. 

Hab. Campbell's Island ; very common on grassy banks from the sea to an altitude of 500 feet. 

Abundantly gathered and used as a salad by the officers of the ships, its succulent leaves being an excel- 
lent antiscorbutic. A very dwarf hairy state of this is common among the rocks close to the sea, having the 
flowers always purple. Except in the very fleshy leaves, and, occasionally, coloured petals, this is in no way to 
be distinguished from the ordinary states of C. hirsuta, and especially from Cape Horn and Falkland Island spe- 
cimens, in which the style and stigmata are variable both in length and breadth ; in the large size of the petals 
it agrees with Icelandic and other hyperborean specimens. My friend Mr. H. C. Watson agrees with me in 
considering that no specific difference exists between this plant and our English C. hirsuta, though they grow 
nearly at the antipodes of each other. Of the stigmas in the European form, he observes, " they are broader 

6 FLORA ANTARCTICA. [Auckland and 

than the pods when in an early stage, but as the latter approach maturity, the stigmas shrink and dry. This 
change is not uniform in all English specimens." 

2. Cardamine corymbosa, Hook. fil. ; hirsutula v. glabra, caulibus perbrevibus rigidis ad basin 
ramosis, ramis gracilibus flexuosis diffusis parce foliosis, foliis longe petiolatis pinnatisectis, foliolis 
3-5 subpetiolulatis rotundatis terminali majore, lateralibus remotis saepe minutis, floribus corymboso- 
fasciculatis axillaribus v. terminalibus, corymbis nunc proliferis, pedicellis brevibus demum valde 
elongatis, siliquis anguste linearibus in stylum brevem attenuatis, replo angusto, valvis planis, stig- 
mate minuto. — Hook. fil. in Icon. Plant, vol. vii. pt. 2. tab. 686. 

Hab. Campbell's Island ; on turfy ground near the sea, common. 

Radix perennis, e fibris crassis, subfusiformibus, albidis, ramosis, descendentibus. Tota planta pilis spar- 
sis patentibus hirsuta etciliata, v. glabra. Caulis perbrevis, crassiusculus, albidus, rigidus, fragilis, fere ad col- 
lum ramosus ; ramis 2-4 uncias longis, teretibus, gracilibus, patentibus, adscendentibus, subproliferim divisis. 
Folia perpauca, radicalia subnulla ; ramea remota, longe petiolata, pinnatisecta ; foliolis 3-5, rotundatis seu 
late ovatis obovatis cordatisve, integerrimis, petiolulatis, terminali majore 3-4 lin. longo, lateralibus remotis 
saepe minutis. Petioli graciles, 1-2 unciales, basi dilatati. Flores parvi, corymboso-fasciculati, axillares et 
terminates, nunquam, etiam fructiferi, racemosi. Pedicelli quandoque in axillis solitarii, primum brevissimi, 
demum valde elongati, unciam sesquiunciam longi, patentes. Sepala elliptica, ovata, venosa, purpurascentia. 
Petala calycem duplo superantia, obovato-spathulata, venosa, alba. Siliqua erecta, gracilis, stricta v. paululum 
curvata, i— | unciam longa, anguste linearis, compressa, apice in stylum brevem crassiusculum subulatum at- 
tenuata. Stigma obtusum, vix stylo latius. Semina uniseriata, fusca. Cotyledones obovatae. Radicula clavata. 

This is a small and very distinct species of Cardamine, wiry and fragile in every part. The stems are short, 
or rather, at once, after springing from the collum, divided into spreading, ascending, filiform branches, with 
few and small leaves ; and with corymbs, or more correctly speaking, fascicles of flowers, which at no period 
seem to constitute a raceme. Sometimes even the flower is solitary and axillary ; generally several spring 
together from the side or apex of a stem, subtended by a leaf; sometimes a pedicel appears proliferous, running 
out into a stem and bearing a fascicle or corymb and a leaf at its apex : so that the inflorescence has little the 
appearance of that of a cruciferous plant. 

3. Cardamine depressa, Hook. fil. ; glaberrima, subacaulis, foliis confertis plerisque radicalibus 
longe petiolatis undique patentibus obovato-spathulatis obtusis inferne sinuato-lobatis, racemis 
breviter pedunculatis corymbosis petiolo brevioribus, siliquis longe pedicellatis erectis linearibus 
compresso-tetragonis stylo brevi attenuato mucronato terminatis. (Tab. III.) 

Var. (3. acaulis; foliis flaccidis tenui-membranaceis longissime petiolatis integris v. inferne subdentatis. — 
Tab. IV. B. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; in gravelly moist places near the sea amongst grass. (3. In 
clefts of rocks, alt. 1200 feet. 

Radix brevis, subfusiformis, valida, fibrosa, superne multiceps. Caules brevissimi, ramis abbreviate 
foliosis. Folia numerosa, conferta, undique patentia, v. superiora suberecta, petiolata, obovato-spathulata, gla- 
berrima, subcarnosa, sinuata v. lobata lobis obtusis, rarius integra, una cum petiolo 1 unc. longa, 3-4 lin. lata. 
Flores parvi, subcorymboso-racemosi. Racemi abbreviati, plerumque e collo ipso orti, foliis 1-2 subtensi, ter- 
minales, rarius, ob ramos subelongatos, axillares, petiolo multo breviores. Pedicelli floriferi brevissimi ; fructi- 
feri elongati, graciles, adscendentes, 3 lin. ad J unc. longi. Sepala concava, ovato-oblonga, obtuse trinervia. 
Petala anguste spathulata, albida, calycem plus duplo superantia. Filamenta compressa, inferne dilatata. Sili- 
qua erecta, i-1-pollicaris, f lin. lata, pedicello longior v. subaequilonga, linearis, compresso-tetragona, valvis pla- 

Campbell's Islands.'] FLORA ANTARCTICA. 7 

nis v. subtorulosis medio uninerviis ; replo latissimo ; stylo brevi angusto ; stigmate parvo. Semina sub 20, 
testa rufo-fusca. 

A very distinct species, which will come under the small section with undivided leaves, to which also the 
C. bel/idifolia, L., of Northern Europe, belongs ; a plant to which the present is unquestionably nearly allied. 
In both these species the leaves vary much, being sometimes, but rarely, almost entire in this, whilst in the C. 
bellidifolia they are more seldom sinuate or lobed. The very great breadth of the septum, which is winged on 
both sides, and forms an acute angle with the valves, is a most remarkable character, peculiar, as far as I am 
aware, to this and the following species ; at times it is almost as broad as the valves themselves. In South 
America this form is represented by C. chenopodiifolia, Pers., which is however a larger and caulescent plant, 
with very conspicuous showy flowers, — a similar species, or perhaps variety, inhabits the Andes of Chili, at an 
elevation of 10,000 feet. The var. /3 was gathered in a very imperfect state with young flowers only. In 
general appearance it differs much from the normal form of the plant, and more especially in the flaccid mem- 
branous texture, long petioles, with shorter, rather broader, and nearly or quite entire leaves. It may prove 
distinct, but the specimens are not in a fit state for satisfactory determination. 

Plate III. Fig. 1, flower ; fig. 2, sepal ; fig. 3, petal ; fig. 4, stamens and ovarium ; fig. 5, stamen ; fig. 6, 
siliqua ; fig. 7, side-view of same ; fig. 8, siliqua, with valve removed ; fig. 9, seed; fig. 10, embryo : — more 
or less magnified. — Plate IV. B. var. /3. 

4. Cardamine stellata, Hook. fil. ; parva, acaulis, piloso-hispida, foliis confertis stellatim 
patentibus longe petiolatis elliptico-spathulatis integris v. inferne sinuato-pinnatifidis, floribus 
corymbosis, corymbis sessilibus, pedicellis gracilibus, siliquis abbreviatis linearibus compresso- 
tetragonis, replo latissimo, stylo brevi subulate (Tab. IV. A.) 

Hab. Campbell's Island ; on the debris at the base of precipices in very exposed places. 

Planta pusilla, depressa, plagse inclementis typica, tota pilis albidis subhispida. Radix perennis, ad col- 
lum crassa, deinde fusiformis et fibrillosa. Caulis 0. Folia omnia radicalia, numerosa (circiter 15-20), ho- 
rizontaliter et undique stellatim patentia, longe petiolata, una cum petiolo 1-1 unc. longa, 2-3 lin. lata, ciliata, 
subcarnosa, e petiolo sensim dilatato-spathulata, v. elliptico-oblonga, obtusa, integra v. basi sinuato-lobata, seu 
pinnatifida, lobis obtusis. Flores corymbosi. Pedicelli elongati, e pedunculo brevissimo inter folia radicalia orti, 
hinc scapos ssepe simulantes, sub 3 lin. longi, erecti ; fructiferi magis elongati. Sepala lineari-oblonga, obtusa, 
3-nervia, extus pilosa. Pelala \- \ lin. longa, obovato-spathulata, albida, calyce paulo longiora. Antherce 
dorso glandula parva. Siliqua parva, erecta, \ unc. longa, pedicellum subsequans, compresso-tetragona, recta 
v. paululum curvata, pilosa v. glabra, gradatim in stylum angustum acuminata ; valvis planis medio uninerviis ; 
replo latissimo ut in C. depressa. Semi?ia quoque loculo 6-8, rufo-fusca. 

The habitat of this plant is remarkable, as it grows only in the most exposed situations on the weather 
shores, about 100 feet above the sea. In the form of the leaves it resembles the C. pusilla, Hochst., an Abys- 
sinian species, but these are here more crowded and spathulate, and the inflorescence is quite different. The 
siliqua, though shorter, has very much the same form as that of C. depressa. 

Plate IV. A. Fig. 1, flower ; fig. 2, sepal ; fig. 3, petal ; fig. 4, stamens ; fig. 5, siliqua ; fig. 6, seed : — all 


1. Stellaria decipiens, Hook, fil.; glabra, caule decumbente dichotome ramoso, foliis recur- 
vis omnibus (etiam supremis) petiolatis obovato-rhombeis acutis apice callosis carnosulis siccitate 
punctis minutis elevatis asperis, petiolis subciliatis, pedunculis di-tricholomis (rarius unifloris) folia 

8 FLORA ANTARCTICA. [Auckland and 

plerumque superantibus ad furcaturam pedicelloque unico medium versus 2-bracteatis, bracteis 
ovatis acutis scariosis albidis, petalis 5 bipartitis calycem sequantibus interdum eo brevioribus v. nullis 
filamentisque ima basi dilatatis fere hypogynis, stylis 3 — Hook.fil. in Icon. Plant, vol. vii. t. 680. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's and Campbell's Islands ; common on the low grounds, especially in the 
woods, and near the sea. 

Caules tetragoni, e basi valde ramosi, filiformes, 3-5 unc. longi. Folia carnosula, 3-5 lin. longa, obovata 
seu rhomboidea, hincinde, siccitate, minute tuberculata. Pe/ioli 1-3 lin. longi, latiusculi. Pedunaili folio ple- 
rumque longiores, solitarii, raro uniflori, biridi seu trifidi ; ramis inaequalibus. Petala saepe 0. 

In many respects this agrees with the S. uliginosa, Murr., and more particularly in the size and 
arrangement of the inflorescence, but the stems are always decumbent, the leaves all petiolate, very patent or 
recurved, and not at all broader or ovate at the base ; their callous apices are common to both species. The 
peduncles generally bear two pedicels, which have a pair of bracts at the base, and a pair on one of the pedi- 
cels, whereas in S. uliginosa the peduncle is trichotomously divided, with the intermediate pedicel only desti- 
tute of bracts. The styles seem to be constantly three, and the stamens and petals are less decidedly perigy- 
nous than in the latter plant. In form the leaves resemble those of S. media, With., but the inflorescence is 
very different, and the stem wants the alternate line of hairs. 

2. Stellaria media, With. — Engl. Bot. t. 53/. DeC. Prodr. vol. i. p. 396. Alsine, L. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's Islands ; covering the tomb of a French sailor, and growing along 
with Poa annua, L. : undoubtedly introduced. A straggling, very common European form of the 
plant, still retaining all its characters. 

1. Drosera (sp.) ? 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; on the hills. — Of this I only once met with a solitary speci- 
men, scarcely in flower, resembling a good deal the D. uniflora, Willd., of Tierra del Fuego ; but it 
was lost among the many botanical rarities brought down to the ship on that day, so that I am only 
able to record the fact of a species of the genus growing on the island. 


1. Geranium microphyllum, Hook. fil. ; pusillum, adpresse pubescens, caulibus adscendentibus, 
foliis omnibus longe petiolatis orbiculari-reniformibus 5-7-lobatis, lobis trifidis subtus discoloribus, 
pedunculis lateralibus solitariis v. binis elongatis unifloris supra medium bibracteolatis, petalis 
(albis) obovato-cuneatis integris v. retusis, glandulis ad basin staminum fere obsoletis, filamentis 
ciliatis, stylis brevibus, ovario piloso. (Tab. V.) 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group; in boggy places, alt. 1000 feet. 

Radix perennis, multiceps, ad collum squamosa ; squamis vaginantibus, ovatis, membranaceis, fuscis, 
nitidis. Caules ex eadem radice 3-4, 3-5 unc. longi, nudiusculi, decumbentes, deinde adscendentes, parce 
pilosi, crassitie pennae passerinae, internodiis remotis. Folia radicalia longissime petiolata, i unc. lata, supra, 
et subtus (prsecipue ad nervos) adpresse pilosa ; lobis lato-cuneatis, obtusis, 3-fidis, segmentis latis acutis ; 
laete viridia, subtus fusco-purpurea. Pelioli graciles, filiformes, 2 unc. longi, basi stipulis vaginati, inferne 

Campbell's Islands.] FLORA ANTARCTICA. 9 

glaberrimi, superne incano-pilosi. Stipule ovatae, acuminata?, rufo-fusca?, scarioso-membranacere. Pedunculi 
uniflori, erecti, petiolo breviores, superne pilosi, supra medium bibracteolati ; bracteis parvis, oppositis, ovatis, 
acuminatis. Petala 1^-2 lin. longa, patentia, alba. Stamina 10, subaequalia ; antlieris oblongis. 

In the single-flowered peduncles this is allied to the Tasmanian G. potentilloides of L'Heritier, but the 
plant is much more dwarfish, with short procumbent or ascending stems, less hairy, especially below, with the 
hairs appressed ; the peduncles also are shorter than the leaves, which latter are less deeply cut. 

Plate V. Fig. 1 , flower ; Jiff. 2, petal ; fig. 3, flower with the petals removed ; fig. 4, underside of the calyx ; 
fig. 5, portion of the stamens ; fig. 6, ovaria : — all more or less magnified. 


1. Sieversia albiflora, Hook. fil. ; parvula, hirsuta, caulibus seu scapis parce foliosis tri-quin- 
quefloris, foliis radicalisms interrupte lyrato-pinnatis, foliolis lateralibus minutis grosse dentatis, 
terminali maxirao orbiculari-cordato obscure lobato inaequaliter dentato, caulinis subsessilibus, pedi- 
cellis superne incrassatis unibracteatis, bractea sessili trifida, calycis segmentis patentibus ciliatis, 
petalis (albis) obovatis retusis extus pilosis, ovariis in stylum brevem rectum (nee geniculatum) 
attenuatis in stipitem articulatis, receptaculo elongato gracili. (Tab. VII.) 

Had. Lord Auckland's group ; rocky places on the hills, alt. 1000 feet. 

I reo-ret that owing to the early season I only met with two or three flowers of this rare plant, and not one 
specimen with perfect fruit. It is the smallest species known to me, and has a creeping, woody, subfusiform, 
oblique root, throwing out coarse fibres ; and from the summits of this spring most of the leaves. The stems, or 
rather scapes (for they remain withered stalks after the fall of the fruit), arise also from the top of this root, and 
are branched, twice or thrice as long as the radical leaves : they bear a few flowers with white petals, which 
are succeeded by the narrow elongated receptacle, hispid as it were with the persistent stipites of the carpels. 
It is this character which it has in common with a very arctic species, the S. Rossii, Br., together with the 
very short styles, that induces me to place it in Sieversia ; for the style seems too short ever to be geniculated. 
It further differs from all known species in having white petals. 

Plate VII. Fig. 1, unexpanded flower ; fig. 2, expanded flower ; fig. 3, petal ; fig. 4 and fig. 5, stamens ; 
fig. 6, young ovarium ; fig. 7, receptacle after the carpels have fallen away : — all more or less magnified. 

1. Aclena (Ancistrum) Sanguisorbce, Vahl., Enum. vol. i. p. 294. DeC. Prodr. vol. ii. p. 592. 
A. Cunn. Prodr. Fl. Nov. Zeal, in Ann. Nat. Hist. vol. iii. p. 244. Ancistrum Sanguisorbae, Linn. fil. 
A. anserinsefolium, Foist. Gen. t. 2. A. diandrum, Forst. Prodr. n. 52. A. decumbens, Gcertn. Fruet. 

Var. ft. minor ; depressa, ramis brevissimis, foliis valde sericeis. A. decumbens, Menzies in Herb. Hook. 

Hab. Abundant in Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island, especially on cliffs over- 
hanging the sea. ft. On the mountains in rocky places. M'Quarrie's Island, in Herb. Hook. ; also 
found in Dusky Bay by Mr. Menzies. 

The ordinary states of this plant differ in no particular from other specimens gathered at the Bay of Islands. 

It is also a native of Tasmania, and probably of Southern Australia. Stems trailing, a span to two feet long. 

Branches erect or ascending. Leaves irnpari-pinnate, with 4-6 pairs of obovate or oblong, coarsely serrated, 

sessile leaflets, smooth on the upper surface, silky beneath, and more especially in the young plants, and invar. 

VOL. I. C 

10 FLORA ANTARCTICA. [Auckland and 

|3. at the apices of the serratures, which are there terminated by pencils of white hairs. Flowers capitate upon 
long slender peduncles. Stigma plumose. 

2. Acena (Ancistrum) adscendens, Vahl, Enum. vol. i. p. 29?. DeC. Prodr. vol. ii. p. 593. 
Ancistrum humile, Pers. Ench. vol. i. p. 30. 

Hab. M'Quarrie's Island. (Herb. Hook.) 

This is perhaps the most common and widely diffused species of the genus, being found abundantly through- 
out Chili and Fuegia, as well as in the Falkland Islands and Kerguelen's Land. It may readily be distinguished 
by its large size, and by its smooth red-brown, often glaucous, decumbent stems. The leaflets are generally 
membranous, obovate or cuneate, ^—| inch long, coarsely inciso-serrate, glabrous on the upper surface, pubes- 
cent or almost silky beneath. The scapes or peduncles, bearing the globose capitula, are quite glabrous. The 
whole plant varies much in the size and toothing of its leaflets, whence I am inclined to think it may 
be the large and ordinary form of A. Magellanica, Lam. ; although Vahl describes the peduncles of that plant 
as " superne subvillosi." I further doubt how far the A. ovdlifolia, Ruiz, and Pav. (Fl. Per. t. 103. f. c), will 
prove distinct ; it again is allied to the A. Sanguisorbce, Vahl. The present form was not found either in Tas- 
mania, New Zealand, or in Lord Auckland's or Campbell's Islands. The fact of its reappearance in a higher 
southern latitude is an interesting one, and in accordance with the known laws affecting the distribution of 


1. Epilobium Ihinceoides, Hook. fil. ; herbaceum glaberrimum caule repente vage ramoso, 
ramis divavicatis adscendentibus, foliis petiolatis cordato-rotundatis flaccidis argute dentatis, pedun- 
culis solitariis axillaribus rarius terminalibus folio longioribus fructiferis saspe valde elongatis, floribus 
erectis, sepalis apice glanduloso-apiculatis, petalis (roseis) calyce longioribus cuneatis profunde bifidis, 
stigmate indiviso clavato, fructibus glaberrimis erectis pedunculo brevioribus. (Tab. VI.) 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island ; abundant. Also more recently found 
amongst the mountains of New Zealand by Mr. Colenso. 

A very pretty species, allied to the E. nummular {folium, R. Cunn., of New Zealand, but readily distin- 
guished by its much larger size and thin, flaccid (not fleshy) leaves, which are strongly eroso-dentate. In Mr. 
Colenso's specimens the stems are longer, and the leaves less rounded in form with longer petioles. Stems 
weak, terete, 3-6 inches long. Leaves in rather remote pairs, bright green and shining above, often discoloured 
and purplish beneath, ^—§ inch long, sometimes broader than long. Petioles 1-3 lines. Peduncles, even when 
flowering, very variable in length, from ~-3 inches long, generally erect. Sepals concave, especially towards 
the apex, which is produced into a thickened, short, club-shaped apiculus or gland. Petals about half as long 
again as the sepals, 1| lin. long, of a pale rose-colour, bifid nearly half-way down. Filaments thickened at the 
connectivum. Style gradually swelling upwards into a club-shaped obtuse stigma. Capsule (which I have 
seen ripe only in the New Zealand specimens) narrow, erect, quite glabrous, about an inch long. 

Plate VI. Fig. 1, flower spread open ; fig. 2, petal ; fig. 3, flower with the petals removed ; fig. 4, front, and 
fig. 5, back view of a stamen : — all magnified. 

2. Epilobium confer iifolium, Hook. fil. ; herbaceum, glabrum, caule repente radicante ramoso, 
ramis divaricatis decumbentibus teretibus cum lineis duabus oppositis incanis, foliis oppositis valde ap- 
proximatis subimbricatis breviter petiolatis oblongo-obovatis obtusis subcarnosis glaberrimis remote 

Campbell's Islands.] FLORA ANTARCTICA. 1 1 

et obscure dentatis, petiolis margine incanis basi connatis subvaginantibus, pedunculis sessilibus soli- 
tariis axillaribus, floribus erectis, petalis rubris subpurpureisve ad medium bifidis, ovario glaberrimo, 
stylo oblique clavato, capsula lineari elongata glaberrima. — Hook.fil. in Icon. Plant, t. 685. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island ; on grassy banks and in moist places, 

This little plant in every respect occupies the place in these islands, that the E. alpinum, L., does on the 
European mountains. The two species are indeed so very closely allied, that I look in vain for further constant 
characters than the creeping and rooting much-branched stem, the densely crowded, broader, and more obovate 
leaves with almost sheathing petioles, and the deeply bifid petals of the present one. The more remarkable 
points of similarity, besides the general appearance, are the lines of pubescence on the stem, the sessile or 
shortly pedunculated ovaria (which in E. alpinum are however often lengthened), the deep colour of the petals, 
and the simple clavate stigma, which is here decidedly oblique and gibbous at the base. A very similar species 
is found on the Andes of Peru and in Chili. 

3. Epilobium nerterioides, A. Cunn. ; glaberrimum, caule repente radicante, foliis oppositis 
breviter petiolatis ellipticis rotundatisve subcoriaceis et carnosis marginibus integris recurvis, fructi- 
bus glaberrimis pedunculatis inclinatis pendulisve. — E. nerterioides, A. Cunn. Prodi: Flor. Nov. Zeal, 
in Ann. Nat. Hist. vol. iii. p. 32. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; in moist rocky places, alt. 1200 feet, rare, not found in flower 
or fruit. 

In these very imperfect specimens the leaves are much more fleshy, and their margins more strongly re- 
curved, than in others gathered by Mr. Menzies in Dusky Bay, or by myself in the Bay of Islands. Like other 
species however of the same genus, the plant is probably a very variable one. Mr. Cunningham quotes the E. 
pendulum, Sol., as a synonym of E. nummular if olium, R. Cunn., a species very nearly allied to the present, but 
larger, with distinctly crenate leaves, and having the capsules hoary with a white down. In habit and foliage 
this plant resembles the Anagallis tenella, L., and as well as many of the New Zealand species, it has a pecu- 
liarly creeping mode of growth, which none of those of the northern hemisphere possess. 


1. Callitriche verna, L. DeC. Prodr. vol. iii. p. 70. D'Urv. Fl. Ins. Mai. in Mem. Soc. Linn. 
Par. vol. iv. p. 620. Gaud, in Freyc. Voy. Bot. p. 138. 

Var. (3. terreslris ; caulibus brevissimis repentibus, foliis approximatis carnosis. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island ; common on the ground and on wet 
rocks near the sea. /3. On the ground by the margins of pools, Campbell's Island. 

A very general plant throughout the Antarctic Islands visited by the " Erebus and Terror." First noticed as 
a native of the Falkland Islands by Admiral D'Urville, who, in his description of the plant, which is not uncom- 
mon there, and is identical with the var. /3. of Campbell's Island, alludes to the filament and ovarium as each 
arising from a minute bipartite calyx. Neither in my dried specimens, nor when in a fresh state, could I detect 
organs answering to this description. The bracteas, which are extremely caducous, and only exist in the very 
youngest state of the flower, are singularly falcate, linear-subulate and membranaceous, similar to those of C. 
platycarpa, Kiitzing. The leaves vary much in shape, and the whole plant in size, as in Europe. The anthers, 

c 2 

1 2 FLORA ANTARCTICA. [Auckland and 

(though described as one-celled) are in reality didyrnous and 2-celled ; they first open down each side and then 
across the connectivum at the top, always remaining partially 2-celled. Filaments often very long, half an inch 
and upwards. The styles are also slender, and when highly magnified exhibit throughout their length minute 
papillae. Ovary (or female flower) 2-4-celled, pedicellate. The flowers are generally solitary ; the males in the 
axils of the upper, and the females in those of the lower leaves, with a small abortive leaf-bud in the opposite 


1. Metrosideros (Agalmanthus) lucida ; arborea, foliis oppositis petiolatis ellipticis utrinque 
acuminatis integerrimis glaberrimis coriaceis rigidis enerviis inferne glanduloso-punctatis (glandulis 
luteis) marginibus revolutis, floribus 3-5 ad apices ramulorum breviter pedunculatis umbellatis, calyce 
turbinate- sericeo, lobis late ovatis subacutis, petalis obovato-oblongis spathulatisve calycis limbo 
duplo longioribus apice ciliatis, filamentis petalo subtriplo longioribus. — Menz. MSS. in Herb. Hook. 
A. Rich. Fl. Nov. Zeal. p. 333. A. Cunn. Prodr. Fl. Nov. Zeal. I. c. vol. iii. p. 1 14. M. umbellata, Cav. 
Ic. vol. iv. tab. 337. Smith in Rees's Cycl. vol. xxiii. DeC. Prodr. vol. iii. p. 225. Agalmanthus um- 
bellatus, Hombr. et Jacrj. Voy. au Pol. Sud, Bot. tab. 1. sine descript. Melaleuca lucida, Forst. 
Prodr. n. 216. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; from the sea to an altitude of 500 feet. Abundant. (Not seen 
in Campbell's Island.) 

Originally discovered by Sir J. Banks and Dr. Solander at Totarra nui in the North Island of New Zea- 
land, and a very fine drawing of it, made during Captain Cook's first voyage, is preserved in the British Mu- 
seum. It was again found by Forster during Cook's second voyage, in Dusky Bay, and by him first published. 
Mr. Menzies also gathered it at the latter locality. I am at a loss to conceive how the specimens came into 
the possession of Felix Nee, from whose collection Cavanilles figured and described the plant under the name 
of Metros, umbellata, as a native of Port Jackson. The figure given by the latter author is very characteristic, 
except that the peduncles are represented as too long and slender. In the plate accompanying the late French 
expedition of Admiral D'Urville, the sketch of the entire plant does not do justice to that which constitutes the 
largest tree on Lord Auckland's group, and the most abundant, skirting the whole line of sea-coast with a broad 
belt of evergreen flat-topped forest wood. The single trees are fiom 20-40 feet high, inclined, with trunks 
2-3 feet in diameter, often flattened, seldom erect, covered with a pale reddish bark, which flakes off like that 
of the birch. From the trunks and lower branches there are often sent out large tufts of dry root-like pro- 
cesses, which run along the surface, and are covered with a loose thick and spongy light brown cuticle. The 
branches are spreading and ascending, from the inclemency of the climate and violence of the winds forming 
stag-headed trees, whose tops are perfectly flat, as if cut with a scythe. The ultimate branches, which bear a 
few leaves, are angular and covered with a loose white papery cuticle, which turns yellow in drying. The leaves 
are of a lurid but shining green, more yellow on the under surface, and there covered with large yellow glands. 
Petals when young white with red tips, in the more expanded state crimson, as are the stamens. The inflores- 
cence in this, as in all other New Zealand species, is in umbels or corymbs. The Myrtacete, which in North 
America do not attain a higher latitude than 26°, and in Europe only one reaches the 46th degree, in the south- 
ern regions are amongst the most Antarctic plants, being most abundant in Tasmania, lat. 42-44° S. ; in New 
Zealand, throughout the islands as far as 50^° S., and in South America accompanying other plants as far as 
o6° S., where that continent terminates in the South Polar Ocean. 

Campbell's Islands.] FLORA ANTARCTICA. 1 3 


1. Monti a fontanel, L. DeC. Prodr. vol. iii. p. 362. M. linearifolia, VUrv. Fl. Ins. Mai. 1. c. 
vol. iv. p. 619. M. lamprosperma, Chamisso inLinnaa, vol. vi. p. 565. t. 7. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Islands; in moist places near the sea, abundant. 

This is a very variable plant and an exceedingly common one in the southern regions. The specimens from 
the various Antarctic islands vary much in size, in the form of the leaf, in the number of the stamens, and in the 
number and nature of the surface of the seeds. Those of the Auckland and Campbell's Island specimens agree 
with the figure quoted of Chamisso's M. lamprosperma, but they are not larger than the seeds of European spe- 
cimens. The Falkland Islands, form again has the seeds very large with a black tuberculated shining testa, 
agreeing in the latter character with those of Kerguelen's Land, which are however smaller. In the Peruvian 
plant the seeds are very small, but covered and almost echinate with crowded elevated linear tubercles. Those 
of the English plant are not constant in size, but the testa is generally more opake and not remarkably 
tuberculated. It is difficult to find a more widely distributed phrenogamic plant than this, especially in the 
southern hemisphere, where it generally accompanies the Callitriche verna. In New Zealand and in Peru it 
inhabits a more elevated region. According to Boissier, it attains in Spain an altitude of 5000-7000 feet. In 
the Highlands of Scotland it ascends to 3000 feet, and reaches as far north as Iceland and Siberia in Europe 
and Asia. Though universally distributed over all the temperate parts of these two continents, and in the south, 
it appears to be singularly rare in North America, being hitherto detected only in Labrador, Greenland (whose 
Flora presents more European peculiarities than any other part of America east of the Rocky Mountains), Sitka 
and the Oregon. 

1. Colobanthus subulatus ; dense pulvinatus nitidus, caulibus ramosis foliosis, foliis arete 
imbricatis strictis rigidis subulatis coriaceis supra canaliculatis basi scarioso-membranaceis vaginan- 
tibus apicibus subpiliferis, floribus terminalibus solitariis, pedunculis folio brevioribus, sepalis 4-5 
erectis inaequalibus lanceolatis striatis pungentibus, staminibus 4-5 filamentis basi in annulum pe- 
rigynum coalitis, capsula 4-5-fida. — Sagina subulata, D'Urv. Fl. Ins. Mai. 1. c. p. 618. S. muscosa, 
/3. squarrosa et y. laricifolia, Sol. MSS. in Herb. Mus. Brit. Colob. Benthamianus, Fenzl, MSS. in 
Endl. Atakt. t. 49. Ann. U'ien. Mus. t49. 

Hab. Campbell's Island ; in rounded tufts on rocks near the summits of the hills, alt. 1000 feet. 

Caules I-I5 pollicares, ramosi, fastigiati, glaberrimi. Folia l|-2 lin. longa, pallide viridi-straminea, erecto- 
patentia, basi connata. Pedvnciili | lin. longi, subangulati, validi. Perianthium folia vix superans et iis immer- 
sum, basi truncatum ; sepalis basi incrassatis, in nostris exemplaribus 5, quorum 2 exterioribus paulo majoribus, 
3 interioribus imbricatis. Stamina 5, rarius 4, manifeste perigyna, perianthii foliolis alterna ; filamentis com- 
pressis, subulatis; antheris bvalibus. Ovarium ovatum, disco perigyno insertum, 1-loculare, sub 5-ovulatum. 
Sty li 4-5. Stigmata lineari-clavata, intus glandulosa. Capsula ad medium 5-fida v. 4-5-partita, chartacea ; 
segmentis obtusis, perianthio persistente inclusa. Semina 3-4, angulata, subreniformia, compressa ; testa pallide 
brunnea, subtilissime granulata. 

Of rare occurrence, and confined to the tops of the hills in Campbell's Island ; nowhere seen in Lord Auck- 
land's group. In the Falklands, and in Fuegia, where it was discovered by Banks and Solander, it is very common, 
both on the low grounds and on the mountains. I have followed Fenzl and Endlicher in placing this genus in 
Portulacea, though I must confess that to me it appears too closely allied to Caryopliyllea, and especially 

14 FLORA ANTARCTICA. [Auckland and 

to Sagina, to be far removed from that genus, while the habit is not that of an)' of this Order. The present 
plant differs from its congeners in being rigid and somewhat pungent ; the structure of the flower however 
entirely agrees with that of the previously described species. All the specimens I have examined from this 
locality have a 5-sepalous perianth, which in the South American state of the plant is as invariably 4-sepalous. 
It is also apt to assume here a monstrous state, the central axis of the capsule becoming proliferous and sending 
out from the position of the placenta; (in the natural state) two foliaceous shoots, each with two pairs of leaves, 
projecting beyond the perianth, and the ovules (abortive) arranged round the bases of these shoots. 

2. Colobanthus muscoides, Hook. fil. ; densissime compactus carnosus, ramis confertis foli- 
osis, foliis arete imbricatis patentim recurvis lineari-subulatis obtusis supra planis basi lata connatis, 
pedunculis brevissimis solitariis terminalibus superne incrassatis, perianthio herbaceo parvo com- 
presso, sepalis 4 erectis lanceolatis obtusis concavis exterioribus majoribus dorso obscure carinatis, 
staminibus 4 per paria approximatis ex annulo perigyno incrassato ortis. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island ; on wet rocks especially near the sea, 
and immediately above high-water mark. 

The smallest species in regard to size of leaves and flower with which I am acquainted, and yet perhaps 
most nearly allied to the finest of the genus, a Kerguelen's Land species. The whole plant is densely matted 
and fleshy, forming compact tufts. Stems 3-4 inches long. Leaves 2 lines. The flowers are much compressed, 
very minute and inconspicuous, 1 line long, sunk among the leaves. Perianth of four erect sepals, of which the 
lateral are larger, more concave, and keeled at the back. Perigynous ring very conspicuous, and swollen into 
two large yellow fleshy glands between the bases of the stamens. 

3. Colobanthus Billardieri, Fenzl, Ann. TVien. Mus. 1. 48, in not. Spergula apetala, Lab. Fl. 
Nov. Holl. vol. i.p. 112. t. 1S2. DeC. Prodr. vol. i. p.395. Hook. fil. in Bot. Journ. vol. ii. p. 410. 
Stellaria uniflora, Banks and Sol. MSS. in Mus. Banks. 

Hab. Campbell's Island ; on banks near the sea, scarce. 

This species was originally discovered by Banks and Solander at Totarra nui, in the Northern Island of 
New Zealand, during Captain Cook's first voyage, and an excellent drawing of it, by Parkinson, is preserved in 
the Banksian collection. Labillardiere afterwards detected it in Tasmania, whence Mr. Gunn sent beautiful 
specimens, in describing which I had occasion to notice its near affinity with the genus Sagina. Fenzl (/. c. 
according to Walper's Repert. vol. ii. p. 249) quotes the Sagina crassifolia, D'Urv., as a synonym of his C. Bil- 
lardieri, and reduces the original plant of Labillardiere to a variety, under the name of ft. procerior. What I 
take for the plant of Admiral D'Urville, whose description (Mem. Soc. Linn. Paris, vol. iv. p. 617) is very charac- 
teristic, is much larger, of a different habit, and with truly linear very fleshy leaves, and is common in the Falk- 
lands, as well as the C. Quitensis, Bartl., which is closely allied to the C. affinis (Spergula affinis, Hook. Icon. 
Plant, vol. iii. t. 26b'). Labillardiere says of the stamens of C. Billardieri, " sub pistillo inserta," but this is not 
the case with the specimens I have examined. They are clearly placed at the exterior of a membranous disc 
which surrounds the perianth, remote from the base of the ovary. The Campbell's Island specimens are very 
small, scarcely an inch high, whereas the Tasmanian are twice or thrice that size. 

Campbell's Islands.] FLORA ANTARCTICA. 15 


1. Bulliarda moschata, D'Urv., /*7. Lis. Mai. I.e. p. 618. Gaud, in Freyc. Voy. Bot. p. 138. 
B. Magellanica, DeC. Bull. Pliilom. n. 49. Tilkea moschata, DeC. Prodr. vol. iii. p. 382. Hook. Icon. 
Plant, t. 535. Crassula moschata, Foist. Act. Goelt. ix. p. 26. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island ; abundant on wet rocks immediately 
above high-water mark. 

Petala patentia, obovato-cuneata, concava, albida, ssepe rubro-striata. Filamenta subulata, carnosa, sicci- 
tate compressa et ut videtur dilatata. Squamie hypogynce 4, carpellis oppositis et iis paulo breviores, cuneata?. 
Carpetla trigona, obovata, superne oblique truncata, dorso canaliculata : stylis brevibus, recurvis. 

The geographical range of this species is wide, being found along the west coast of South America, from 
lat. 46° S. to Cape Horn, and also in the Falklands and Kerguelen's Land, but nowhere so abundantly as in 
this group. Notwithstanding the name given it by its discoverer, I was unable to detect any odour of musk or 
smell of any kind in the fresh plant. 


1. POZOA, Lag. 

Subgen. Schizeilema, Hook.fil. (Involucrum 5-6-phyllum. Flores hermaphroditi. — Herbaceo- 
carnosa. Caulis repens nodosus.) 

1. Pozoa reniformis, Hook, fil.; foliis longe petiolatis reniformibus multilobatis lobis latis 
retusis, petiolis basi vaginantibus, pedunculis petiolo brevioribus, involucri foliolis 3-4 linearibus, pe- 
dicellis 5-7 brevibus, calycis lobis late ovatis obtusis. (Tab. XL) 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group; clefts of rocks and amongst stones on the hills, alt. 1400 feet. 

Herba pusilla, glaberrima, carnosa, facie Hydrocotylis, graveolens. Caulis crassitie penna; passerinse, longe 
repens, articulatus, nodosus, ad nodos cicatricatus, apice foliosus. Folia A-| unc. lata, exacte reniformia, luride 
viridia, nitentia, radiatim venosa, lobis late rotundatis. Petioli 2-3 unciales ; vaginis basi magnis latis, superne 
acutis. Pedunculi ex axillis fohorum, breves, semipollicares. Pedicelli vix 2 lin. longi. Petala parva, obovata, 
subacuta, medio late uninervia. Stylopodia superne truncata. Fructus oblongus, tetragonus ; mericai-piis de- 
mum dorso canaliculars. 

A decidedly extra-tropical South American form, belonging to a section of the Nat. Ord. hitherto un- 
known to the Floras both of New Zealand and Australia. The remarkable similarity of the flower and fruit to 
those of the P. coriacea, Lag. (Hook. Bot. Misc. vol. i. p. 331. t. 66), together with the uniformity in the struc- 
ture of its calyx and petals with that plant, have induced me to refer it to the same genus ; but, from the 
difference in habit and the structure of the involucre of the species thus brought together, I have ventured to 
place this in a separate subgenus. The original species (P. coriacea), and the P. hydrocotylifolia, Bridges and 
Fielding (Sertum Plant, t. 40), have the flowers monoecious, a character I do not observe in this. The simila- 
rity which the present plant bears to the genus Azorella, Gaud., is in many respects close ; the mericarps of this 
are hardly " parallelim biscutata," whilst those of Azorella are scarcely didymous. Though a very remarkable 
habit runs through most of the species of the latter genus, one of them, the A. Ranunculus, D'Urv., not only 
differs from its congeners in form and mode of growth, but in these respects much resembles this plant. In the 

16 FLORA ANTARCTICA. [Auckland and 

structure of the flower and fruit the}' totally differ, the former being truly an Azorella, and having the ciliated 
involucral leaves common to other species of that genus. The Az. daucoides, D'Urv. Fl. Ins. Mai. 1. c. p. 613, 
is probably a true Caldasia, Lag. 

Plate XI. Fig. 1, flower ; fig. 2, flower with the petals removed ; fig. 3, petal ; fig. 4, ripe fruit ; fig. 5, 
transverse section of the same ; fig. 6, front, and/?#. 7, back view of seed ; fig. 8, vertical section of the same 
showing the embryo ; fig. 9, embryo removed : — all more or less magnified. 

2. ANISOTOME, Hook.fil 

Flores dioici (seu polygami). Calycis nun-go 5-lobus ; lobis (in flore steril.) patentibus, (in flore fert.) 
erectis, ineequalibus, persistentibus, 1-2 rarius 3 duplo longioribus lanceolatis, reliquis ovatis acutis. Petala 
obovata, acuta, v. acuminata, uninervia, brevissime unguiculata, patentia (lacinula inflexa nulla). Masc. Sta- 
mina aequalia. Ovarium nullum. Stylopodia magna, depressa. Styli deficientes. Fcem. Fructus ovali-oblongus, 
lobis calycinis erectis coronatus. Mericarpia subteretia, inoequalia, quinquejuga ; jugis alte carinatis alatislate- 
ralibus marginantibus ; unico (seminifero) jugis lateralibus dorsalique majoribus, altero (abortivo) jugis latera- 
libus dorsalique minoribus. Vallecula univittatae, vittae crassiusculse. Semen sulcatum, testa atro-fusca. — Herbse 
subsucculenta, elate, altitudinis humane, in i?isulis Auckland et Campbell provenientes. Caulis erectus, crassus, 
fistulosus, sulcatus. Folia maxima, longissime petiolata, bi-tripinnatisecta ; segmentis latis velangustis, mucronato- 
cuspidatis, marginatis. Petioli basi ventricoso-vaginantes. Umbellse ample, pluries composite ; vaginis maximis 
i'ix foliiferis bracteatis. Umbellulae globose. Flores numerosissimi, rosei v. pallide purpurei. Involucra et in- 
volucella polyphylla, foliolis lanceolatis equalibus. 

1. Anisotome latifolia, Hook.fil.; foliis oblongis bipinnatisectis, segmentis obliquis ovato- 
oblongis imbricatis basi decurrentibus ina?qualiter 3-5-fidis lobis acutis mucronato-aristatis pungenti- 
bus reticulatim venosis venis depressis, superioribus confluentibus. (Tab. VIII., and Tab. IX. &X. B.) 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island ; in moist places from the sea to the tops 
of the mountains, abundant. 

This is certainty one of the noblest plants of the natural order to which it belongs, often attaining a 
height of six feet, and bearing several umbels of rose-coloured or purplish flowers, each compound umbel as 
large as the human head. The foliage is of a deep shining green, and the whole plant emits, when bruised, an 
aromatic smell. The female flowers I have only seen in a specimen gathered by Mr. Lyall in Campbell's Island. 
They are of a peculiar structure, and show a striking affinity between this plant and the Aciphylla squarrosa, 
Forst. (Hook. Icon. PI. vol. vii. t. G07, 608), especially in the unequal mericarps. Both the male and female flow- 
ers vary in the size of the calycine segments, which are however constantly unequal, one or more being much 
the largest and longest. In the male the styles are reduced to mere points on the inner margin of the depressed 
purple stylopodia ; in the female the latter organs are conical, and terminate in long stout recurved styles, ca- 
pitate at the extremity : this structure is common to Aciphylla, according to Forster's figure (Genera, t. 6S). In 
the description of the genus I have described what may be considered the normal form of the fruit, but it is liable 
to much variation, and the five ridges are seldom fully developed in both mericarps. The five lobes of the calyx 
always give origin to as many larger ridges, and these again vary in size according to the number of large 
lobes : the most fully developed segment of the calyx, whether lateral or dorsal on the mericarp, always being 
opposite to the larger ridge. Very generally there are three large lobes to the calyx (of the female flower), one 
near the back of one mericarp, and two lateral on the other ; that with three has then five ridges, two large lateral, 
one (also large dorsal), and two intermediate smaller : the mericarp with only one large lobe has only four ridges ; 
two lateral (one of which is from the small lobe and largest of these two), the other very large, from the larger 
tooth. These mericarps are about two lines long, of a fuscous yellow colour, are obscurely glandular, and the 

Campbell's Islands.] FLORA ANTARCTICA. 1 7 

vitta; extend through their whole length. The seed hangs loose in the cell, is small, and covered with a rather 
thick blackish testa ; its sides have furrows corresponding to the valleculas. 

Plate VIII. A small flowering portion of the plant, with the limb of the leaf; Fig. 1, unexpanded male 
flower ; fig. 2, the same expanded ; fig. 3, calyx and stylopodia : — the dissections magnified. 

Plate IX. & X. B. Fig. 1, partial umbel of ripe fruit of natural size ; fig. 2, a single fruit removed from 
the umbel ; fig. 3, transverse section of the same, showing the inequality of the mericarps, one of which is 
empty with five ridges, the other fertile with four ridges : — all the dissections magnified. 

2. Anisotome antipoda ; foliis lineari-oblongis tripinnatisectis segmentis teretibus divaricatis 
lineari-subulatis rigidis pungentibus striatis intus praesertim ad furcaturas transversim articulatis, 
racbibus superne canaliculars. (Tab. IX. & X.) — Ligusticum antipodum, Hombr. et Jacq. Voy. au 
Pol Sud, Bot. Phaner. tab. 3. sine descript. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island; in moist places especially near the sea, 
and in the former islands ascending to the mountain tops in a more stunted form. 

A scarcely less handsome plant than the former, with which it agrees entirely in habit, and more particu- 
larly in the structure of the male flowers. The umbels are however less densely crowded, borne on longer pe- 
duncles, and produce fewer partial umbels and flowers. I was unfortunate in not being able to detect female 
flowers, nor have I seen any nearer approach to that state of the plant than the occasional presence, amongst 
the flowers of the ray, of stylopodia and styles analogous to those of the female of the former species. The 
fruit of this plant is represented in the 'Botany' of the French Voyage of Discovery quoted above, but in it the 
mericarps are figured as equal, and the vitta? are probably accidentally omitted ; so very singular a character as 
the former may have been overlooked in the dry state of the plant ; the glands, which are very obscure in the 
former species, are in this very large and apparently confined to one side of each mericarp : a remarkable simi- 
larity, however, exists in the furrowed seeds and in the stylopodia of the two species. The lamellae in the fistu- 
lar portion of the stem are not represented, and the sketch of the entire plant bears but a slight resemblance 
to the state in which we drew it. 

In structure, the fructification of this genus is more closely allied to Aciphyllu, Forst., than its general ap- 
pearance would lead one to suppose. The figure of that plant (in the Icones Plant.) was taken from a specimen 
in fruit, the only state in which we possessed it previous to the arrival of Mr. Stephenson's New Zealand collec- 
tion (vide Lond. Journ. of Bot. for September 1844), which contains small portions of apparently this plant (n. 81) 
in flower. In it the partial umbels are few-flowered, with the peduncles divaricating ; they are borne on axillary 
branches, subtended by a sheathing, lanceolate, acuminated, pungent involucral leaf ; towards the apex of the 
stem these branches are more crowded, and the involucral leaves are lengthened and become bifid or even trifid. 
The calycine segments are very small, broad, obtuse, and nearly equal in size. The petals (apparently pale yellow), 
though more incurved than in Anisotome, are scarcely furnished with an " inflexed lacinula" ; the stamens, sty- 
lopodia and styles are very similar in the two genera. The female flowers are probably more densely aggre- 
gated than the male, and in the inflorescence of the former the involucral leaves may rapidly assume the curious 
form represented in the ' Icones,' or Mr. Stephenson's specimens may belong to a different species, for certainly 
their mode of inflorescence bears little resemblance to the dense cylindrical female spike of the A. squarrosa. 
Both these genera will naturally rank near Ligusticum, from which they are however very distinct, and may be 
considered as forming a small natural group. What I am inclined to consider as a third species of Anisotome 
is the Ligusticum anisatum, Banks and Sol. MSS. in Mus. Brit. ; a plant discovered by Sir J. Banks and Dr. 
Solander in Queen Charlotte's Sound, and a fourth has been since gathered in Cook's Straits by Dr. Dieffenbach, 
and on the high mountain of Tongariro by Mr. Bidwill ; both these gentlemen's specimens are male. The An- 
VOL. I. D 

18 FLORA ANTARCTICA. [Auckland and 

gelica ? roseefolia, Hook. Ic. Plant, t. 581 (Ligusticum aromaticum, Banks and Sol. Ic. in Mus. Brit.), is also in 
some measure allied to these, though a plant of a very different habit ; its calycine segments are decidedly un- 
equal in size, and one of the two mericarps is often abortive. 

In the three known species of Anisotome, all the parts connected with the inflorescence are subject to much 
irregular metamorphosis and monstrous development, the more important of which, as observed in the living 
plants of A. latifolia and A. antipoda, are the following : — 1st, the segments of the partial involucra become 
shrivelled, assuming the forms of peduncles, and bear at their apices stylopodia with distorted calycine seg- 
ments, or more perfect flowers with a reduced number of parts ; or, in one case, a solitary one-celled anther, 
full of pollen, adnate on the face of the leaf, a little below its apex : 2nd, the peduncles themselves of the 
outer flowers become foliaceous, or by dividing show a tendency to a further compound state of the umbel ; 
it also sometimes bears a single stamen at its apex, subtended by one large calycine segment : 3rd, the 
calycine segments vary from 2-6, but one or more are always so much larger than the others, as often to 
resemble involucral leaves : 4th, the petals are wanting, or vary from 1-6 ; sometimes two are combined into 
one ; at others they assume various shapes : 5th, the stamens are equally variable in number ; the filament is 
at times petaloid, or becomes forked and bears a second anther ; these are constantly perfect and full of pollen : 
6th, the stylopodia are always 2 or more, often 3, generally of the plane depressed form common to the male 
flowers ; but the flowers of the ray sometimes bear 2-4 of entirely a different form, and similar to those of the 
fertile umbels ; these are sometimes accompanied with stamens : — generally no numerical relation can be traced 
between the parts of these irregularly developed flowers. That such a relation however exists is demonstrable 
in a very distorted example, where a flower was furnished with 6 calycine segments, 3 very large and the 
others very small, 2 petals, 6 stamens, one of which bore two perfect anthers, and 2 stylopodia, in all 17 parts, 
the normal number in the ordinary state of the plant. Perhaps the most complex example was exhibited in one 
of the outer pedicels of a partial umbel, which was terminated by 4 stylopodia surrounded by a 5-toothed calyx, 
the latter subtended on one side by 4 linear, foliaceous, very imperfectly developed organs, each of them fur- 
nished at its apex with an obscure depression filled with yellow powder. It here appears to me that the appa- 
rent pedicel is the peduncle of a partial umbel bearing one sessile female flower, and that the three superadded 
foliaceous organs represent the pedicels of male flowers, which are reduced to as many fovea? containing pollen, 
a most rudimentary state of the male flower. I did not observe whether the stylopodia were internal or exter- 
nal in relation to the axis of the plant and the three supposed male pedicels ; probably however the latter, as it 
is the flowers of the ray which generally bear female stylopodia. 

Plate IX. & X. Fig. 1, flower ; fig. 2, calyx with the petals removed ; fig. 3, a petal ; fig. 4. front, and 5, 
back view of stamens ; figs. 6, 7, 8 and 9, portions of umbel and flowers distorted by monstrous development : — 
all magnified. 


1. Panax simplex, Forst. ; arborea, inermis, foliis elliptico-lanceolatis subacutis obtusisve grosse 
serratis longe petiolatis cum petiolo articulatis (junioribus trifoliolatis), umbellis floralibus subrace- 
mosis fructiferis parce ramosis rarius simplicibus, umbellulis 6-10-floris. (Tab. XII.) — P. simplex, 
Forst. Prodr. n. 399. DeC. Prodr. vol. iv. p. 253. A. Rich. Ft. Nov. Zeland. p. 281. t. 31. A. Cunn. 
Prodr. Fl. Nov. Zel. in Ann. Nat. Hist. vol. ii. p. 213. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; from the sea to alt. 500 feet, abundant. 
A very scarce plant, and hitherto only found in the southern extremity of New Zealand and the Antarctic 

Campbell's Islands.'] FLORA ANTARCTICA. 19 

islands beyond it. As far as I am aware, it had been previously gathered by Forster alone. In this group it 
attains a height of 30 feet, amongst other trees near the sea. Its trunks are sometimes 2-3 feet in diameter, 
covered with a smooth brown bark ; the wood is white and close-grained. Branches much scarred, and clothed 
with a pale bark, very brittle. The distinct joint at the apex of the petiole indicates the truly compound nature 
of the leaves ; they are nowhere described as ternate ; a character which all young trees of this species exhibit. 
The whole plant has a faint but rank smell, like that of Ivy, which the copious lurid green but shining coria- 
ceous leaves much resemble, both in hue and texture. The involucral leaves are very small and subulate. 

Plate XII. Fig. 1, unexpanded flower ; fig. 2, flower more expanded ; Jig. 3, petal from the same ; fig. 4 
axx&fig. 5, immature stamens; fig. 6, germen after the petals have fallen away ; fig. 7, immature fruit ; fig. 8, 
vertical, and fig. 9, horizontal section of the same ; fig. 10, ovule : — all magnified. 

1. Aralia polaris, Hombr. et Jacq. ; polygarna, herbacea, inermis, tota setis mollibus laxis 
obsita, foliis (maximis) longe petiolatis orbiculari-reniformibus basi profimde cordatis marginibus 
multilobatis lobis 3-5-dentatis dentibus subacutis, umbellis copiosis compositis partialibus multira- 
diatis globosis, involucris foliaceis, floribus densis, fructibus depresso-sphaericis exsuccis suberosis atris 
nitidis. — A. polaris, Hombr. et Jacq. in Voy. au Pol Sud, Bot. Phaner. t. 2. sine descript. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island ; in the woods and on banks, generally 
near the sea, but often attaining an altitude of 600-700 feet, covering large tracts of ground with its 
bright and shining green foliage. 

Radix; rhizoma cylindraceum, elongatum, 2-3-pedale, ad terra? superficiem procumbens, transversim stri- 
atum seu annulatum, solidum, ochraceum, subtus fibras copiosas breves emittens. Tota planta setis mollibus 
patentibus simplicibus subcarnosis vestita. Caules herbacei, validi, 2-4-pedales, e collo ipso valde ramosi, 
ssepius prostrati vel adscendentes, teretes, striati, fistulosi, diametro 1-1 1 unciam, pallide flavido-virides. Folia 
pleraque ad furcaturas ramorum, inferiora majora longius petiolata, horizontaliter explanata, 1-1| ped. lata, 
crassa, carnosa, orbiculari-reniformia, flabellatim nervosa atque reticulatim venosa, utrinque, precipue subtus et 
ob nervos prominentes setosos rugosa, laete viridia, nitida. Petioli erecti, semiteretes, bipedales et ultra, basi 
membranaceo-vaginati ; vagina .semi-amplexicaules, superne (ut in plantis gramineis) in ligulam maximam 
membranaceam obovato-cuneatam expansae ; ligula superne truncata, bifida seu bipartita, laciniata, 2-3 unc. 
lata, pulcherrime radiatim et reticulatim venosa. Umbella terminales et axillares, compositae, maximae, diametro 
capitis humani, ter quaterque divisae. Umbellce partiales numerosae, globosae, multiflorae, diametro 1-2 unc. In- 
vohicra polyphylla : involucella oligophylla ; ultima monophylla, gradatim minora, omnia longe petiolata, radiis 
umbellse multoties longiora, folia caulinajuniorasimulantia, sed pluries minora, angustiora, saepe cuneata, altius- 
que lobata ; umbellulorum ultimorum saepius ad squamas ciliato-fimbriatas redacta. Pedicelli florum breves, 
clavati, g— J; unc. longi, sulcis tot quot ovarii exarati, florum masculorum graciliores. Flores copiosissimi, poly- 
gami, in capitulum globosum arete congesti, pallide flavidi, cereacei, subtranslucentes, nitentes, disco purpureo. 
Calycis tubus cum ovario adnatus, 3-4-sulcatus, margine integerrimo. Petala 5, ante expansionem late ovata, 
obtusa, deltoideo-reniformia.-subunguieulata, demum patentia, oblongo-obovata, carnosa, cellulosa, enervia, 1-1 j 
lin. longa. Fl. Masc. Stamina 5 ; filamenta brevia subulata, pauiulum incurva ; antherte rnajusculae, didyma\ 
puqiureae : pollen elliptico-oblongum, utrinque obtusum, sub lente lineis 1-2 longitudinalibus opacis notatum, 
hyalinum, in cumulo stramineum. Stylopodia plana, depressa ; styti nulli. Fl. Fert. Stamina ut in fl. masc., 
aut nulla. Stylopodia 3-4, subreniformia, elevata, sursum plana, luride purpurea, granulata, cavitatem in axin 
ovarii cingens. Styli 3-4, breves, subulati, lineares, subacuti, recurvi. Ovarium carnosum, 3-4-sulcatum, late 
turbinatum, 3-4-loculare, loculis circa axin cavum dispositis, 1-ovulatis; cvula ex apice loculi anguli interioris 
pendula, pyriformia, anatropa, funiculo brevissimo. Fructus subbaccatus, suberosus, aterrimus, depresso-glo- 
bosus, recens 3 rarius 4-sulcatus, in caulibus emortuis fibrosis dealbatis anni praeteriti persistens, disco vacuo 

D 2 

20 FLORA ANTARCTICA. [Auckland and 

superne concavo ; epicarpium crustaceum ; endocarpium corneum v. osseuni ; sarcocarpium suberosum. Loculi 
3-4, valde compressi, axi contrarii. Semen parvum, late ovato-ellipticum, plano-compressum, versus axin obtuse 
angulatum, loculum totum implens. Testa membranacea, pallide fusca. Albumen copiosum, farinaceo-corneum, 
albidum. Embryo minutissimus, pyriformis ; radicula supera, bilo proxima ; cotyledones breves, divaricats, 

One of the most handsome and singular of the vegetable productions in the group of islands it inhabits, 
which certainly contains a greater proportion of large and beautiful plants, relatively to the whole vegetation, than 
any country with which I am acquainted. Growing in large orbicular masses, on rocks and banks near the 
sea, or amongst the dense and gloomy vegetation of the woods, its copious bright green foliage and large umbels 
of waxy flowers, often nearly a foot in diameter, have a most striking appearance. The pretty black berries on 
the white and withered stalks of the former year's umbels form a curious contrast to the shining waxy appear- 
ance of the rest of the inflorescence. The whole plant has a heavy and rather disagreeable rank smell, common 
to many of its Nat. Order, but is nevertheless greedily eaten by goats, pigs and rabbits. 

Beautiful as is the plate of Aralia polaris in the French South Polar Voyage above quoted, and faithfully 
as it represents the leaf and umbel, the insertion of both immediately upon the rooting stem, without the in- 
tervention of branches, and the absence of the great ligules, are quite unlike what is exhibited by my specimens. 
It is possible that the letter-press may account for this and some other apparent inaccuracies ; but although the 
plates have been in our possession for nearly a twelvemonth, I cannot learn that any descriptive matter has 
hitherto appeared. — The above particulars of the plant, and the analysis, were drawn up from living specimens ; 
and although the drawings, made at the same time from the recent plant, are not of sufficient novelty to justify 
their introduction amongst the plates of the present work, I have deemed it desirable to give them in the ' Icones 
Plantarum' (vol. viii. tab. 701. ined.). 


1. Coprosma fcetidissima, Forst. ; arborea, glaberrima, foliis petiolatis exacte elliptico-oblon- 
gis obtusis apicibus vix mucronatis, floribus terminalibus solitariis, baccis subrotundis sessilibus.— 
(Tab. XIII.) C. fcetidissima, Forst. Prodr. n. 138. DeC. Prodr. vol. iv. p. 578. A.Rich.Flor. Nov. 
Zel. p. 261. A. Cunn. Prodr. Flor. Nov. Zel. 1. c. vol. ii. p. 206. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; in the woods near the sea, also ascending in the valleys to 900 

This is a perfectly distinct plant, though confounded by Cunningham (as his specimens in Herb. Heward 
prove) with the C. lucida, Forst. It is probably a very abundant species in the middle and southern islands of 
New Zealand, where, however, it had until quite lately been gathered by Forster alone, in Queen Charlotte's 
Sound. It has been more recently detected on the mountainous interior of the Northern Island by Mr. Colenso, 
whose specimens (n. 117) are rather less robust, with the leaves narrower and more membranaceous. It is one 
of the few large-leaved species with truly solitary and sessile flowers and berries. In this group of islands it 
often attains a height of 20 feet, with a trunk 1| foot in diameter. The whole plant, especially when bruised 
or when drying, exhales an exceedingly fetid odour, much resembling that of the flowers of Hibbertia volubilis. 
I brought on board the " Erebus" specimens of this with other plants, late one evening, and finding that there 
were more tender species, which took a considerable time to lay in paper, than I could well get through that night, 
I locked this Coprosma in a small close cabin until I should have leisure to press it, but before half an hour had 
elapsed the smell was intolerable, and had pervaded the whole of the lower deck. The leaves, though very 
constant in form, vary much in size, and in the alpine specimens are scarcely more than ^-^ inch long. 

Campbell's Islands.'] FLORA ANTARCTICA. 21 

Plate XIII. Fig. 1, longitudinal section of a ripe berry showing the nucules ; fig. 2, lateral, and fig. 3, back 
view of a nucule removed ; fig. 4, longitudinal section of do. ; fig. 5, front, and fig. G, lateral view of the seed re- 
moved from the nucule ; fi g. 7, longitudinal section of seed, showing the embryo \fig.8, cotyledons: — all magnified. 

2. Copbosma affinis, Hook. fil. ; arborea, glaberrima, foliis petiolatis elliptico-lanceolatis acutis, 
floribus terminalibus solitariis sessilibus. (Tab. XIV.) 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; in low woods near the sea. 

This plant, which I found only in the state of young fruit, is so nearly allied to the preceding, that it is 
not without much hesitation I retain it as a distinct species, which I do on the ground of there being, in a large 
suite of specimens of C.fcetidissima, none with the leaves intermediate in form between that species and the pre- 
sent. It may he readily recognised by the larger and longer leaves, which are decidedly acuminated at the apex : 
its season of flowering too seems to be different. 

Plate XIV. Fig. 1, an immature berry : — magnified. 

3. Coprosma cuneata, Hook. fil. ; fruticosa, glabra, ramis attenuatis rigidis, ramulis pubes- 
centibus, foliis fasciculatis parvis rigidis coriaceis anguste cuneatis apice ernarginato-truncatis sessi- 
libus enerviis subtus pallidioribus, stipulis apice barbatis, floribus solitariis, fructibus in ramulis 
ultimis terminalibus solitariis globosis. (Tab. XV.) 

(3. foliis longioribus, apice rotundatis. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island ; in woods near the sea. /3. In ravines 
at an altitude of 900 feet on the former, and near the sea in Campbell's Island. 

The investigation of the genus Coprosma, and especially of the small-leaved species, is attended with very 
great difficulty. Those of the extreme southern parts of the New Zealand group seem different from such as 
inhabit the northern islands, and these again from the Australian and Tasmanian kinds. In each locality, how- 
ever, the forms seem so protean, that more than words is required to assist in their determination, whilst the 
paucity of specimens hitherto received has obliged botanists to separate dissimilar specimens of what a more 
copious supply might prove to belong to the same plant. It is to avoid any further confusion that I have ven- 
tured to figure three species, of which I have no materials for such an analysis of the flower and fruit as a good 
botanical drawing should possess. The C. cuneata, in its ordinary form especially, appears one of the most 
distinct of these, and has the leaves invariably very blunt, larger at the upper extremity, and then retuse or 
decidedly notched : they are rigid and coriaceous in texture, and very uniform in size. In the woods near the 
sea it forms a remarkably harsh, woody, and repeatedly branched shrub, whose stems are often 2 inches in dia- 
meter at the base, and covered with a rough black bark. The pale, but bright, red of the berries, which are 
abundantly produced, forms a very pretty contrast amongst the deep shining foliage. 

Plate XV. Fig. 1, ripe berries ; fig. 2, longitudinal transverse section of do.; fig. 3, nucules removed 
from the berry ; fig. 4, transverse section of a nucule ; fig. 5, front ; and fig. 6, side view of seed ; fig. 7, lon- 
gitudinal section of do. showing the embryo : — all magnified. 

4. Coprosma myrtillifolia, Hook. fil. ; fruticosa, ramulis pubescenti-cinereis, foliis subfasci- 
culatis parvis lato-lanceolatis subcarnosis brevissime petiolatis acutiusculis glabris subtus obscure 
nervosis, baccis solitariis. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; in ravines about 600 feet above the sea. 

A small and almost leafless bush, which, like its congeners, is very apt to vary in its mode of growth. In 
the ordinary state it grows 3-4 feet high, and from the lower parts of the stems and branches being bare of 

22 FLORA ANTARCTICA. [Auckland and 

leaves, it assumes a spiny appearance. The leaves are patent, ^— ^ inch long, scarcely coriaceous ; the stipules 
hairy and ciliated at the margins. 

5. Coprosma ciliata, Hook. fil. ; fruticosa, ramis pilosis, foliis oppositis solitariis vel fascicu- 
latis submembranaceis elliptico-lanceolatis obtusis v. subacutis basi in petiolurn perbrevem attenuatis 
ciliatis, petiolo costaque subtus prsecipue hirsutis, stipulis apice barbatis. 

/S. virgata, laxe foliosa, ramis virgatis tenuibus. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; in ravines, alt. 500-1000 feet. /3. In Campbell's Island, in 
shady situations near the sea. 

A common shrub, especially in Lord Auckland's group, where it forms a densely branched bush, growing 
from 8-10 feet high. The Campbell's Island specimens again are very lax, twiggy, and sparingly leafy ; and 
the leaves, which in a. are i— | inch long, are in /3. generally under that size. I have seen neither flower nor fruit. 
The bushes of the various species of Coprosma compose a dense and impenetrable thicket, on the margins of the 
narrow gulleys formed by water-courses on the faces of the hills. Becoming stunted and much branched from 
the violence of the perennial gales, they offer as powerful an obstacle to the traveller here as the beeches do in 
Tierra del Fuego. In both cases it is almost equally impossible to penetrate them ; but, extraordinary as it 
may appear, their branches are so gnarled and densely matted, that their flat summits will often bear the human 
weight, and almost admit of walking upon them. 

6. Coprosma repens, Hook. fil. ; fruticulosa longe repens ramosissima glaberrima, ramis ra- 
mulisque brevibus, foliis parvis coriaceo-carnosis rigidis ovatis in petiolurn brevem latiusculum atte- 
nuatis supra planis v. concavis subtus convexis, stipulis brevibus obtusis carnosis una cum petiolis 
connato-vaginatis, floribus solitariis terminalibus baccis 2 — 4 pyrenis. (Tab. XVI.) 

Hab. Lord Auckland's and Campbell's Island ; common from the sea to the tops of the hills. 

Caules pedales et ultra, vage repentes, floras tenues ramosas ad axillas foliorum emittentes, cortice cinereo 
spongioso saepe obtecti, crassitie penna? passerina?. Folia breviter petiolata, horizontaliter patentia, conferta, 
crassiuscula, ovata v. elliptica, obtusa, concava, nitida, enervia, sub. 3 lin. longa. Stipulee late ovatse, obtusse, 
glaberrima?. Flores ad apices ramorum solitarii, sessiles, verosimiliter dioici. Calycis limbus profunde 4-par- 
titus ; segmentis lineari-ovatis obtusis. Corolla (in exemplaribus Tasmanicis solummodo mihi visa) tubulosa, 
subcampanulata, paululum curvata ; tubo elongato, ore quadrifido ; segmentis ovatis, subacutis. Stamina 4 ; 
filamentis longissimis, exsertis ; antheris majusculis, pendulis, linearibus, ungue uncinato terminatis. Styli 2, 
longe exserti, pubescentes. Bacca (in exempl. Aucklandicis) subglobosa, omnino sessilis, diametro 3 lin., pal- 
lide vel intensius rubra, carnosa et aquosa, intus 2-4-pyrena. Nuculee crustacean, 1-loculares, 1-spermae, unica 
v. duobus A. majoribus. Semen erectum ; testa fusca, membranacea ; albumine carnoso. Embryo majusculus ; 
radicula hilo proxima, elongata, terete ; cotyledonibits latis. 

This plant is apparently identical with a species collected on Middlesex Plains, Tasmania, by R. C. Gunn, 
Esq. ; a remarkable circumstance, as its low, procumbent mode of growth gives it the appearance of being an 
Antarctic form of the genus. The Auckland Island specimens I gathered with young and ripe fruit only, the 
corolla and styles having invariably fallen away. These latter, as well as the stamens, I have drawn and de- 
scribed from Mr. Gunn's specimens, fully believing the two plants to be the same. I must however here re- 
mark, that other states from either locality may be found to possess unexpected characters of sufficient import- 
ance to keep them distinct. I am not aware of any other species exhibiting 4 nucules. 

The prevalence of Rubiacea in these islands is a very singular fact in botanical geography ; ranking as 
they do in number of species next only to Composite among Dicotyledonous plants, and almost equalling 

Campbell's Islands.] FLORA ANTARCTICA. 23 

them both numerically and in the amount of space they occupy. In Antarctic America they are represented 
by a very few Stellatce, which group is here entirely absent. As no other order exhibits so remarkable an 
excess, they probably balance the strangely disproportionate want of Composite, which appear to have almost 
as few representatives in proportion to the mass of exogenous vegetation as any other island. Comparing the 
dicotyledonous vegetation of the Falkland Islands with that of Lord Auckland's, it will be seen, that in the 
former the Composite are to the other Dicot. as 1 : 2' 8, and that Rubiacece (Galium) are to Compos, as 1 : 21 : but 
in the latter group, Compos, are to the other Dicot. only as 1 : 4'5, and Rubiacece to Composite as 1 : 1*6 ! If 
in each we add these two Nat. Orders together, it will be found, that in the Falklands the proportion which 
the sum of Rubiacea and Composite bear to other Dicotyledonous plants, is as 1 : 2 - 7, and in Lord Auckland's 
group as 1 : 2 - 3 : proving, that as far as these two remote localities are comparable, Rubiacete only balance in the 
latter the want of what is generally, in all climates, the preponderating natural order. This is one only of many 
equally singular proofs, which a little patient investigation may deduce, that a harmony exists and may be 
traced in the vegetation of remote climates, whose Floras are otherwise totally dissimilar. 

Plate XVI. Fig. 1, a ripe berry, nat. size; fig. 2, transverse section of do., showing the nucules ; fig. 3, 
nucules removed ; fig. 4, transverse section of the latter, showing the seed ; fig. 5, lateral, and fig. 6, front view 
of a seed ; fig. 7, vertical section of do. : — all magnified. 

B. Flowering portion from Tasmanian specimens, nat. size ; fig. 1 , a male flower ; fig. 2, a female flower : — 
both magnified. 

1. Nertera depressa, Banks in Geertn. i. t. 26. et Icon. ined. Plant. Nov. Zel. in Mus. Brit. 
t. 22. Forst. Prodi-, n. 501. Smith, Icon. ined. t. 28. Carmichael in Linn. Trans, vol. xii. p. 505. 
Gaudich. Flor. des lies Malouines in Ann. Sc. Nat. vol. v. p. 104. Gaud, in Freycinet, Voy. p. 135. 
WUrville, Flor. Ins. Mai. in Annal. Soc. Linn. Paris, vol. iv. p. 612. Pet. TJiouars, Flor. Trist. 
d'Acun. p. 42. t. 10. DeC. Prodr. vol.iv. p. 451. A. Cunn. Flor. Nov. Zel. 1. c. p. 208. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; creeping amongst moss in the woods, where its bright red 
berries give it a pretty appearance. 

My specimens are unfortunately not in flower ; they however entirely resemble the figures of N. depressa 
above quoted, and agree with numerous Falkland Island and other southern specimens of that plant with which 
I have compared it. In Mr. Cunningham's ' Flora of New Zealand,' its precise habitat is omitted ; but it is 
inserted in a MS. copy of that ' Flora' which formed part of my library at sea. There he mentions the " Falls 
of the Keri-Keri river " as the only locality in which he gathered it. In botanizing over that spot repeatedly 
in September and October 1841, in company with Mr. Colenso, we often met with Cunningham's plant, both 
there and afterwards in other moist places near cataracts ; it is however entirely different from the true N. de- 
pressa, being much smaller in all its parts, with narrower and more acuminated leaves. The berries of the 
Auckland Island specimens are very much vertically depressed, and their structure is entirely that of the genus 



1. TRINEURON, Hook.fil. 

Capitulum sub-12-florum ; floribus exterioribus 8-10, foemineis, 2 serialibus; interioribus abortu masculis j 

omnibus ut videtur tubulosis. Involucrum octophyllum, subbiseriale, squamis inter se subsequalibus oblongo- 

lanceolatis obtusis trinerviis, nervis latiusculis pellucidis transversim septatis. Receptaaditm nudum, minutum, 

convexiusculum. Fl. Fqjm. Corolla tubulosa, basi globosa, medio cylindracea et constricta, ore obliquo 4-den- 

24 FLORA ANTARCTICA. [Auckland and 

tato, sub-bilabiato, dentibus obtusis, 1 reliquis sub-duplo longioribus. Stylus incrassatus, cylindraceus, exsertus, 
basi bulbosus, bifidus, ramis ovato-oblongis obtusis marginibus apiceque stigmatiferis. Achcenium calvum, late 
obovatum, apice retusum, extus planiusculum, intus carinatum, carina marginibusque celluloso-incrassatis. — 
Fl. Masc. Corolla tubulosa, clavata, subtetragona, angulis incrassatis linea elevata cellulosis, 4-dentata, dentibus 
acutis erectis sequalibus. Stamina 4 ; filamentis ima basi corolla insertis, angulis incrassatis alternantibus ; an- 
theris vix ac ne vix liberis, basi breviter productis. Stylus exsertus, basi (ut in fl. fcem.) bulboso-incrassatus, 
apice capitato truncato obscure bilobo. Achcenium parvum, vacuum. — Herba repens laxe ccespitosa, ramosa, gla- 
berrima, ad terrain niontibus insularum Auckland et Campbell obvia. Folia alterna. Capitula inconspicua in ramis 
ultimis, primum inter folia sessilia, demum pedunculis propriis ultra folia productis apice foliiferis elevata. Flores 
fusco-purpurascentes. Folia spathulata v. lineuri-spathulata elongata. 

1. Trineuron spalhulatum, Hook. fil. (Tab. XVII.) 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island ; on peaty soil, near the summits of the 
mountains, alt. 1200-1400 feet. 

Caulis breviusculus, 1-2 unc. longus, sublignosus, repens, fibras copiosas validas elongatas per totam lon- 
gitudinem emittens, et reliquiis foliorum vetustorum undique tectus, superne parce ramosus ; ramis brevibus 
ascendentibus erectisve foliosis ultra folia in pedunculum nudum apice floriferum productis. Folia basi imbri- 
cata, undique patentia, lineari-spathulata, glaberrima, integerrima, plus minusve elongata, ^-1 unc. longa, ob- 
tusa, 3-5-nervia, plana, subcarnosa, laete viridia. Capitula parva, subsolitaria, vel 3-4 aggregata, juniora valde 
inconspicua, inter folia occulta, demum pedunculata ; pedunculo \-\ unc. longo, apice folioso, foliis 2-3 reliquis 
longioribus. Flores minimi, vix ^ lin. longi, sub lente pulcbre rubro-purpurei. 

A very remarkable genus, most nearly allied to Abrotanella, Cass. (Oligosporus emarginatus, Gaud, in Ann. 
Sc. Nat. vol. v. p. 104. t. 3. fig. 4), but of a very different babit, and in many other particulars quite distinct, 
especially in the more numerous scales of the involucre, inserted in two series, in the many-flowered capitula, 
the quadrifid corollas of the ray, the curious tetragonous corollas of the disc, and the thickened cellular structure 
which exists in several parts of this plant. Besides the achsenia having a thickened border and keel in front, 
formed of large lax transparent cells, the incrassated angles of the male flowers and the three nerves of the 
involucral leaves, exhibit the same singular character. In both the latter cases, the substance of the organs 
themselves, which are opake and fleshy, seems to be divided by broad lines of a transparent substance, marked 
with transverse septa. 

Many of the discoid Senecionidea, and especially in the tribe Hippice of Lessing, are remarkable for the 
curious and anomalous structure of their inflorescence. In several instances, as in the present, it may be 
doubted whether the flowers of the ray are really tubular, the general unequal division and oblique aperture 
of the mouth appearing to indicate their true structure as either ligulate or 2-lipped ; 2-lipped perhaps in the 
present and the following genus, and assuredly 1-lipped or ligulate in Abrotanella, where I observe the three teeth 
all to point towards one side of the tube, with the middle one the longest. The teeth in this species have the 
margins thickened, and apparently revolute. The base of the style is peculiarly incrassated, especially in the 
female flower, having the base of the corolla swollen around it, and the thickened portion often forms a 
depressed sphere, in which the style seems to be inserted, and it sometimes assumes the appearance of a fleshy 
ring or corona, surmounting the top of the ovary. 

The name is adopted in allusion to the three cellular nerves or lines of the ovary and involucral scales. 

Plate XVII. Fig. 1 , capitulum ; fig. 2, scale of the involucrum ; fig. 3, side view, and fig. 4, front view of 
flowers of the ray ; fig. 5, back, and fig. 6, front view of ripe achsenium ; fig. 7, style of a flower of the ray, with 
its bulbous base ; fig. 8, flower of the disc ; fig. 9, stamen, and fig. 10, style from the same :— all magnified. 

Campbell's Islands.] FLORA ANTARCTICA. 25 

2. CERATELLA, Hook.fil. 

Capitula aggregata, singulo S-10-floro ; floribus exterioribus sub 8, fcemineis, 1-serialibus ; interioribus abortu 
masculis, omnibus, ut videtur, tubulosis. Involucrum 8-10-phyllum, squamis biserialibus coriaceis subacutis 
valde inaequalibus, interioribus linearibus 1-3-nerviis angustatis, exterioribus foliaceis latioribus plurinerviis. 
nen'is omnibus cellulosis pellucidis transverse septatis. Receptaculum nudum, angustum, minutum, planiuscu- 
lum vel subconicum, foveolatum. Fl. Fcem. Corolla tubulosa, elongata, basi giobosa, ore profunde 4-dentato, 
dentibus majusculis subinasqualibus oblongis obtusis concavis medio macula oblonga pallida eellulosa pellucida 
deorsum in lineam extensa. Sty/us validus, exsertus, basi bulbosus, apice breviter bifidus. Achanium com- 
pressum, tetragonum, anguste tetrapterum, alis membranaceis, oblongo-obovatum, 4-eornutum, comubus bre- 
vibus divaricatis, 2 exterioribus sublongioribus. Fl. Masc. Corolla tubulosa, lineari-clavata, 3-4-dentata, sub 
3-4-angulata, angulis pellucidis, dentibus concavis, dorso macula pellucida et linea extensa, ut in fl. fcem. An- 
thera latiusculae, inclusae, basi breviter biaristata?, apice apiculata?, flavae. Stylus validus, eylindiaceus, corolla 
i brevior, apice sensim latiore abrupte truncato margine crenato. Achanium obscure 4-gonum, parvuni, 
vacuum omnino calvum. — Herba pusilla, dense ctespitosa, Androsacis/«ci'e, rupibus prceruptis ad cacumina montium 
insula Campbell proveniens. Folia alterna, densissime imbricata, stellatim patentia. Capitula aggregata, inter 
folia summa sessilia. Flores purpurascentes, parvi, inconspicui. 

1. Ceratella rosulata, Hook. fil. (Tab. XVIII.) 

Hab. Campbell's Island; in crevices of rocks at the tops of the mountains, at an elevation of 
1 400 feet ; very sparingly. 

Caules dense pulvinati, ramosi, duri, rigidi, 1-1^ unc. longi, validi, inferne foliis vetustioribus dense obsiti, 
fusco-nigrescentes. Folia arete imbricata, stellatim patentia, coriacea vel subcornea, superiora rosulata, basi 
latiore vaginante scariosa, medio contracta, deinde ovata, acuta, plus minusve concava, subtus striato-nervosa, 
marginibus acuentibus, superiora gradatim minora, 2-3 lin. longa, intense viridia, aetate fusco-tincta. Capitula 
in summos ramos 8-10, congesta, brevissime pedunculata, inconspicua, foliis subtensa, 2 lin. longa. Involucri 
squama irregulariter inserts, ovato-oblongae, subacutae, concavae, nervosa?, nervis (ut in Trineuro) eelluloso-in- 
crassatis transversim septatis pellucidis, interiores angustiores. Flores parvi, purpurei. 

This plant is perhaps more closely allied to the last genus (Trineuron) than to any other, and exhibits many 
remarkable points of affinity with it, especially in the pellucid thickened parts of the flower and nerves of the 
involucral leaves ; likewise the general structure of the capitula, corollas, stamens and styles is much alike in 
both. But while so many instances of resemblance exist, the totally different nature of the achtsnium becomes 
the more striking. In the tufted habit, harsh, coriaceous, even horny texture, the plant is more allied to Abro- 
tanella emarginata. 

These three genera form together a small group, allied in several respects to Hippia, Lessing, but na- 
turally distinct, all the species of that division being herbaceous, more or less odorous, and often even furnished 
with pellucid glands. 

The name is derived from the little horn-like processes of the achaenium. 

Plate XVIII. Fig. 1, ahead of capitula ; fig. 2, single capitulum, removed ; fig. 3, receptacle and involucral 
scales ; fig. 4, a flower of the ray ; fig. 5, the same cut open ; fig. 6, achaenium ; fig. 7, a 3-toothed flower of the 
disc ; fig. 8, the same, with four teeth ; fig. 9, the same cut open, and fig. 10, a stamen from do. : — all magnified. 

Capitulum go florum, heterogamum ; floribus exterioribus foemineis bi-triserialibus, disci abortu masculis tu- 
VOL. I. E 

26 FLORA ANTARCTICA. [Auckland and 

bulosis. Involucrum hemisphsericum, 1-4-seriale, S-20-phyllum, squamis oblongo-obovatis vel suborbiculatis ad- 
pressis. Reveptaculum conicum, nudum,, papillosum. Flor. Radii. Corolla compressa, tubulosa, basi latiore, 
ore obliquo 3-4-dentato, quasi e duplice membrana formata. Stylus exsertus, inclinatus, basi bulbosus, apice 
bifidus, ramis divaricatis oblongis versus apicem barbatis. Achcenium calvum, valde obcompressum, elongato-obo- 
vatum, marginibus incrassatis. Flor. Disci. Corolla tubulosa, infundibuliformis, 5-dentata, dentium marginibus 
incrassatis. Antheree ecaudatse, cohserentes, exserta?. Stylus exsertus, apice abrupte incrassato, cyathiformi, 
basi bulboso. Achcenium parvum, vacuum. — Herbse antarcticce et hemisphterii austratts incolce, odore Fceniculi 
vel Tanaceti, plus minusve pilosis seu Janata. Caules prostrati, radicantes, ramis brevissimis foliosis adscendenti- 
bus. Folia alterna, petiolata, basi scarioso-vaginantia, pinnatisecta. Capitulatory, solitaria, longe pedunculata, 
pedunculis terminalibus. Flores lutei. Cass, in DeC. Prodr. (jiaucis verbis mutatis). 

1. Leptinella lanala, Hook. fil. ; caule prostrato, petiolis foliis superne pedunculisque lana 
longa densa molli albida vestitis, foliis petiolatis oblongis obtusis pinnatifidis segmentis acutis mar- 
gine superiore pinnatifido-serratis basi vaginantibus, involucris carnosis floribusque totis glandulis 
obsitis, pedunculis foliis brevioribus in ramis brevibus terminalibus, involucris 3-4 serialibus glabris. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; hanging abundantly over rocks and cliffs near the sea. 

Caules herbacei, prostrati, decumbentes et adscendentes, vage ramosi, hie illic radices fibrosas emittentes ; 
vetustiores nudi, pallide brunnei, remote cicatricosi ; juniores foliosi, lanati, vaginis scariosis foliorum obsiti, |-2 
ped. longi, pennre gallina; crassitie, lana copiosa laxa, gossypio simillima, e fibris intertextis tenuissimis simpli- 
cibus albidis formata. Folia petiolata, alterna, patentia, ovato-oblonga, obtusa, sub 1 unc. longa, flavo-viridia, 
plana, pinnatifida, supra juniora praesertim lanata, crassa, carnosa, segmentis ovatis obliquis 1-2 lin. 
longis, margine inferiore integra recta, superiore pinnatifido-serrata, segmentis acutis. Petioli folio requilongi, 
lati, plani, basi vaginantes, scarioso-nervosi, nudi. Pedunculi e summis ramulis orti, solitarii, subunciaies, recti, 
densissime lanati, foliis breviores. Capitulum diametro ^ unc. Involucrum 4-5-seriale, squamis exterioribus 
valde carnosis, glandulosis, elliptico-rotundatis, viridibus, 1-1 i lin. longis, interioribus angustioribus, submem- 
branaceis. Receptaculum nudum, conicum, latiusculum, papillosum, papillis elevatis ad apices foveolatis flores 
gerentibus. Flores radii foeminei, 3-4-seriales, densissime imbricati numerosi, glandulis conglobatis prominen- 
tibus obsiti. Corolla ovato-oblonga, compressa, e membrana duplici formata, 4-crenata, lobo unico longiore 
alio sa?pe obliterato. Stylus breviter exsertus, basi bulbosus, quasi annulo carnoso epigyno valde depresso cinc- 
tus, apice breviter bifidus, ramis divaricatis obovato-oblongis obtusis extus dorso penicillatis. Achcenium ob- 
ovatum, compressum, margine subincrassato. Flores disci numerosi, abortu masculi, glandulosi ut in fl. radii. 
Corolla tubuloso-infundibuliformis, 4-dentata, dentium marginibus incrassatis. Antheree cohaerentes, inclusre. 
Stylus validus, supeme exsertus, inclinatus, apice cyathiformi. Achcenium vix ullum abortivum. 

This plant resembles, in some respects, the L. scariosa, Cass., but is very much larger, densely woolly in 
many parts, with its leaves shorter and less regularly divided ; it also wants the pellucid glands which beset the 
leaves of that species and contain a powerful essential oil. 

Plate XIX. Fig. 1, receptacle and involucrum ; Jig. 2, a flower of the ray ; fig. 3, side view of the same ; 
fig. 4, transverse section of the same ; fig. 5, style from the same ; fig. 6, bifid apex of do. ; fig. 7, flower of the 
disc ; fig. 8, style of the same ; fig. 9, stamen ; fig. 10, glands from the corolla : — all magnified. 

2. Leptinella plumosa, Hook. fil. ; tota pilis longis laxis molliter hirsuta, foliis longe petio- 
latis lineari-oblongis obtusis tripinnatifidis segmentis ultimis subulatis, pedunculis terminalibus la- 
teralibusque solitariis elongatis gracilibus petiolo ajquilongis, involucre 1-seriali floribusque eglan- 
dulosis, corollis fcemineis cordato-ovatis. (Tab. XX.) 

Campbell's Islands.] FLORA ANTARCTICA. 27 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island ; amongst gravel and on grassy banks 
near the sea. M c Quairie's Island, (Herb. Hook.) 

Caulis herbaceus, repens, breviusculus, crassitie pennse anserinae et ultra, parce ad apicem praecipue ramo- 
sus, ramis divaricatis brevibus foliosis 1-uncialibus nodosis, ad nodos fibras crassas descendentes emittens, 
hie illic molliter sericeo-pilosus. Folia longe petiolata, una- cum petiolo 3- unc. ad pedalem, flaccida, molliter 
pilosa, multisecta, quasi pulcherrime plumosa, lato-oblonga, pinnata ; pinnae alternae, patentes, divaricata?, sub- 
falcatae, J— 1 unc. longae, lineari-oblongae, superiores utrinque bipinnatifidos, inferiores margine posteriore inte- 
gro, superiore solummodo pinnatifido, segmentis linearibus acuminatis margine exteriore pracipue profunde et 
acute inciso-serratis. Petioli folio acquilongi, graciles, antice plani vel concavi, marginibus submembranaceis, 
basi longe et latissime scarioso-membranacei, vaginantes, vaginis \ unc. longis integris striato-nervosis, ore 
nudo. Pedunculi gracillimi, axillares, in ramis brevissimis terminales, petiolo paulo longiores, plus minusve 
laxe albidosericei. Capitula solitaria, diametrocircaj unc, depresso-globosa. Involucrum cyathiforme ; squama 1 
1-seriales, aequales, basi subconnatoe, oblongae, obtusae, herbaceae, floribus breviores, marginibus late scariosis 
denticulatis apice fusco-purpureis. Receptaculum nudum, elevatum, conicum, totum papillosum, papillis infe- 
rioribus gradatim longioribus, bine flores radii manifeste stipitati. Flares radii fceminei, 2-3-seriales, numero;i, 
dense aggregati, imbricati, incurvati. Corolla structura insignis, cordato-ovata, compressa, dorso parum con- 
vexa, superne attenuata, ore obliquo 4-dentato, dentibus brevissimis obtusis unico longiore, e duplici membrana 
quasi formata, interiore cylindraceo graeili stylum amplectente et ejusdem formae, apice ovarii inserta ; inter has 
duas membranas vacua. Stylus validus, basi globoso-incrassatus, exsertus, cylindraceus, tubo interno corolla 1 
arete vaginatus, apice bifidus, ramis brevibus obtusis dorso ad apicem hirsutulis. Achtenium corolla angustius, 
obovatum, obcompressum, crassum, calvum, marginibus incrassatis. Semen in loculo solutum. Embryo elon- 
gato-pyriformis. Flores disci abortu masculi, tubulosi. Corolla infundibuliformis, 5-dentatus, dentibus patenti- 
bus marginibus incrassatis. Anthers ^-exsertae, cohajrentes, ecaudatae, filamentis linearibus ad medium tubi 
insertis. Stylus validus, crassiusculus, exsertus, paulo inclinatus, apice dilatato cyathiformi marginibus mem- 
branaceis integris, basi bulbosa, bulba oblongo-cylindracea. Achcenium minutum, abortivum. 

This is by far the most beautiful species of the genus, apparently common to the islands of the high South- 
ern Indian and Pacific Oceans, but hitherto unknown among the Antarctic American groups. It was first 
detected on M c Quarrie's Island, whence specimens were received by Mr. Frazer in New Holland, and by him 
transmitted to England ; but it is not ascertained who found them, though it is more than probable they were 
gathered by some person accompanying a sealer. It is the only Composite plant as yet known to inhabit Ker- 
guelen's Island, where it covers very large tracts of ground with its silvery and beautifully feathery foliage, 
smelling strongly, but not unpleasantly, of parsley. The female corollas of both species are represented as they 
being of my original sketches : when dried they seem much more compressed, their membranous texture- 
appear in such extreme tenuity, that it is probable they never recover their original form after once being sub- 
jected to pressure. 

Plate XX. Fig. 1, receptacle and part of involucrum ; Jiff. 2, scale of involucrum ; fig. 3, flower of ray in na- 
tural state ; fig. 4, anterior, and fig. 5, lateral view of the same from dried specimens ; fig. 6, transverse, and 
fig. 7, longitudinal section of the same ; fig. 8, apex of style from do. ; fig. 9, achaenium cut open ; fig. 10, 
flower of disc ; fig. 11, portion of corolla and stamen of do. ; fig. 12, style of do. : — all magnified. 

3. Leptinella jorojaffi^oi, Hook. fil. ; tota pilis sericeis patentibus mollibus hirsuta, caule re- 
pente, foliis petiolatis glandulis impressis pellucidis punctatis oblongis obtusis basi attenuatis pinna- 
tisectis segmentis obovatis inciso-pinnatifklis laciniis acutis, pedunculis folio brevioribus solitariis 
axillaribus sublanatis, involucri scpiamis 1-1^ serialibus oblongis obtusis extus hirsutis marginibus ad 
apices late scariosis denticulatis fusco-purpureis, floribus glandulosis, floris fceminei corollis ovatis 
achaenio brevioribus, floris masculi corollis 4-fidis dentium marginibus incrassatis fuscis. 

E 2 

28 FLORA ANTARCTICA. [Auckland and 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; on banks near the sea. 

In many respects this species is intermediate between the two former, but is equally distinct from both, 
and so nearly allied to the L.scariosa, as to induce me to adopt the name of propinqua; it differs from that 
plant in its much larger size, more divided leaves and very woolly habit. The genus Leptinella appears to have 
been hitherto but little understood by botanists ; it was founded by Cassini in 1822, upon (apparently very im- 
perfect) specimens of two plants whose habitat was entirely unknown. In 1841 it was again taken up by the 
authors of ' Contributions to a Flora of South America, &c.' (vide Hook. Journ. Bot. vol. iii. p. 325), where a 
supposed new species, L. acano'ules, H. and Arn., is described. This latter is a very common plant in the ex- 
treme south of the American continent, and we have assumed it to be thei. scariosa of Cassini and DeCandolle, 
the leaves and peduncle being either smooth or hairy in that plant. There are still some characters described 
by the above-mentioned authors as belonging to that genus which my specimens do not exhibit. Thus all the 
flowers are stated in one species to be females : I do not find this to be the case ; nor should much stress be 
laid upon a peculiarity of structure, drawn from a single capitulum " dont les fleurs sont extremement petites et 
defigurees ou alterees par la desiccation et la compression" (Cassini in Diet. Sc. Nat. vol. xxvi. p. 67). In 
all the plants of the genus which I have examined, the heads of flowers are monoecious ; but the flowers of the 
disc especially, being all males, are, after the performance of their functions, easily displaced by pressure. The 
"long, straight, linear, obtuse, bracteiform leaf" (Diet. Sc. Nat. I.e.) at the base of the peduncle is also not 
apparent ; nor am I able to conceive to what organ of our plant this can apply, except a young cauline leaf, 
generally present near the peduncle, can have assumed such a form or suffered mutilation. On the other hand, 
the description of the involucral scales, covered, as are the flowers, with glands, and the characters drawn from 
those organs themselves, will, collectively, accord with no other plants that have ever fallen under my notice. 
The second described species, L. pinnata, seems hardly to differ from the L. scariosa, except indeed that the 
notice of the above-mentioned glands is under it omitted ; but Cassini further mentions the singular character 
of the female corolla being " enflee," an anomalous structure, upon which I shall here offer a few remarks. 

In all the four species of the genus with which I am acquainted, the style of the flowers of the ray is 
invested, or sheathed loosely, by a very delicate hyaline tube, marked, in several instances, by distinct slen- 
der nerves, always five in number. This tube enlarges around the swollen bulb of the style and is inserted 
underneath it into the apex of the achanium : at its summit it meets the inflated corolla, and in the form of 
a membrane or tissue completely continuous with it, they together constitute the four obtuse, inconspicuous, 
rounded lobes of the corolla. The latter organ, thus viewed, consists of two distinct membranes, united above 
and perhaps below. On first observing this structure in L. plumosa, whose flowers are not furnished with 
glands, and whose corolla is, so far as I can detect, entirely nerveless, I was inclined to consider the corolla as 
reflected upon itself, the reflected portion entirely investing and concealing the real tube : because I was unable 
to trace any intervening tissue connecting the two parietes or opposite coats, where an apparent complete va- 
cuity exists ; and especially because in some allied genera of Cotulece, and in other plants not far removed from 
the present genus, the corolla is reflected, and in a Tasmanian species as much as half-way down its whole length, 
its lower free margin being obscurely four-lobed ; and in Otochlamys, DeC, its base is produced downwards so 
as to hide a great portion of the achaenium. On the other hand, in the three species which are supplied 
with glands, it is only the outer surface of the exterior coat of the corolla which is furnished with these organs. 
Were this outer membrane the reflected limb of the corolla, the true situation of the glands would be on its 
inner surface ; but though appendages of the cuticle are not uncommon on the surface of both ligulate and tu- 
bular flowers of Composite, I am not aware of their ever existing on that surface. The oblique mouth of these 
corollas and the constantly unequal divisions at its apex, of which one is always the largest, seem to point out 
the larger tooth as being analogous to the ligula of radiate capitula, especially as one of the four teeth is often 
suppressed. Lastly, the five nerves, which are most evident in L. lanata on the inner tube, are not visible on 
the outer ; it is very difficult to trace their termination, but they do unite at the summit of the tube, forming 

Campbell's Islands.] FLORA ANTARCTICA. 29 

as many arches as there are nerves, apparently without reference to the number of teeth of the corolla, in the 
thickened substance of which they are entirely lost. Amongst the discoid groups of Senecionidea, there are many 
anomalous structures of the female corollas. Thus, in Stromjylosperma, Less., the limb of that organ is reduced 
apparently to a very short tube, completely continuous with the achaenium ; and one of the principal characters 
of SoUva, R. and Pav., consists " in the want of corolla or" (as Mr. Brown remarks) " perhaps its accretion 
with the persistent style" (vide Linn. Trans, vol. xii. p. 101). The original species, L. scariosa, Cass., was 
transmitted alive to England from Cape Horn, and is now cultivated in the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew, 
where it blossoms copiously, and as it increases rapidly and has been widely distributed, I hope that the atten- 
tion of microscopic observers will be directed to the singular structure of its flowers. Though possessed of no 
beauty, it derives an interest from being one of the most Antarctic flowering plants. 

The glands, so conspicuous in this and some of the other species , appear to be conglobate and formed of about 
four very prominent papillae, confluent at their margins; in this species and in L. scariosa they are transparent, 
but in L. lanata, after drying, they turn opake and whitish. I observed that in the fresh state they contained 
no evident secretion or essential oil, nor can they be connected in any way with the peculiar odour which several 
of the species possess, as this is inodorous or nearly so, and L. plumosa, which smells strongly, is unprovided 
with these organs. 


1. Ozothamnus (Petalolepis) Vauvilliersii, Hombr. et Jacq. ; fruticosus, foliis patenti-recurvis 
oblongo-cuneatis supra canaliculars glabris subtus ramulisque junioribus adpresse fulvo-tomentosis 
marginibus revolutis, corymbis terminalibus capitatis polycephalis ramosis, involucris turbinatis sub- 
cylindraceis squamis exterioribus araneo-tomentosis intimis radiatis scariosis albidis. — O. Vauvilliersii, 
Hombron et Jacquinot in Voy. au Pol Sud, §c. Bot. Dicot. Phanerog. pi. 5. sine descript. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's Islands ; from the sea to an altitude of 300-400 feet, very common. 
Also found on the high mountain of Tongariro, in the Northern Island of New Zealand, by Mr. 

Frutex elegans, 6-8-pedalis. Caulis erectus, validus, 1-2-pedalis, e basi ramosus, cicatricibus dilatatis 
foliorum lapsorum notatus, cortice tenui griseo tectus ; ligno albido tenaci. Rami fasciculati, stricti, erecti. 
virgati, 3-4 ped. longi, inferne cicatricosi, superne ad foliorum insertionem tuberculati, fusco-flavidi, hie illic 
pubescentes, cortice lamellato, ramulis subtomentosis. Folia undique inserta, subdecussata, patentia, recurva, 
brevissime petiolata, 4-6 lin. longa, elongato-cuneata, ad apices rotundata, coriacea, supra canaliculata, glaber- 
rima, nitida, luride viridia, subtus nervo medio valido subcarinata, dense sed appresse fulvo-tomentosa, margini- 
bus revolutis integerrimis. Corymbi terminates, capitati, compositi, pluries ramosi, polycephali, 1-1^ unc. lati, 
pedunculis pedicellisque brevibus divaricatis tomentosis. Znvolucrum sub 2-3 lin. longum, 3—4 seriale, squ".mis 
extimis brevibus subcoriaceis rubro tinctis, gradatim longioribus marginibus scariosis, intimis radiatis, ungue 
elongato erecto scarioso marginibus ciliato-serratis, lamina late ovata obtusa subpetaloidea albida margine un- 
dulata, omnia dorso plus minusve araneo-tomentosa. Reccptaadam angustum, planum, papillosum, sub 10-12- 
florum. F/ores involucro breviores, omnes tubulosi, hermaphroditi, tubo gracili elongato quinquefido, dentibus 
ovato-oblongis subacutis extus versus apices puberulis ciliatis. Antheree elongatae, inclusse, straminese, basi 
biaristatK, filamentis supra medium dilatatis. Stylus basi subincrassatus, ramis elongatis linearibus semitere- 
tibus intus canaliculars, apicibus truncatis penicillatus. Pappus 1-serialis, setis scabris inferne nudis imo basi 
subconnatis. Achcenium obconicum, sulcatum. 

30 FLORA ANTARCTICA. [Auckland and 


Subgen. Conodiscus, Hook. fil. (Capitulum homogamum,floribus omnibus hermaphroditis 5-dentatis. 
Involucri squama interiores 2-3-seriales, radiantes. Receptaculum valde conicum, elongatum, nu- 
dum, papillosum. Pappus uniserialis, setis scabris basi subconcretis. — Caules herbacei, prostrati, 
bast radiculites, divaricatim ramosi, ramis ad apices capitula solitaria gerentibus.) — An genus 
proprium ? 

1. Helichrysum prostratum, Hook. fil. ; caule decumbente ramoso, foliis (omnibus caulinis) 
obovatis v. obovato-spathulatis obtusis mucronatis supra arachnoideis subtus ramulisque dense et 
appresse argenteo-lanatis, involucri squamis interioribus radiantibus albidis scariosis lineari-ligulatis 
ad apices 2-4-dentatis. (Tab. XXI.) 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island ; confined to rocks at the tops of the hills 
in the former locality ; abundant in the more southern islands, trailing over rocks and banks near 
the sea. Also found on Mount Egmont, in the Northern Island of New Zealand, at an altitude of 
4000 feet, by Dr. Dieffenbach. 

This is a graceful and very elegant plant, in many places, and especially on the low grounds of Campbell's 
Island, covering the banks with its silvery foliage and abundance of flowers. It differs from all other species 
of the genus Helichrysum, DeC, in the prostrate straggling habit, and in the stems, which are scarcely thicker 
than a sparrow's quill, being leafy throughout their length, irregularly branched, with the branches divaricating, 
ascending at their apices, and there bearing the solitary capitula ; whereas the Australian species particularly are 
of an erect growth, those of a more herbaceous habit with larger, as it were radical leaves at the base of the 
stem. It is however the conical and elongated receptacle that removes this species so far from the 212 de- 
scribed in DeCandolle ; a character so evident, and of such importance, as almost to induce me to raise the pre- 
sent plant into a new genus. It is further to be remarked, that though the genus is extensively distributed 
throughout Australia and Tasmania, where it does not inhabit the mountains, in New Zealand it is represented 
hj the present species alone, which is confined to the most elevated mountains of the Northern Island, and only 
descends to the lower grounds in a much higher southern and more rigorous latitude. 

The leaves are rather scattered upon the stems, \-^ inch long, elliptical-obovate, produced into a short 
petiole, rather membranous in texture, silvery white from the dense appressed tomentum beneath, above pale 
green and opake, covered with scattered silky arachnoid hairs, the margins quite entire. The capitula are i-| 
of an inch across the ray, pure white or faintly tinged with rose-colour, the outer scales shorter, subulate or 
lanceolate, cobweby with a loose tomentum. Flowers of the disc very small, almost concealed by the copious 
white or pale straw-coloured pappus. Tube of the corollas 4-cleft, the segments puberulous externally towards 
the apex. Anthers biaristate at the base. 

Plate XXI. Fig. 1, receptacle and scales of the involucre; fig. 2, inner radiating scales from involucre ; 
fig. 3, a flower ; fig. 4, seta of the pappus ; fig. 5, flower with the pappus removed ; fig. 6, anther; fig. 7, styles : 
— all magnified. 



Capitula multiflora, heterogama ; floribus radii 1-3-serialibus ligulatis foemineis, disci hermaphroditis tubu- 
losis 4-5-dentatis. Involucrum depresso-hemisphwricum, sub 3-seriale, squamis imbricatis lineari-lanceolatis 
disco brevioribus. Receptaculum planum, nudum, alveolatum, dentatum. Flor. Radii. Corolla tubo terete 

Campbell's Islands.] FLORA ANTARCTICA. 31 

piloso, ligula brevissima v. elongata 3-dentata v. inaequaliter 2-3-fida v. tripartita, segmentis linearibus obtusis. 
Stylus teres, gracilis, exsertus, ramis saepe insequalibus linearibus elongatis compressis marginibus incrassatis 
glaberriniis. Pappus rigidus, pallide stramineus, (siccitate fuscus,) 2-3-serialis, multisetus, setis subasquilongis 
subpaleaceis scabris. Achanium obconico-cylindraceum, compressum, totum setosum, setis erectis appressis. 
breviter stipitatum, stipite tenui gracili alveolo iramerso. Fl. Disci numerosi. Corolla infundibuliformis, 
tubo terete piloso, limbo 4-5-fido, segmentis elongato-ovatis obtusis revolutis marginibus incrassatis. Antherce 
5, cohserentes, inclusae, basi obtuse et brevissime appendiculata?. Pollen echinulatum. Stylus cylindraceus, 
ramis exsertis linearibus divergentibus, marginibus incrassatis, apicibus latiusculis conicis acutis extus (dorso 
convexo) marginibusque papillosis. Pappus ut in fl. radii. Achctnium obconico-elongatum, subtetragonum, 
setosum et stipitatum ut in fl. radii. — Herbse elatce, pulcherrime argenteo-sericece.fere ut in Argyroxyphio, hie illic 
lanatce. Folia alterna, basi subvaginantia ; radicalia maxima. Flores racemosi, purpura. Pappus rigidus, copio- 
sus, fioribus disci longior. — Nomen ; irXevpov, costa, and fvWav, folium. 

§ 1. Radiatum ; radii corollis elongatis minute tridentutis. (Pleurophyllum verum.) 

1. Pleurophyllum speciosum, Hook. fil. ; foliis villoso-lanatis, caule superne praecipue pedun- 
culisque dense albo-tomentosis, capitulis radiatis radiis elongatis, receptaculo convexiusculo margi- 
nibus alveolarum crassis carnosis. (Tab. XXII. & XXIII.) 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island ; chiefly found upon wet banks and in 
marshes near the sea, but also ascending to the tops of the mountains in a stunted form. 

Radix fusiformis, crassa, carnosa. Caulis elongatus, 2-3-pedalis, erectus, simplex, teres, v. obscure angu- 
latus inferne crassus, carnosus, solidus, dense albo-tomentosus, tomento e pilis simplicibus inarticulatis inferne 
demum deciduo. Folia omnia coriacea et subcarnosa, mi ltinervia, nervis parallelis, integerrimis, villosis, sub- 
sericeis, et pilis fuscis brevibus rigidis moniliformibus subscabrida : radicalia approximata, ovalia, apice obtusa, 
patentia, subpedalia, 6-8 uncias lata, fusco-viridia, basi villosissima, margine obtusa subrevoluta, subtus pal- 
lidiora ; superiora seu caulina gradatim minora ; suprema lanceolata obtusa. Kacemus terminalis, elongatus, 
foliosus ; folia (seu bracteae) inferiora flores superantia. Pedunculi crassi, densissime albo-lanati, inferiores in- 
terdum compositi 3-4 flores ; superiores simplices, patentes, sub-unciam longi. Capitula majuscula, sub 2 unc. 
lata, speciosa, pulcherrime purpurea, disco intensiore. Involucrum piano hemisphaericum, bi-triseriale ; squamis 
lanceolatis obtusis imbricatis, exterioribus albo-lanatis, interioribus pilosis, 4-6 lin. longis discum subaequantibus. 
Receptuculum paululum convexum, epaleaceum, alveolatum, alveolarum marginibus (seu parietibus) crassiusculis 
undulatis. Flores Radii elongati, uniseriales, ligulati, circiter 15 ; ligula lineari, \ unc. longa, patente, ob- 
scure 3-dentata ; tubo brevissimo patentim piloso, pilis inollibus laxis pellucidis articulatis. Stylus cylin- 
draceus bifidus, ramis lineari-oblongis obtusis purpureis planiusculis marginibus incrassatis. Achcenium sub 
2 lin. longum. Flokes Disci circiter 60, intensius purpurei, tubulosi, infundibuliformes ; tubo piloso, pilis ut in 
fl. rad., 5-fido et segmentis recurvis apicibus extus glabris. Antherce Havre. Stylus ramis exsertis. 

An extremely handsome mid showy species with copious large purple flowers, stems 2-3 feet high, and 
ample radical leaves, resembling those of Plantago major, L., but very much larger, strongly ribbed with pro- 
minent stout parallel nerves. 

Plates XXII. & XXIII. Fig. 1, receptacle ; fig. 2, setse of the pappus ; fig. 3, a flower of the ray ; fig. 4, 
tube and style of do., showing the hairs on the tube of the former ; fig. 5, front view, and fig. 6, lateral view of the 
achaenium of a flower of the ray ; fig. 7, a flower of the disc ; fig. 8, corolla from the same ; fig. 9, a stamen from 
do. ; fig. 10, styles from the same : — all magnified. 

32 FLORA ANTARCTICA. [Auckland and 

§ 2. Discoideum; radii corollis abbreviatis, bifidis trifidis v. tripartitis. (Pachythrix, Hook.fil.) 

2. Pleurophyllum criniferum, Hook.fil.; caule toto dense albo-lanato, capitulis globosis, 
subdiscoideis ligulis brevissimis, receptaculo planiusculo alveolato, alveolarum marginibus submem- 
branaceis dentatis. (Tab. XXIV. & XXV.) 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island ; generally in marshy places from the sea 
to an elevation of 1000 feet, abundant. M e Quarrie's Island. [Herb. Hook.) 

Radix crassa, carnosa, subfusiformis, descendens, nigro-fusca, collo fibris crassis elongatis rigidis crispato- 
tortuosis fuscis sublignosis (reliquiis foliorum) coronata. Caulis elatus, erectus, crassus, simplex, v. rarius inferne 
parce ramosus, 4-6-pedalis, basi unciam diametro, carnosus. Folia inferiora approximata, multinervia, plicata, 
subtus praecipue valde sericea, basi longe sericeo-villosa, nervis crassis subtus prominentibus fuscis ; marginibus 
minute spinuloso-serratis : radicalia maxima, concava, ovalia, obtusa, saepe bipedalia, pedem fere lata, basi 
attenuata amplexicaulia ; superiora sensim minora, angustiora, apice acuminata, basi magis attenuata : suprema 
fere subulata, in bracteis transeuntia. Capitula in racemum spithameum et ultra disposita, nutantia, majus- 
cula, subglobosa, unciam lata, pedicellata, pedicellis subuncialibus curvatis teretibus rachique dense sericeo- 
lanatis. Involucri squamae lanceolatae v. subulatae longissime subaristato-acuminatae, crassa? et coriaceae, dorso 
pilosae, medio uninerves, marginibus scariosis argute ciliato-serratis, apicibus fuscis. Pappus rigidus, subpale- 
aceus v. nitidus, recens flavidus, siccitate fuscus apicibus opacis. Fl. Radii sub 3-seriales, ligulati, tubo brevi 
terete curvato piloso pilis patentibus mollibus laxis moniliformibus ; ligula late ovata, brevissima, tubo subaequi- 
longa, 4-nervis, 3-dentata, v. inaequaliter 2-3-fida, v. tripartita, segmentis linearibus obtusis, marginibus in- 
crassatis, luride purpurascens. 

A very common and striking plant, often covering a great extent of ground, and forming the larger pro- 
portion of the food of the hogs which now run wild upon the islands of Lord Auckland's group. It is 
indeed so abundant in the marshy spots on the latter islands that these animals frequently live entirely amongst it, 
especially when it grows near the margins of the woods, where they form broad tracks or runs through the 
patches, grubbing up the roots to a great extent, and by trampling down the soft stems and leaves use them as 
soft and warm forms to litter in. The leaves are exceedingly handsome, generally two feet long and one or a 
little more in breadth, from their concavity holding a considerable quantity of the rain-water or melted snow 
which so frequently falls in those latitudes ; in substance they are coriaceous, but not nearly so much so as 
in the preceding species, and they are more copiously silky. A full-grown leaf is generally traversed by 30-40 
parallel strong nerves, very prominent on the under surface and then dark-coloured and nearly glabrous, 
depressed on the upper with longer silky hairs. The intervening parenchymatous substance is traversed by 
numerous slender anastomosing veins, beneath densely clothed with a white appressed cottony wool, and 
above silky with scattered subarachnoid hairs. The hairs and woolly substance which clothe all the stems, leaves 
and pedicels of the capitula are formed of simple terete transparent matted filaments. I do not find amongst 
them any of the short rigid beaded setae which are intermixed with the softer hairs of the P. speciosum. The 
capitula are 15-20 in number ; the lower ones only bracteate with the uppermost leaves, the terminal generally 
having a smaller elongate subulate nearly glabrous green bract. The intermediate ones are the most densely 
silky on both sides, often so much so as entirely to hide the nerves ; in these, too, the curious but minutely 
spinuloso-serrate character of the margin is most easily detected ; the apices of the serratures are callous and 
glabrous, almost entirely hid amongst the silky tomentum. 

Though this plant is nearly allied to the former species (P. speciosum), and agrees with it in all the most 
important characters, they materially differ in the more outward points of resemblance. Indeed I only know 
one genus to which the present plant bears any marked similarity in general habit and appearance, and that is 
the ArgyroxypMum, DeC. (Prodr. vol. v. p. G68 ; Hook. Ic. Plant, vol. i. p. 75). The mode of growth of these 

Campbell's Islands.'] FLORA ANTARCTICA. 33 

two plants is the same, and both are natives of Pacific Islands, abounding in peculiarly inclement localities ; 
the present being an inhabitant of the Antarctic regions, while the Argyroxyphium is found only on the sum- 
mits of the highest mountains on the Sandwich Islands. Mr. Douglas brought it from the volcano of Mouna 
Kaah, which reaches an altitude of 18,400 feet, -where it was one of the last plants he met with, and he used 
its dead stems for fuel. In the clothing and substance (as far as can be judged from dry specimens) of the 
stem, in the disposition of the inflorescence and form of the involucral scales, and in the short ligula? of the 
flowers of the ray, these plants entirely accord : and the lower leaves of the latter, though uniform in size and 
shape with the upper, and having the margins quite entire, are always clothed with a similar but more beautiful 
and dense silky coat of hairs. On a further examination of the form of the corollas and acha?nia the analogy 
ceases. It must not however be overlooked, that the pappus of P/europhyllutn, though composed of setae (and 
not of short palea?), is of a peculiarly harsh and rigid texture, with each seta flattened and scabrid on the opposite 
margins, quite unlike the soft character that organ assumes in most Composite, both showing its affinity to other 
Asteroidete, and some approach to the short rigid palese of the Sandwich Island plant. Although the Argyro- 
xyphium is placed by DeCandolle in Senecionidca , its styles appear to me to differ in no important particular from 
those of the PleurophyUum and of other large Asteroid genera. In both these, the styles of the flowers of the 
ray are always longer than those of the disc, with the arms also longer, linear, obtuse and flattened, erect or 
diverging in most of the tribe, divaricated and inclined to become revolute in ArgyroxypMum ; they are invariably 
quite smooth throughout, and surrounded with a thickened darker-coloured border (the stigmatic series), those 
of the corresponding side of each arm meeting at the base. In the flowers of the disc they are shorter, equally 
bordered with a thick conspicuous margin, abruptly ceasing at the commencement of a conical, acute, rather 
broader apex, which is plane and smooth, or most indistinctly glandular, on the inner surface, but with the 
margins and convex back densely studded with elongated papilla; or glands (the pollen collectors) ; these 
papilla?, except under a very high power, appear as hairs : the arms have further a strong opake central nerve 
in each, meeting and uniting at the base. In Argyroxyphium the conical apices are very short and studded with 
long papilla?, whence they appear abrupt, and each of the arms is split into two parallel lamina?, between which 
a knife is easily inserted, when the midrib is seen remaining on the inner of the two lamellae, and the stigmatic 
series on the outer. I do not think that in a natural system the two genera now under consideration should 
be far separated from one another, or from the following genus Celmisia, Cass. 

Though generally so very bulky a plant, that an ordinary specimen of the PL criniferum weighs many pounds, 
I have seen it so dwarfish upon the mountains as barely to exceed a span in height, with all the leaves lanceolate, 
more densely silky, and thus even more nearly resembling Argyroxyphium than it does in its ordinary state. 
The masses of curly fibres, which may be taken up in handfulls from the summit of the roots of a common-sized 
plant, form a very remarkable character. 

Plates XXIV. & XXV. Fig. 1 , receptacle and portion of involucre with flower of ray and disc in situ ; fig. 2, 
single scale of the involucre ; fig. 3, alveola? of the receptacle ; fig. 4, seta? of the pappus ; fig. 5, a corolla 
with the ligula 3-partite ; fig. C, a flower of the ray with the ligula 3-toothed ; fig. 7, style from the same ; fig. 8, 
front, and Jig. 9, lateral view of the acha?nium ; fig. 10, flower of the disc ; fig. 11, corolla of do. ; fig. 12, stamen, 
and fig. 13, style from do. : — all magnified. 

7. CELMISIA, Cass. 

Capitulum multiflorum, heterogamum ; fioribits radii 1-serialibus, ligulatis, foemineis; disci numerosis, tubu- 
losis, hermaphroditis, 5-dentatis. Involucrum campanulatum, v. depresso-hemispha?ricum, pluriseriale, squamis 
elongatis ina?qualibus disco paulo longioribus v. suba?quilongis. Receptaculum nudum aut alveolatum, epalea- 
ceum, latiusculum, plus minusve convexum. Flor. Radii. Corolla tubo elongato terete glaberrimo v. piloso pilis 
articulatis ; ligula lineari, patente, interdum revoluta, apice subintegra v. 3-dentata, albida, sa?pius roseo suffusa. 
Stylus teres, gracilis, exsertus, ramis linearibus plus minusve elongatis obtusis v. subacutis, marginibus valde 
VOL. I. F 

34 FLORA ANTARCTICA. [Auckland and 

incrassatis ltevibus glaberrimis. Pappus rigidus, multisetosus, sub-biserialis, rufus, v. pallide stramineus, setis 
subpaleaceis ina?qualibus scabris v. barbellatis. Acha/iium elongato-obconicum v. oblongo-cylindraceum, basi 
attenuatum, estipitatum, nudum, pilosum, v. setis appressis hispidum. Flor. Disci. Corolla tubulosa, plus mi- 
nusve elongata et infundibuliformis, tubo terete glabra v. piloso ut in fl. radii, limbo 5-fido, segmentis patenti- 
revolutis obtusis, marginibus incrassatis, apicibus extus glabris v. barbatis. Anthers cohaerentes, basi inteo-er- 
rimse, ecaudata;, rarius breviter biaristats, v. in appendices abbreviatas productse. Pollen globosum, ecbinulatum, 
luteum. Stylus teres, elongatus, ramis brevioribus quam in floribus radii, primum linearibus marginibus incras- 
satis glaberrimis, deinde sublatioribus in conum brevem v. elongatum intus planum nudum dorso convexo mar- 
ginibusque papillosis productis, papillis interdum elougatis. Pappus tubo subsequilongus et achanium ut in 
floribus radii. — Herbre speciostE Australasica, et insularum Tasmania, Novce Ze/andia et Antarctica/rum incola, 
albido-lanata sen sericea, rarius glaberrimte. Folia pleraque radicalia, lanceo/ata v. linearia, rarius oblonga. 
Caules sen Scapi erecti, foliosi, apice capitulum solitarium gerentes. 

Subgen. Ionopsis, Hook. fil. (non H.B.K. nee DeCand.) Involucri squama lineares oblusce. 
Receptaculum convexum, subhemispfuericutn. Flores disci intense purpura,. — Herba tota glaber- 
rima, nitens, quasi vernicosa seu polita. 

1. Celmisia vernicosa, Hook. fil. ; acaulis, subsurculosa, foliis raclicalibus nurnerosissimis stel- 
latim-patentibus linearibus acutis mucronatis coriaceis remote subserratis rigidis glaberrimis verni- 
cosis marginibus revolutis, costa subtus latissima, scapo foliaceo vaginato, capituli disco purpureo, 
styli florum disci ramis acutis. (Tab. XXVI. & XXVII.) 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; on banks and rocky places near the tops of the hills, alt. 1200 
feet, and near the sea on the exposed islets. Campbell's Island ; abundant in the immediate neigh- 
bourhood of the sea. 

Radix subfusiformis, elongata, obliqua, hie illic fibrosa, superne punctis elevatis copiosis cicatricata ; collo 
rigide setoso e reliquiis foliorum emortuorum, et non raro surculoso ; surculis (an scapis abortivis ?) ramos simu- 
lantibus simplicibus 2 uncias ad spithama?um longis fibrosis foliis superioribus majoribus. Folia radicalia, nume- 
rosissima, lwte viridia, imbricata, plerumque horizontaliter et stellatim patentia, unciam ad 3-4 uncias longa, 
1-3 lineas lata, linearia, seulineari-subulata, coriacea, rigida, mucronato-acuta, integerrima v. remote et obscure 
serrata, glaberrima, nitida, quasi vernicosa, margine revoluta, basi dilatata membranacea, superne ad costam 
linea depressa, subtus costa latissima prominente. Scapi radicales, 1-10-13, adscendentes, demum erecti, spitha- 
msei fere ad pedalem, foliosi, foliis (v. bracteis foliaceis) approximatis lineari-lanceolatis acutis basi vagiuantibus 
subsucculentis apicibus rigidis vernicosis. Capitulum solitarium, erectum, majusculum, unciam ad sesqui-unciam 
latum, radiatum, roseo-album, disco intense purpureo. Involucrum plano-hemisphsericum, e squamis s. foliolis 
biserialibus linearibus obtusiusculis coriaceo-membranaceis rigidis nitidis linea dors,ali notatis, marginibus sub- 
ciliatis viridibus apice purpureis, 4—5 lineas longis. Flores radii sub-20, fceminei ; ligula lineari- oblonga, 
4-nervis, revoluta, apice obscure 2-3-dentata, tubo brevi hirsuto, pilis articulatis. Styli rami lineares, brevius- 
culi, obtusi, albidi, eglandulosi. Achanium (vix maturum) obconicum, sericeo-setosum. Pappus e setis rigidis 
subpaleaceis pilosis uniserialibus. Flores disci numerosi, compacti, hermaphroditi. Achcenium et pappus ut in 
floribus radii. Corolla tubulosa, infundibuliformis, superne ventricosa, teres, 5-fida, segmentis apice reflexis, 
tubo hirto, pilis ut in floribus radii. Antherce 5, in tubum connata?, lineari-oblonga 1 , flava?, basi breviter bisetosa?, 
inclusa?. Styli rami exserti, breviusculi, purpurei, dilatati, compressi, piano- convexi, acuti, ad apicem dorso 
margimbusque glanduloso-stigmatosi, intus nudi. Receptaculum parvum, nudum, cenvexum, depresso-punc- 
tatum, epaleaceum. 

This is a very handsome plant, to which even the beautiful drawing now prepared for publication hardly 
does justice, one of the specimens gathered on Campbell's Island measuring nearly a span across the leaves. 

Campbell's Islands.] FLORA ANTARCTICA. 35 

from whose bases arose no fewer than thirteen flowering scapes, ten of them with the blossoms fully expanded. 
The delicacy of the rays, tipped with a faint rose-colour, forms a striking contrast with the dark purple eye and 
the glossy varnished deep green foliage. Like many other Antarctic plants, it varies considerably in size, some 
of our specimens being scarcely an inch and a half across the leaves, which lie densely compacted and all hori- 
zontally patent, radiating from the summit of the root like the spokes of a wheel, of a very coriaceous texture, 
singularly smooth and shining like the surface of a shell, or as if covered with a thick coat of copal varnish : 
their apices in the smaller specimens are incrassated or the leaves are clubbed at the apex, from the union of 
the thick costa with the equally incrassated margins. This thickening extends to the bractese or leaves on the 
scapes and even to the scales of the involucre ; when dry they are of a rich but pale yellow-brown colour. 

The genus Celmisia, as modified above, will contain several species very closely allied in habit, and all 
bearing a much greater similarity to the original Australian C. longifolia, A. C, than the C. vernicosa does. 
Upon the closest examination, I can detect no characters of sufficient importance to warrant any further subdi- 
vision of the following species, which I shall therefore include under the name of Eucelmisia, considering them 
as typical of the genus, near to which the above -described species should assuredly rank. 

I shall here, in a note, subjoin the characters of the other species, and proceed with some remarks upon 

* Synopsis of the species of Celmisia known to the Author. 


§ I. Eucelmisia. 
1 . Species Australasica. 

1. C. longifolia, Cass.; foliis linearibus utrinque argenteo-lanatis scapo lanuginoso subsequilongis, pappo 
rufo, achaeniis glaberrimis, stylorum apicibus breviusculis obtusis. 

a. foliis explanatis, scapo folioso. — Hab. Jamieson's Valley, Port Jackson ; Gaudichaud. 

/3. foliorum marginibus revolutis, scapo nudiusculo. — Hab. Blue Mountains ; Cunningham. 

2. C. spathulata, A. C. ; " foliis elliptico-oblongis in petiolum longe attenuatis utrinque glabris." — DeC. 
Hab. Oyster Harbour, King George's Sound ; A. Cunningham. 

3. C. asteliafolia, MSS. ; foliis elliptico- v. lineari-lanceolatis, supra argenteo-lanatis subtus dense sericeo- 
tomentosis marginibus revolias, scapis folio subduplo longioribus parce foliosis, achaeniis pilosis, antheris basi 
breviter biaristatis, stylorum apicibus ut in C longifolia. 

Hab. Mount Wellington and other lofty mountains of Tasmania ; Frazer and Gunn. 

2. Species Nova Zelandia. 

4. C. gracilenta, Hook, fih Aster gracilentus, Banks and Sol. MSS. ; foliis scapisque ut in C. asteliafolia, 
achaeniis glaberrimis, styli ramis longe productis gradatim acuminatis, papillis filiformibus elongatis. 

Hab. New Zealand, Northern Island; Banks and Solander. Great Barriere Island on the East coast; 
Dr. Sinclair. Lofty mountains of Waikato Lake ; Colenso, Bidwill. Mount Egmont ; Dr. Dieffenbach. 

5. C. graminifolia , Hook. fil. ; foliis lanceolatis v. lineari-lanceolatis subflaccidis, supra glaberrimis, subtus 
appresse argenteo-lanatis, acuminatis, scapis 2-3 foliis brevioribus, stylis ut in C. gracilenta. 

Hab. Bay of Islands, New Zealand. 

6. C. spectabilis. Hook. fil. ; foliis oblongo-lanceolatis integerrimis valde coriaceis basi vaginantibus longis- 

F 2 

36 FLORA ANTARCTICA. [Auckland and 

C. longifolia (1.). This is the original species, whereon the genus was founded by Cassini ; the specimens 
having been brought home by Gaudichaud from the voyage of Admiral Freycinet, and described in ' Diet. Sc. 
Nat.' vol. xxxvii. p. 259. DeCandolle considers Cunningham's Blue Mountain species (Arctotis gnaphalodes, 
Cunn. MS. in Herb. Hook.) as identical with this. Our specimens differ from Gaudichaud's figure only by 
having the leaves much narrower, with their margins revolute and the scapes far less leafy upwards. The 
achsenia are constantly glabrous, the pappus pale reddish, and the papillose part of the arms of the style is as long 
as the linear and glabrous portion. Of the C. spathulata (2.), A. C. MSS., we have no specimens ; in its gla- 
brous foliage it differs from all but C. vernicosa. A third species is founded on a Tasmanian plant not rare on the 
summit of Mount Wellington, where it forms large matted patches. The first specimens I had seen were ga- 
thered there by Mr. Frazer, and more latterly by myself and Mr. Gunn, who detected it in other mountainous 
parts of the colony. I have called it C. asteliafolia (3.), from the great similarity it bears in foliage, general 
aspect and habitat to Aste/ia alpina, Br. The leaves are extremely variable in breadth and in the degree of re- 
curving in their margins ; they are often very like those of C. longifolia, but never exceed a span in length. The 
scapes too are longer, less leafy, and the flowers larger than in that species ; the hairy achsenia also afford a 
constant character. The flowers of the ray are pink, the pappus yellow. The above three species are Austra- 
lian. Those found in New Zealand are C. gracilenta (4.), a plant so very near, even in the variable form 
of its leaves, to C. longifolia, that it was not till I had examined the styles that I could detect any differ- 
ence ; the conical papillose portion of these being much produced, gradually acuminated, and three times the 
length of the lower part of the arms, with the papilla; almost filiform. From C. astelitefolia it differs in having 
a glabrous achsenium, which is much longer than in any of the former species. Nearly allied to this is the 
C. graminifolia (5.), mainly distinguished from the former by its foliage. Decidedly the finest species are 
the three following, two of them originally discovered and described by Forster ; the first is C. spectabilis (6.), 
of which I possess a specimen from Mr, Bidwill. Though hardly exceeding a span in length, including the 
scape, the base of the stem, while covered with the sheathing leaves, is fully an inch in diameter, and densely 
clothed with long, beautifully silky wool. The leaves are broad and remarkably coriaceous, their upper surface, 
in the dried state, minutely striated with anastomosing lines, and the under densely clothed with buff-coloured 
appressed tomentura. The scape is stout, loosely covered with shaggy white wool, and producing a large, solitary, 
apparently white flower, an inch and a half broad. The achaenia are elongated, all of them glabrous ; the tubes 
of the corolla, especially of the ray, have long, straight, pellucid, scattered, distantly jointed, and very slender 
hairs. Pappus yellow, rigid ; the outer setae, as in the other species of the genus, short, the rest gradually length- 
ening. Ligules of the flowers of the ray linear, abruptly truncated, with three large teeth and four nerves. Anthers 
shortly biaristate at the base ; styles with the arms rather elongated, the conical papillose portion of those of 
the disc short and rather obtuse. Forster's first species, C. holosericea (Aster, Forst.), has been found, I be- 
lieve, by that botanist alone : his specimens exist in the British Museum, accompanied by his fine drawing of 

sime sericeo-lanatis supra glabris subtus tomento fulvo appresso densissime obtectis, achaeniis glaberrimis, tubo 
corolla? piloso, antheris breviter biaristatis. 

Hab. Northern Island ; Tongariro ; Mr. Bidwill. 

7. C. holosericea, Hook. fil. (Aster holosericeus, Forst. Prodr. n. 296); " herbaceus, foliis oblongo-lanceo- 
latis serratis, subtus argenteo-sericeis, scapis unifloris foliosis." — Forst. I. c. 

Hab. Dusky Bay ; G. Forster. 

8. C. coriacea, Hook. fil. (Aster coriaceus, Forst. Prodr. n. 297) ; foliis oblongo-lanceolatis valde coriaceis 
supra medio sulcatis glabris subtus villosis, achamiis pilosis, pappo rufo. 

Hab. Dusky Bay ; G. Forster. 

Campbell's Islands.] FLORA ANTARCTICA. 37 

both the present and the last species. Richard (Flora Nova? Zelandia?, p. 249) described it from other and 
less perfect individuals, aided by Forster's MS. in the Museum of the Jardin des Plantes at Paris. He how- 
ever does not notice its affinity to Celmisia, and considers the C. coriacea as probably a variety of it, though 
Forster's figures essentially differ in general appearance, and other characters are found in the parts of the 
inflorescence of no less importance, the achamia described by Richard being "silky and stipitate" (attenuated?) 
at the base. Mr. Cunningham, in his ' Prodr. Flor. Nov. Zeland.,' first noticed the probable relation existing 
between these last two species and Celmisia (Cass.). The scales of the involucre in all the New Zealand spe- 
cies, except C. vernicosa, are narrow and almost subulate, becoming recurved and finally squarrose in the older 
capitula ; this is, however, a variable character. 

I may here mention another little-known New Zealand plant, originally discovered by Forster, and called 
by him Arnica oporina (Forst. Prodr. n. 290) ; it is nearly allied both to these and the former genus Pleuro- 
phyllum. I have carefully examined specimens from Dusky Bay, gathered by Mr. Menzies, and others from 
Chatham Island, received from Dr. Dieffenbach. The achaenia are ribbed and hairy, the pappus rigid, rather 
scanty, pale-coloured, scabrous, and of very unequal seta?. The tubes of the corollas in the ray are glabrous, in 
those of the disc slightly hairy. In both flowers the arms of the style precisely resemble those of Celmisia and are 
very long, those of the disc with short papillose extremities. A comparison of this plant with the genus Chiliotri- 
chum of Cassini, (published in DeCandolle's Prodromus, vol. vi. p. 216, and Hooker's Icones Plantarum, vol. v. 
t. 485) does not enable me to detect any generic distinction : the arms of the style in the flowers of the ray 
are indeed rather longer in the latter and slightly attenuated upwards, and the achaenia are glandular and not 
hairy. Both approach very closely the genus Eurybia, Cass., or Olearia, Mcench. 

Plate XXVI. & XXVII. Fig. 1, involucre cut open, showing the hemispherical receptacle with a flower 
of the disc and of the ray ; fig. 2, a flower of the ray ; fig. 3, seta? of the pappus ; fig. 4, tube of the ligulate 
flower ; fig. 5, style from do. ; fig. 6, flower of the disc ; fig. 7, corolla from do. ; fig. 8, anther from the same ; 
fig. 9, styles from the same : — all magnified. 

Dubii generis. 

Amongst the plants collected in Lord Auckland's group, are two apparently belonging to the natural order 
Composite, but which, in the absence of flower or fruit, I am unable to place under any genus. One of these 
may belong to Gnaphalium, but is quite different from any New Zealand or other species which has come under 
my notice. The only specimen of it which I possess was gathered by Mr. Lyall, and consists of apparently a 
few radical leaves, or probably of a young plant whose stems are not yet produced upwards. 

1. Gnaphalium ? radice lignoso, caule breviusculo 2-3 unc. longo adscendente e basi ramoso 
folioso, foliis confertis patulis obovato-lanceolatis subspathulatis obtusis integerrimis planis medio 
obscure uninerviis utrinque lana laxa molli albida vestitis f-1 unc. longis 4-5 lin. latis. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group; on the sea-beach, D. Lyall, Esq. 

The woolly substance which entirely clothes the leaves and stem of this plant is formed of simple, terete, 
transparent, matted filaments, similar to that of Gnaphalium luteo-album, L., to some states of which this bears 
a good deal of resemblance. It may with equal probability be referred to a species of Heliehrysnm, and except 
that the apices of the leaves are not apiculate or mucronate, it has much the appearance of young plants of 
H. apiculatum, Lab. 

The other plant, if I am right in referring it, as I do with little hesitation, to Composite, forms one of the 
most handsome shrubs or low trees belonging to that natural order. It was also detected by Mr. Lyall, from 
whose specimens I shall here give a short description : — 

Subarborea, ramis ultimis lignosis teretibus striatis v. canaliculars vaiidis, | unc. diametro. 

38 FLORA ANTARCTICA. [Auckland and 

cortice tenaci e fibris crassis parallelis tomento denso albido adpresso vestito, foliis alternis petiolatis 
amplis 8 pollicares ad pedalem longis late elliptico-ovatis acutis v. acuminatis crenato-dentatis valde 
coriaceis supra (costa basi excepta) glaberrimis laete viridibus nervis reticulatis subtus tomento 
appresso dense lanatis, venis prominulis, junioribus ad apices ramulorum convolutis lanatis basique 
dense argenteo-sericeis pilis longioribus, petiolo valido ~ unc. longo basi dilatato semiamplexicauli 
tomentoso § unc. longo. — Caetera ignota. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; Ewing Island, a small islet at the mouth of Rendezvous Har- 
bour, D. Lyall, Esq. 

Of this plant Mr. Lyall remarks, " A short stout trunk rises a few inches above the ground, and then sends 
off horizontally patent branches, which radiate as from a common centre for 10 or 12 feet on all sides, a little 
above the surface of the earth. The leafy apices then ascend. The leaves are of a dark green colour, which 
they lose in drying." A piece of the wood which accompanied the specimen is about 1| inch in diameter ; 
the bark of a light grey colour, rather thin and soft, deeply grooved on the surface, the grooves corresponding 
to sinuous, anastomosing, longitudinal ridges, enclosing elongated, somewhat lozenge- shaped spaces ; the wood 
is whitish or pale yellow, hard, tough and close-grained, the layers indistinct, and the medullary rays nume- 
rous and very slender ; it resembles the stem of some shrubby species of Ozothamnus. This fine plant is most 
remarkable for the size and thick coriaceous texture of the leaves, which are in many respects similar to those 
of the genus Brachyglottis, Forst. I have seen nothing like it in the collections of Banks and Solander, 
Forster or Menzies. It is a rare plant in the islands now under consideration, and will probably be found to be 
a native of the southern extremity of New Zealand. 



Flores monoici v. dioici. Calyx basi bibracteolatus, limbo 3-G-partito, segmentis erectis. Corolla tubu- 
loso-campanulata, tubo brevi v. elongato, limbo 4-9-partito, segmentis inajqualibus, sestivatione imbricatis, 1-2 
ext. majoribus, patulis concavis, fauce nuda v. glanduloso-incrassata. Glandulce epigynts 2, opposite, semi- 
lunares, staminibus alternre. Anthera ad apicem columnar opposite, divaricate, reniformes, spurie biloculares, 
rima transversali dehiscentes, valvula superiore majore fornicata. Pollen 3-5-angulatum. Stylus intra colum- 
nam occlusus. Stigma (v. apex styli) minimum, 2-lobum (an 4-lobum ?), ramis floribus fertilibus porrectis, 
superne villosis v. subplumosis. Ovarium obovatum, carnosum, uniloculare, rarius biloculare, multiovulatum, 
ovulis columnar centrali f uniculis brevibus adnexis, ascendentibus. Capsula ovalis, unilocularis. — Yierhx parvx, 
perennes, glabra, coriaceo-.:arnos(P, antarcticte seu montibus altisshnis Nova Zelandia provenientes. Folia imbricata. 
Flores in summos ramos sessiles, v. pedunculos elongates solitarii v. bini. — Endl. 

^ Helophyllum, Hook, til.; floribus sessilibus solitariis, culycis limbo 5-6-parlilo, lobis aquu- 
libus,foliorum apicibus nodoso-incrassatis. 

1. Forster a clavigera, Hook. fil. ; densissime et compacte crespitosa, caulibus erectis parce 
ramosis, foliis arete imbricatis semiteretibus apicibus nodoso-incrassatis, floribus terminalibus sessi- 
libus solitariis. (Tab. XXVIII.) 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island; on the mountains in turfy and boggy 
places, very common. 

Caules erecti, stricti, parce ramosi, densissime compacti, cespites firmos fragiles formantes, per totam lon- 
gitudinem foliosi, hinc illinc axillis foliorum radices fibrosas emittentes, fibris validis elongatis fuscis horizon- 
taliter patentibus carnosis simpliciusculis, et deorsum in radices subsimiles gradatim attenuate, 1^—2 polli- 

Campbell's Islands.] FLORA ANTARCTICA. 39 

cares, una cum foliis diametro i pollicis. Folia undique inserta, creberrime imbricata, nurnerosissima, stricta, 
erecto-patentia, linearia, obtusa, glaberriina, basi dilatata subvaginantia, marginibus tenuiter raembranacea, 
medio subcontracta, dorso teretia, antice anguste plana vel canaliculata, ad apices globoso-incrassata, coriacea, 
crassa, dura, viridia, nirida, 2|-3 lin. longa; adulta inferne turgida, subampullacea, fusco-brunnea, suberosa, 
laxius imbricata. Flores ad apices ramulorum omnino sessiles, inter folia occlusi, limbo corolla; solummodo exserto, 
verosimiliter monoici, v. potius hermaphroditi. Calycis tubus brevis, turbinatus, v. floribus masculis obconicus, 
basi bibracteolatus ; limbus 5-6-partitus, lobis linearibus obtusis erectis carnosis semiteretibus medio uninerviis. 
dorso infra apices pilosis, tubo corollas sequilongis ; bracteolae oppositae, segmentis calycinis simillimse, basi 
remotac. Corolla campanulata, albida ; tubus latus, brevis, teres ; limbus sub-bilabiatus, nempe inaequaliter 5-9- 
partitus, segmento unico v. duobus caeteris majoribus, rarius 4-partitus, segmento unico maximo 2-nervi, omnibus 
obovatis obtusis concavis planis v. ad faucem biglandulosis sinubusque incrassatis. Glandulte epigynce 2, oppo- 
sitse, semilunares, columnar basin fere cingentes, crassae et earnosae, virides, antberis alternae. Columna valida, 
erecta, ante anthesin protrusa, recta v. paululum inclinata, teres, superne incrassata. Anthera 2, ad apicem 
columnar sessiles, transversa;, majusculac, reniformes, v. potius hypocrepiformes, divaricatae, 1-loculares, connec- 
tive carnoso in loculum porrecto costam elevatam formante, hinc spurie biloculares, linea curvata homotropa 
horizontaliter dehiscentes, valvis subcarnosis cellulosis purpureis ina?qualibus, superiore majore fornicato sub- 
erecto post antbesin revoluto, inferiore horizontaliter porrecto marginibus lateralibus revolutis. Pollen opacum, 
3-4-angulatum, flavo-viride, minutissime granulatum, angulis globoso-incrassatis, margine hyalino cinctum. 
Stylus floribus abortivis intra antheras occlusus, parvus, angustus, inconspicuus, convexus, v. brevissime bilobus ; 
floribus fertilibus bilobus, lobis porrectis divaricatis antheris alteruis uncinatis carnosis sursum glanduloso-plu- 
mosis. Ovarium flore masculo angulatum, pedicellum breve crassum simulans ; flore fertili late obovatum, v. 
turbinatum, teres, carnosum, 1- rarius 2-loculare, cc ovulatum ; ovulis parvis ascendentibus. Capsula immatura 
coriaceo-caraosa, 1-locularis. Semina semi-matura 6-8, obovata, ascendentia ; testa membranacea, pallide 
brunnea ; albumine carnoso. Embryo non visa. 

Though abundant upon the hills of Lord Auckland and Campbell's Islands, this plant has not hitherto been 
brought from any part of New Zealand, neither from the mountains of the Northern Island, whence Mr. Bidwill 
and Mr. Colenso have sent home several of the more common Antarctic species, nor in the southern parts of that 
group, so well explored by Forster and Menzies. In general habit and appearance it bears a greater similarity 
to the Phyllachne uliginosa, Forst., than to its New Zealand congener, Forstera sedoides, L., although in the 
more essential characters it is much more nearly allied to the latter, the leaves being entire, the calycine seg- 
ments equal and regular, and the epigynous glands much developed. In other respects, and especially in the 
mode of growth and form of the leaves, the present plant is so dissimilar from either, that I have ventured to 
place it under a separate sectional name, adopted in allusion to the incrassated apices of the leaves. 

There are several points in the structure of the three plants above alluded to which seem to require some 
consideration ; and having the opportunity of examining the flowers of all the species, I shall here offer a few 
remarks upon them, premising that, except in the case of F. clavigera, the specimens at my disposal were too 
few to allow of the full verification of the observations. 

Linnaeus first supposed Phyllachne to be monoecious (Suppl. Plant, p. 62), and Swartz (Schrader, Journ. 
fur Botanik, vol. i. p. 273, translated in Koenig's Annals, vol. i. p. 286) follows Forster (Charact. Gen. t. 58) 
in supposing both this and F. sedifolia to be dioecious. If, as I suspect, the only truly fertile flowers of F. cla- 
vigera are such as bear the uncinate plumose styles, that plant is certainly monoecious. Out of very many 
flowers examined, I only found such stigmata in two, both of which had abortive anthers, and they were more- 
over furnished with the only capsules in which I saw the immature seeds brown, and apparently fertile. Though 
there is a marked difference in the development of the apex of the style in the abortive flowers of this plant, it 
never, that I have seen, approaches the form it bears in the fertile flowers ; at all other times it is exceedingly 
minute and probably variable in the lobes. Of the P. uliginosa 1 examined six flowers, only one of which 

40 FLORA ANTARCTICA. [Auckland and 

contained perfect stigmata ; in it the style branched into two capitate arms, pubescent externally, and in 
all respects analogous to the stigmata of the former plant ; the ovary was however in so very young a state, 
that I could not detect any concomitant character in the ovules ; the anthers were decidedly abortive. In 
F. sedi/olia, L., I have seen no other stigmata than two small uncinate fleshy bodies, concealed between the 
two upper valves of the anthers, parallel with them, and alternating with two small glands ? at the back of these 
organs. In form and situation they answer to the plumose stigmas of the two former, but they are smooth 
throughout. In another flower I find the apex of the style to be depressed and to appear minutely 4-lobed, 
with the lobes unequal and rounded : in both these cases the anthers were full of pollen, and the ovules in a 
rudimentary state. In Swartz's description of this plant he notices a crest of projecting hairs, arising from a 
fleshy septum, obscurely lobed under the microscope, which connects the two anthers and separates the two 
lobes of the true apex of the style or stigmas. Swartz distinctly alludes to the two small glands or stigmata 
as being protected by the upper valves of the anthers, and they are hence probably analogous to two of the four 
lobes into which, in the flower I examined, the apex of the style appeared to be divided. Swartz's supposition, 
that the septum and crista of fine hairs form a connectivum between the anthers, separating the stigmata, appears 
to me to indicate a most anomalous condition of those parts ; and as it is, from its position and structure, analogous 
to the arms of the style and stigmata in the two former species, I conclude that that author examined fertile 
flowers of F. sedi/olia. It is still more remarkable that so acute and very accurate an observer should have been 
unable to detect the glands at the base of the column, which in both my specimens are exceedingly large, and 
project upwards like two horns from the top of the ovarium for half the length and upwards of the tube of the 
corolla, and w r hose apices in the young state of the flower lie between the anthers. It is possible that they may 
be obscurely developed in fertile flowers of this species, which however is not the case in those of F. clavigera 
or of Phyllachne uliginosa. 

In F. clavigera there are apparently two very different states of the corolla : in many of my specimens of 
this plant that organ is divided into 5-7 lobes, all of them concave and even, of the same thickness throughout ; 
more rarely they are 4 or 9 ; but in other corollas taken from the same specimens the divisions are undulated, 
with the borders of the sinuses much thickened, and each of them furnished at the throat with two linear, elevated, 
divaricating ridges or glands, which branch off from the middle nerve in the upper part of the tube, and are 
abruptly clavate at the extremity, near the margin of the segment, with whose thickened margins they some- 
times unite. In some respects they resemble the nectaries of Ranunculus pinguis (Tab. I.), being only occasion- 
ally present ; they however contain no secretion. Though I could trace no connection between this, the common 
form of the corolla, and the fertile or abortive state of the ovarium, I may remark, that where the segments are 
smooth and even, the apex of the style is hardly prominent or visible between the anthers, and also that in the 
most divided corollas the segments were most undulated and thickened ; in F. sedi/olia they are also very 
distinct, though nowhere described that I am aware of; and they are also evident, but not so fully developed, in 
the few flowers of Phyllachne which I have examined. I have also described the corolla as somewhat two-lipped, 
a character not very evident in all instances, and depending upon the inequality and comparative size of the 
segments ; one or two are almost invariably larger than the rest, and external in aestivation ; when there are two 
large lobes they are placed near one another ; and when the corolla has more than five segments, these two are 
subdivided into four by short sinuses ; where only four segments exist, it is caused by the union of two of the 
small lobes. 

All the species have the anthers spuriously 2-celled, by means of a thick fleshy ridge which runs at the 
base of the anther, between the valves, and projects half-way across the cavity. After the dehiscence of these 
organs, they together form a cross placed horizontally on the top of the column, from their unsymmetrical con- 
traction ; of these, the lower one on each side projects horizontally and forms a right angle with the axis of the 
column, its two lower lobes approximating below ; the upper becomes erect, and its upper margin being revolute, 
meets that of the opposite anther; this appearance is represented at fig. 10. The ovary, which is generally 

Campbell's Islands.] FLORA ANTARCTICA. 41 

1 -celled, I have rarely found divided into two cells by a more or less thickened septum. Two bundles of vessels, 
one from each of the arms of the style, meet in the column and traverse its length ; at the summit of the ovarium 
they sometimes again divide, and as separate cords enter its cavity, meeting again in the central column whicli 
bears the placenta?. 

The last circumstance to which I shall here allude concerns the inflorescence of these species of Stylidiem. 
In one of Mr. Bidwill's specimens of F. sedi/olia from the mountain of Tongariro, in the Northern Island of 
New Zealand, the peduncle is 2-flowered, and the position of the bracts on the pedicels, and at the base of the 
ovaria, shows their true situation and the nature of the inflorescence to be the same in Forstera as in many 
Stylidia. This two-flowered specimen has six bracts, two of which are placed at the forking of the peduncle, 
one situated upon and belonging to each of the pedicels ; but the other four form two pairs, each pair placed imme- 
diately at the base of the ovarium. In the solitary and sessile-flowered species it is sometimes difficult to di- 
stinguish the bracts from the upper leaves ; in F. clavigera however they are sufficiently distinct, but never more 
than two, nor in P. uliginosa are there probably more, though they gradually pass into the ordinary forms of the 
leaf. In the latter plant some foliaceous expansions, which are generally considered as segments of the calyx, 
are often placed upon the germen ; I have not remarked how they are disposed upon distinctly fertile ovaria of 
this species ; where however that organ is imperfectly developed, it may be readily understood how a little 
irregularity in the insertion either of the calycine lobes or bracts might lead to the one being mistaken for the 

Plate XXVIII. Fig. 1, branch of F. clavigera with an expanded plicate corolla, and the arms of the style 
developed ; figs. 2 and 3, cauline leaves from the same ; fig. 4, flower with the segments of the corolla even and 
plane ; fig. 5, a portion of a corolla from fig. 1 ; fig. 6, ovarium and epigynous glands ; fig. 7, column with per- 
fect anthers ; fig. 8, longitudinal section of the same ; fig. 9, pollen from the same ; fig. 10, anthers after the 
pollen has escaped ; fig. 11, column with stigmata and imperfect anthers ; fig. 12, transverse section of 1 -celled 
ovarium ; fig. 13, longitudinal section of 2-celled do. ; fig. 14, immature seeds : — all magnified. 


1. PRATIA, Gaud. 

Calyeis tubus ovatus v. obovatus, rarius obconicus, lobis 5 ovatis acutis superioribus paulo longioribus. 
Corolla subcampanulata, longitudinaliter fissa, unilabiata, lobis subaequalibus elongato-ovatis. Anthera 2, infe- 
riores apice setis paucis terminatae. Stigma bilobum, lobis extus puberulis. Fructus indehiscens, baccatus, 
bilocularis, carnosus, v. membranaceus, polyspermus. — Herbse parvce, glabra, repentes, Australes et Antarctica, 
succo aqueo ; ramis radicantibus divaricatim ramosis. Folia alterna. Pedunculi solitarii, nudi, v. bracteoluti. 

1. Pratia arenaria, Hook. fil. ; glaberrima, subcarnosa, foliis breviter petiolatis ovato- v. ob- 
ovato-rotundatis undulatis marginibus obtuse sinuato-dentatis, floribus immaturis in axillis foliorum 
sessilibus, fructibus brevissime pedunculatis globosis purpureis. (Tab. XXIX.) 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; creeping over the open sandy shores of Enderby's Islet, Ren- 
dezvous Harbour : Lieut. H. Oakeley. 

Caules elongati, 4-7 uncias longi, crassi, carnosi, diametro pennae gallina?, teretes, divaricatim ramosi, 

ramis paucis patentibus repentibus ad axillas foliorum inferiorum fibras crassas emittentibus. Folia remota, sub- 

semiunciam longa, distantia, horizontaliter patentia, v. ascendentia, circumscriptione plus minusve rotundata, 

plerumque concava, undulata, carnosa, in petiolum latum brevem 2 lin. longum contracta, f unc. lata, paulo 

VOL. I. G 

42 FLORA ANTARCTICA. [Auckland and 

longiora, marginibus sinuato-undulatis, vel subdentatis, nervis tenuibus reticulatis, in axillis gemmas floresve 
gerentia. Flores valde immaturi tantum mihi visi, parvi, brevissime pedunculati ; pedunculi basi v. supra basin 
bibracteolati, bracteolis parvis lanceolatis acutis. Calycis tubus oblongus ; limbus inaequaliter 5-lobus, tubo 
brevior, lobis ovato-subulatis acutis, superiore majore basi utrinque et duobus proximis basi extus auriculati?, 
2 iuferioribus minoribus. Corolla profunde 5-loba, lobis aestivatione valvatis virido-purpureis. Stamina lobis 
corolla? alterna, filamentis crassis, antheris cobserentibus, 2 superioribus ad apicem 3-4 setosis, seta intermedia 
longiore. Ovarium biloculare, loculis multiovulatis ; ovulis anatropis, funiculis brevibus. Stylus apice bifidus, 
lobis brevibus extus puberulis v. pilosis. Baccu subglobosa, obscure bisulcata, v. biloba, lobo superiore majore 
basi gibboso, segmentis calycinis coronata, sub 4 lin. longa, bilocularis, parietibus carnosis rubro-purpureis 
venosis, dissepimento carnoso ad medium incrassato placentifero. Semina numerosissima, funiculis brevibus 
dissepimento adnata, ascendentia, parva, ovalia, testa Crustacea atra nitida, nunc brunnea, seu castanea, albumine 
carnoso. Embryo minimus, ortbotropus, pyriformis, radicula tereti crassa obtusa hilo proxima, cotyledonibus 

A very distinct species, of which I much regret that I have not more satisfactory specimens which would 
allow of an examination of the expanded flowers. The peduncles of the bud and of the berry are so remark- 
ably short, as at once to point out this as very distinct from any others of the genus ; and it further differs from 
all the other round-leaved species in the size and obscure toothing of the leaves, their very short petioles, and 
in the red-purple colour of the berries. It is most nearly allied to the P. angulata (vide infra). 

Having had the opportunity of examining some species of Pratia in Herb. Hooker, I shall here append the 
characters of all that are known to me as certainly belonging to this genus* ; besides which, there are several 

* PRATIA, Gaud. 

§ I. Lobis calycinis 3 v. pluribus basi auriculatis. 

1. P. arenaria, Hook. fil. ; vide supra. 
Hab. Auckland Islands. 

2. P. Cunninghamii ; ramis ascendentibus, foliis subdistichis sessilibus ovato-lanceolatis v. oblongo-ovatis 
obtusis obtuse repando-serratis coriaceo-carnosis, pedunculis folio -1— ^ brevioribus, bacca ovato-globosa submem- 
branacea, seminibus testa coriacea pallide brunnea areolata v. granulata. — Isolobus ? Cunninghamii, Alph. DeC. 
in Prodr. vol. vii. p. 354. Lobelia inundata, Cunn. MSS. (non Br.) an Lob. concolor, Brown, Prodr. p. 563 ? 
Pratia erecta, Gaud, in Freycin. Voy. Bot. p. 456 ? 

Var. (3. longipes ; pedunculis folio sequilongis longioribusve. 

Hab. New Holland; morasses on the banks of the M c Q_uarrie River: Frazer. Lowlands about the 
Hunter River ; A. Cunningham. 

(i. Inundated banks of the Lacblan River; A. Cunningham. 

§ II. Lobis calycinis basi nudis, seu auriculis nullis. 

3. P. repens, Gaud. ; ramis repentibus radicantibus, foliis erectis longe petiolatis carnosis subcordato-orbi- 
culatis sinuato-dentatis, pedunculis crassis petiolo requilongis bi- tri-bracteolatis, bacca globosa carnosa, semini- 
bus pallide fuscis. — P. repens, Gaud, in Ann. Sc. Nat. vol. v. p. 103. Voy. Freyc. pp. 134 and 456. t. 79. D'Urv. 
Fl. Ins. Mai. in M£m. Linn. Soc. Paris, vol. iv. p. 608. Alph. DeC. in Prodr. vol. vii. p. 340. 

Hab. Falkland Islands, Tierra del Fuego, and S. Chili, on the east and west side of the Andes. 

I have not retained the var. Urvil/eana, Alph. DeC. 1. c, because in my specimens the calycine segments are 

Campbell's Islands.'] FLORA ANTARCTICA. 43 

other New Zealand and New Holland solitary-flowered creeping Lobeliacea with unilabiate corollas, but in the 
absence of any specimens with fruit I am unwilling to add them here. 

The genus Prat la was established by M. Gaudichaud on a species detected by himself in the Falkland 
Islands, the P. repens, which was first described in Ann. Sc. Nat. vol. v. p. 103 {anno 1825); but the original 
discoverers of the genus were Banks and Solander, who, during Captain Cook's first voyage, gathered the P. 
angulata in New Zealand (in 1769) : to the species of M. Gaudichaud there was first added another from La 
Plata by M. Chamisso (Linnsea, vol. viii. p. 212), and more lately what appears to me a truly distinct species was 
published as a variety of this last, under the name of P. hederacea, (i. elliptica(vi&z Hook. Bot. Journ. vol. i.p. 278). 
I have seen the fruit of all these except the P. hederacea, and they agree with the characters of Pratia. In 1839 
M. Alph. DeCandolle removed the Pratia begonifolia, Wall., and erected it into a separate genus, Piddingtonia, 
mainly on account of the 2-lipped corolla ; besides this character of the corolla, which has the two outer lobes 

very variable in length, as is the corolla itself and the tube of the calyx in shape, the form of the latter depending 
upon the greater or less maturity of the seeds. 

4. P. hederacea, Cham. ; ramis repentibus, foliis petiolatis membranaceis late ovatis rotundatisve crenato- 
dentatis basi subcordatis, petiolis limbo longioribus, pedicellis folio longioribus, corolla filamentisque intus basi 
villosis. — Chamisso in Linnma, vol. viii. p. 212. Alph. DeC. in Prodr.xol. vii. p. 340. 

Hab. South Brazil and Uraguay ; Chamisso, Gaudichaud. 

Having only seen a solitary but authentically-named specimen of this (communicated from Herb. reg. 
Berol.), I have no opportunity of dissecting the flowers : in the villous tube of the corolla it differs from all the 
other species I am acquainted with. 

5. P. elliptica ; caule repente, ramis erectis prostratisve, foliis distichis brevissime petiolatis oblongis obtusis 
remote repando-dentatis dentibus obtusis, pedunculis folio longioribus fructiferis valde elongatis, capsula meru- 
branacea elongato-pyriformi, seminibus parvis, testa kevi pallide brunnea. — P. hederacea, /3. elliptica, Alph. 
DeC. in Prodr. vol. vii. p. 340. Lob. hederacea, /3. elliptica, Hook. # Am. Bot. Journ. vol. i. p. 277. L. odorata, 
(5. Graham in Edinb. New Phil. Journ. for 1831. 

Hab. Buenos Ayres and mouth of La Plata River, in marshy places ; Tweedie. 

The authors of ' Contributions to a Flora of South America' remark, that the fruit does not seem to differ 
from that of a true Lobelia ; but the only seed-vessel I have examined seems truly indehiscent, and the corolla is 
most distinctly unilabiate. It is very different from the true P. hederacea, a plant those authors were not then 
acquainted with, and in many respects, especially in the distichous leaves, it resembles the P. Cunninghamii. 

6. P. angulata; ramis prostratis elongatis basi radicantibus apicibus adscendentibus, foliis petiolatis ovato- 
oblongis v. ovato-rotundatis obtusis repando-dentatis, pedunculis gracilibus folio multoties longioribus, semini- 
bus testa pallide brunnea minute punctata. — Lobelia angulata, Forst. Prodr. n. 309. A. Richard, Flor. Nov. Zel. 
p. 227. A. Cunn. Prodr. Flor. Nov. Zel. in Ann. Nat. Hist. vol. ii. p. 50. L. littoralis, R. Cunn. in A. Cunn. 
Prodr. Flor. Nov. Zel. 1. c. 

Hab. New Zealand ; Northern and Middle Islands in moist places. 

This is a very variable plant in the size of the leaves, corolla and berries. 

7. P. ? Boliviensis, Alph. DeC. in Prodr. vol. vii. p. 340. 
Hab. Bolivia. 

Of this species I know nothing. 


44 FLORA ANTARCTICA. [Auckland and 

removed by a deeper division from the rest, the calycine segments are more membranous and foliaceous, and 
the whole plant more or less hairy ; its berry is very similar to that of P. arenaria, being large and apparently 
purple. Unless in specimens furnished with tolerably ripe fruit, it is difficult to recognise the genus Pratia, the 
character of the corolla being common to other true Lobeliacea, as is also that of the calyx, except that some 
of the species possess additional small lobes at the base of one or more of the segments. The bracts on the 
peduncles are also only occasionally present, and their situation is very variable. 

Plate XXIX. Fig. 1, a youngflower on a branch, of the natural size; Jig. 2, the same removed ; Jig. 3, an 
anther aristate at its summit ; Jig. 4, young stigmata ; Jig. 5, ripe berry ; Jig. 6, transverse, and Jig. 7, longitu- 
dinal section of the same ; Jig. 8, ripe seed; Jig. 9, the same cut open, showing the embryo ; Jig. 10, embryo 
removed : — all mugnijied. 



1. ANDROSTOMA, Hook.fd. 

Calyx 5-phyllus, basi bibracteolatus (pedunculis multi-bracteolatis). Corolla urceolata, limbo imberbi, 
segmentis 5 acutis. Stamina fauce corolla? sinubus inserta, filamentis breviusculis antljerisque omnino exsertis. 
Discus hypogynus cyathiformis, profunde 5-lobus. Ovarium 2-4-loculare, loculis monospermis. Drupa baccata 
putamine osseo. — Fruticulus ex Insulis Auckland et montibus Novte Zelandite, prostratus, ramosus, ramorum 
apicibus ascendent ibus. Folia parva, sparsa, linearia, patentia, Integra, subtus striata. Flores parvi, inconspicui. 

1. Androstoma empetrifolia, Hook. fil. (Tab. XXX.) 

Hab, Lord Auckland's group ; in the upland regions, abundant. 

Caules prostrati, graciles, filiformes, elongati, spithamsei ad bipedalem et ultra, diametro pennse corvinae, basi 
nudiusculi, fusco-brunnei, cicatricosi, ramosi, ramis elongatis, apicibus ascendentibus foliosis. Folia parva, 
l^lin. longa, undique inserta, nullibi conferta, inferioribus sparsis, horizontaliter patentia, breviter petiolata, 
linearia, subacuta, marginibus recurvis ; supra convexa, medio canaliculata, fusco-viiidia ; subtus glauca, striata, 
pubescentia, demum glabra, rigida et coriacea ; juniora imbricata, erecta ; seniora caduca. Flores rari, sparsi, 
axillares, valde inconspicui, solitarii v. bini, pedunculati. Pedunculus ^ lin. longus, 1- rarius 2-florus, arcuatus, 
villosus, multi-squamosus, squamis 10-12 parvis imbricatis ovatis obtusis pergamentaceis medio incrassatis, 
marginibus subscariosis ciliatis, dorso sericeo-pubescentibus. Calyx 5-phyllus, basi bibracteolatus, tubo corolla? 
aequilongus, foliolis erectis late ovatis subacutis 3-5-nerviis ciliatis dorso pubeseentibus ; bractea? 2, oppositae, 
forma et textura inter foliola calycina et squamas pedunculi, sed manifeste calyci propria?. Corolla tubuloso- 
urceolata, minima, inconspicua, sub i lin. longa, ad medium 5-fida, segmentis suberectis ovato-lanceolatis acutis 
medio uninerviis nervisque duobus lateralibus inconspicuis, marginibus recurvis sub lente minutissime scabridis, 
aestivatione imbricatis. Stamina 5, tota exserta, filamentis lineari-subulatis fauce ipsa intra sinus corolla? insertis, 
erectis, segmento \ brevioribus superne curvatis, anthcris apice filamenti pendulis late oblongis. Discus hypo- 
gynus carnosulus, cyathiformis, profunde quinquelobus, lobis rotundatis integris. Ovarium ovatum, sessile, 
basi disco hypogyno cinctum, gradatim in stylo valido attenuatum, 2-4-loculare, loculis uniovulatis, ovulo 
funiculo brevi angulo superiore interno loculi pendulo, elongato. Drupa immatura, carnosa, late ovata, 1 lin. 
lata, corolla ventricosa calyceque persistente suffulta et semi-immersa stylo acuminata; putamine indurato 

As this plant has been found by Mr. Bid will on Tongariro, it is probably not uncommon in the alpine 

Campbell's Islands.] FLORA ANTARCTICA. 45 

regions of New Zealand, especially as it is particularly abundant in Lord Auckland's group, where it creeps 
over the ground and forms low wiry bushes, resembling the Crow-berry (Empetrum nigrum); the flowers are very 
inconspicuous, smaller than those of any other plant of the Nat. Ord. with which I am acquainted. The ripe 
fruit I have never seen ; Mr. Bidwill describes the plant as bearing a white berry. The name, from avi)p (stamen) 
and fTTOfia (os, oris), is adopted in allusion to the position of the stamens, wherein the chief distinction lies 
between this genus and Lissanthe, Br. 

Plate XXX. Fig. 1, flower and peduncle ; fig. 2, a scale from the peduncle ; fig. 3, a calycine leaflet ; fig. 4, 
corolla ; fig. 5, the same expanded ; fig. 6, the same cut open, showing the insertion and position of the stamens ; 
fig. 7, front, and fig. 8, back view of a stamen ; fig. 9, ovarium ; fig. 10, unripe berry ; fig. 11, transverse section 
of do. ; fig. 12, unripe seed :— all magnified. 

Tribe EPACRE.E, Br. 


Calyx 5-phyllus, basi bracteatus, bracteis persistentibus vel caducis. Corolla tubuloso-infundibuliformis, 
limbo 5-partito, lobis patentibus v. suberectis aestivatione imbricatis, apicibus inflexis cucullatisve imberbibus, 
tubo tereti subventricoso vel campanulato, fauce plus minusve contracta. Stamina 5 inclusa, corolla; adnata, 
v. rarius hypogyna. Squama hypogynce 5. Capsula 5-locularis, loculicide 5-valvis, placentis ab apice columnar 
centralis pendulis solutis. Semina pendula, angulata, testa reticulata. — Frutices vel arbores Australasian et Nova 
Zelandia, unico Nova Caledonia, paucis ex insulis Antarcticis pervenientibus ; ramis denudatis annulatis cicatricosis . 
Folia imbrieata, basi vaginantia, graminea v. subulata. Flores racemosi, seu spicati, pedunculis lateralibus termi- 
nalibusve. Bractea? a lobis ealycinis plerumque vix distinguendte . — Character e Candollei Prodromo ad species 
omnes mihi cognitas includendas mutuatus. 

1. Dracopiiyllum longifolium, Br. ; arboreum, ramis atris exustis, ramulis castaneis, foliis ad 
apices ramulorum confertis e basi lata vaginante abrupte angustioribus longissime lineari-subulatis 
strictis rarius (plantis junioribus) recurvis concavis striatis pubescentibus vel glabris, floribus spi- 
catis, spicis solitariis rarius binis aggregatisve lateralibus 7-9-floris, pedicellis articulatis, bracteis 
deciduis, corollas tubo campanulato calycem superante, limbi segmentis late ovatis obtusis. (Tab. 
XXXI. & XXXII.)— Brown, Prodr. p. 556 (in nota). A. Rich. Ft. Nov. Zel. p. 219. A. Cunn. 
Prodr. Flor. Nov. Zel. in Ann. Nat. Hist. vol. ii. p. 48. DeC. Prodr. vol. vii. p. 770. Epacris lon- 
gifolia, Forst. Prodr. n. 68. Char. Gen. t. 10. n. 1. et MSS. in Mus. Par. a CI. A. Richard, I. supra 
cil. evulgata. 

Hab, Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island ; in woods near the sea, abundant, never 
ascending more than 400 feet on the hills. 

Caulis seu truncus arboreus, ascendens, 15-25 ped. altitudine, diametro H pedalis, et paulo ultra prope 
basin, ramosus, cortice fusco atro quasi usto sulcis longitudinalibus confluentibus exarato obtectus, ligno albido 
molli.laminibusinconspicuis, radiis medullaribus paucis latiusculis ; ramis brachiatis erecto-patentibus ; ramulis 
teretibus crassitie pennse corvinse longe denudatis et cicatricibus horizontalibus annulatis, cortice castaneo nitido, 
apicibus solummodo foliosis. Folia fasciculata, pleraque stricta, erecta, e basi vaginante longissime lineari-subu- 
lata, supra pubesccntia, v. subsericea, concava, subtus v. dorso glaberrima, convexa, subcarinata, margine integer- 
rima sub lente per totam longitudinem ciliata, sensim acuminata apicibus pungentibus, coriacea, striata, lrete 
viridia, 8 unc. ad pedalem longa, 3-4 lin. lata ; plantis junioribus planiora, glabra, patentia, v. reflexa, graminea ; 
vagina oblonga, basi amplexicaulis, striata, lamina duplo latior, ^— | unc. longa, margine scariosa, superne 

46 FLORA ANTARCTICA. [Auckland and 

ciliata, pallide brunnea, nitida; terra tota sub arboribus foliis emortuis delapsis sparsa. Pedunculi solitarii v. 
fasciculati, rarius plantis junioribus ad apices ramulorum terminales, plerique e ramis brevissimis laterales, 1|— 2 
uric, longi, stricti, erecti, inclinati, v. rarius nutantes, 7-10 flores; rachi terete glabra suflexuosa articulata ad 
nodos dilatata cyathiformi. Pedicelli breves, 1-2 lin. longi, cum rachi articulati. Flores subconferti, rarius 
secundi, erecti, demum nutantes, basi 2-4-bracteati. Bractete inferiores subfoliaceae, flore longiores, interdum 
elongati ; superiores ovatae, obtusa?, striatse, corollam subaequantes, marginibus scariosis ciliatis, demum deciduae. 
Calyx 5-phyllus, foliola tubo corollae paulo breviora, bracteis omnino similia, sed minora, intimis angustioribus 
submenibranaceis. Corolla tubuloso-campanulata, ^ unc. longa, albida, tubo terete sub ore paulo constricto, 
limbo 5-fido, segmentis patentibus basi imbricatis late ovatis obtusis marginibus subundulatis, medio incrassatis, 
apice inflexo, praefloratione incurvo. Stamina 5, filamentis linearibus breviusculis infra faucem corollas insertis ; 
antheris parvisoblongo-quadratis, apicibus exsertis. Pollen stramineum, hyalinum, e sphaerulis 3-5 conglobatis 
compositum. Glanduhe hypogyrue 5, ovario breviores, loculis opposite, oblongo-cuneatse, superne truncatae, 
retusae. Ovarium, sessile, late obovatum, 5-lobum, 5-loculare, loculis dorso sulcatis ; ovulis plurimis elongato- 
pyriformibus, funiculis brevibus columnae centrali affixis pendulis. Stylus validus, erectus, tubo A brevior, apice 
tmncatus, 3— i-crenatus. Capsula coriacea, foliolis 2-3 calycinis persistentibus inclusa, loculicide 5-valvis. 
Semina immatura angulata ; testa reticulata laxa. 

A most abundant plant, forming a great portion of the woods which skirt the shores of these islands. The 
true Drucophyllum longifolium has hitherto been known to botanists only through the specimens collected by the 
Forsters during Cook's second voyage, and to some of the few who possess portions of the valuable collection 
formed by Mr. Menzies in Dusky Bay. Mr. Forster made full descriptions of his specimens, which have been 
published by M. Richard, and as a few discrepancies occur in comparing our own specimens with his, I shall here 
allude to them, premising that they only refer to such characters as depend much on the different localities the 
plant may inhabit. That the above-described plant is specifically the same as that gathered both by Forster and 
Menzies, is evident on the comparison of my specimens with the original drawing of that author. Thus, the 
leaves are described as smooth and reflexed : they are only so in the younger and more luxuriant state of the 
trees in Lord Auckland's Islands ; as they grow larger and more exposed to the violence of the climate they 
become strict, erect, rigid, coriaceous and pubescent above, all of which characters Mr. Menzies' specimens 
possess, except that they are also smooth. Again, the spikes are solitary in the young trees, but in the older 
most frequently from 2-5 together ; I have however never seen them nearly a palm long, or indeed more than 
two inches ; in the British Museum drawings they are about that length. The tube of the corolla is hardly if 
at all longer than the calyx, and not " duplo longior," and its segments can hardly be considered as acute. 
The present species is certainly most nearly allied to the D. squarrosum (vide in note, p. 48), but the leaves are 
broader and more rigid, and the corolla of quite a different shape. 

Plate XXXI. & XXXII. Fig. 1, flower with bracteae ; fig. 2, corolla removed ; fig. 3, the same laid open ; 
fig. 4, a hypogynous scale ; fig. 5, ovarium and hypogynous scales ; fig. 6, transverse section of the ovarium ; 
fig. 7, longitudinal section of one cell of do. ; fig. 8, unripe seed removed from do. : — all magnified. 

2. Dracophyllum scoparium, Hook. fil. ; arbuscula, ramis ramulisque fasciculatis strictis 
fusco-castaneis, foliis e basi vaginante gradatim angustatis lineari-subulatis strictis rigidis antice 
planis v. subcanaliculatis marginibusque pubescentibus dorso semiteretibus apicibus triquetris, flori- 
bus spicatis, spicis plurimis brevibus erectis sub 4-floris, bracteis foliolisque calycinis corollam supe- 
rantibus omnibus late ovatis acuminatis marginibus ciliatis exterioribus foliaceis intus sericeis, corolla 
late campanulata tubo brevi, segmentis brevissimis late ovatis obtusis. (Tab. XXXIII.) 

Hab. Campbell's Island ; near the sea, not common. 
Arbor humilis. Caulis ascendens, 6-8 pedalis, basi compressus ramosus, cortice et ligno ut in D. longi- 

Campbell's Islands.] FLORA ANTARCTICA. 47 

folio sed prioris colore pallidiore, ramis densis erectis, ramulis breviusculis fasciculatis graeilibus sub ^ lin. dia- 
metro. Folia apicibus ramulorum conferta, omnia stricta, erecta, 1^ unc. longa, | lin. lata, fusco-viridia, intus 
marginibusque pubescentia, subsericea, vagina latiuscula, brunnea, superne attenuata. Spicoe numerosa?, inter 
folia conferta?, breviuscutae, A-J unc. longa?, axillares et terminales, stricta?, erectae, rarius nutantes, 3-4 fiores, 
rachi articulata glabra castanea. Flores breviter pedicellati, pedicellis cum rachi articulatis pubescentibus. 
Bracteee 2-3, corollam superantes. exteriores basi late vaginantes, deinde lineari-subulate ut folia sed breviores, 
coriacea?, spicis ajquilongse, marginibus dorsoque carinato-ciliatis, intus sericeo-pubescentes, interiores minores. 
Calycis foliola ovata, acuta, striata, marginibus scariosis ciliatis, tubo corolla? breviora, persistentia. Corolla 
sub 1| lin. longa, pro genere latissima, late campanulata, suburceolata, albida, inter bracteas occulta inconspicua, 
tubo brevi calycem vix superante, segmentis brevissimis late ovatis obtusis concavis, primum incurvis apice 
obtuso inflexo, demum patentibus subinvolutis. Stamina ad faucem inserta, parva, filamentis brevibus. 
Capsula late obovata, bracteis foliolisque calycinis persistentibus inclusa, valvis coriaceis obovatis apicibus incur- 
vis medio septiferis ; columna centralis valida, sublignosa, angulata, superne in ramos 5 pendulos clavatos fissa 
semina gerentes. 

A very peculiar species, most nearly allied to the D. Lessonianum, A. Rich., and D. Urvillianum, A. Rich., 
but very distinct from both. It has also been gathered upon the Chatham Islands by Dr. Dieffenbach, in whose 
specimens the leaves are most beautifully margined, and the backs of the bracteae covered with a silvery and 
velvety pubescence. I do not however place much reliance on the pubescence of any of the species of this genus, 
which appears a very variable character. 

The genus Draeophyllum was established by Labillardiere upon the D. verticillatum, a plant of New Cale- 
donia (vide Voyage de Labill. vol. ii. p. 211. t. 40), and afterwards adopted by Mr. Brown, who added the 
D. secundum of Australia as a second species ; both these have the flowers racemose or panicled, the bracteas 
caducous, and the stamens either hypogynous or inserted at the very base of the corolla. In a subgenus or 
section called Sphcnotomu, the latter botanist included some other New Holland plants with spiked flowers, 
persistent bracteas, and stamens inserted upon the corolla ; this has since been erected into a genus by Mr. 
Sweet (Fl. Austral, t. 44), and retained as such by all future authors. Mr. Brown having further remarked 
that some of Forster's New Zealand Epacridece, as E. longifolium and E. rosmarinifolium, Forst., belonged to 
the genus Draeophyllum, as modified by him, they were forthwith published as such by M. A. Richard, who added 
two more species to the genus, and also by Cunningham, who published a third (D. latifo/ium) ; but none of 
these authors proposed any sectional characters for these species, which differ most materially from those of 
Mr. Brown's first section of the genus, in many of them having epipetalous stamens, as also in the flowers being 
spiked and the bractese persistent, and which equally differ from Sphenotoma in habit and the form of the 
corolla. Lastly, M. DeCandolle, in 1839, remodelled the generic character of Draeophyllum, and, intending it to 
include only the plants of Mr. Brown's first section, described the calyx as " ebracteatus," and the stamens as 
" corolla? non adnata," both characters the opposite of what most of the New Zealand species exhibit. 

Having received several allied new species of this genus from New Zealand, I shall add their characters 
here and give a conspectus of the whole, both for the purpose of showing the position of D. longifolium and D. 
scoparium in the series, as also because I am anxious to seize the first opportunity afforded me of laying the new 
species before the public and remodelling this fine genus*. I may here remark, that as a genus it is an exceed- 


§ I. S/aminibus hypogynis, v. basi corollas inserlis. 
1. D. secundum, Br. Brown, Prodr. p. 556. DeC. Prodr. vol. vii. p. 769. 
Hab. New Holland ; in the neighbourhood of Port Jackson. 

48 FLORA ANTARCTICA. [Auckland and 

ingly natural one, Richea, Br., being its nearest ally and indeed its representative in Tasmania, whence Mr. 
Gunn has lately sent a splendid new species, probably the most magnificent plant in the whole Natural 

Plate XXXIII. Fig. 1, a flower surrounded by the bractese ; Jiff. 2, the same removed from the bractea? ; 
fig. 3, calycine leaf ; fig. 4, segments of the corolla and stamens ; fig. 5, germen and hypogynous scales ; fig. 6, 
ripe capsule enclosed in the persistent bractese ; fig. 7, the same with the bractea? removed ; fig. 8, the same 
split open ; fig. 9, a valve of the capsule ; fig. 10, a seed : — all magnified. 

2. D. verticillatum, Lab. Labillardiere, Voyage, vol. ii. p. 211. t. 40. DeC. I. c. p. 770. 
Hab. New Caledonia; on the mountains. 

§ II. Sta?ninibus epipetalis, floribus paniculatis, bracteis caducis, foliolis calycinis tubo corolla multo brevioribus. 

3. D. latifolium ; arboreum, foliis |-1§ pedalibus longissime lanceolatis subflexuosis (pro genere latis) mar- 
gine obtuse serrulatis, panicula effusa nutante pilosa demum glabra, bracteis deciduis, floribus parvis, foliolis 
calycinis a?qualibus pubescentibus late ovatis corolla multo brevioribus. — A. Cunn. Prodr. Fl. Nov. Zel. in Ann. 
Nat. Hist. vol. ii. p. 48. DeC. Prodr. vol. vii. p. 770. Epacris longifolia, Banks and Sol. MSS. in Mus. Brit. 

Hab. New Zealand; common in the woods of the Northern Island. 

The most handsome but smallest-flowered species of the genus. Leaves an inch broad at the base. Panicle 
a foot long, very much branched. 

4. D. strictum, n. sp. ; arbuscula ?, foliis 2-3 uncialibus late-subulatis suberectis strictis e basi vaginante 
gradatim acuminatis concavis marginibus serrulatis, panicula 2 unciali recta subcoarctata pilosa ramis crassis, 
bracteis deciduis, foliolis calycinis ovatis acutis tubo corolla? ^ brevioribus, corolla majuscula 5 lin. longa. 

Hab. New Zealand ; Mountain of Tongariro : Mr. Bidwill. 

Much smaller than the D. latifolium, and remarkably different in the size of the flower. 

5. D. affine, n. sp. ; arbuscula, foliis 2-uncialibus late-subulatis patentibus e basi lata vaginante gradatim 
acuminatis planiusculis, marginibus serrulatis, panicula 2-unciali nutante glabra effusa ramis tenuibus, bracteis 
deciduis, foliolis calycinis late-ovatis acutis tubo corolla? \ brevioribus, corolla 1\ lin. longa. 

Hab. New Zealand ; mountains of the interior : Dr. Dieffenbuch. 

At first sight this much resembles the last species, but it has much smaller flowers and is otherwise very 

§ III. Staminibus epipetalis, floribus spicalis (unica specie solitariis), foliolis calycinis bracteis simillimis tubo 

corolla aquilongis. 

6. D. longifolium, v. supra. 

Hab. New Zealand ; in Dusky Bay, and Lord Auckland and Campbell's Islands. 

7. D. squarrosum, n. sp. ; arbuscula, foliis 3-4 uncialibus patentibus squarrosis subgramineis (junioribus 
strictis) e basi subscariosa vaginante gradatim liueari-subulatis glaberrimis marginibus serrulatis concavis, spicis 
1^-2 uncialibus lateralibus fasciculatis 5-6-floris, bracteis foliolisque calycinis ovato-lanceolatis gradatim acu- 
minatis florem superantibus, corolla? tubo gracili, limbi segmentis lanceolatis obtusis. 

Hab. New Zealand ; Northern Island, Manukau Bay : W. Colenso, Esq. 

A small diffuse tree, 12-14 feet high, allied to D. longifolium, but the leaves are of a different habit and 
texture, and the corolla quite unlike that of the southern plant : both of these have large leaves, and more the 

Campbells Islands.] FLORA ANTARCTICA. 49 

Tribe EMBELIE.E, A. DeC. 

1. SUTTONIA, A. Rich. 

Flores polygami, v. hermaphroditi. Calyx 2-5-partitus rarius obsoletus, lobis obtusis, eroso-dentatis, ciliatis, 
aestivatione imbricatis. Corolla petala 4-5, distincta, v. rarius ima basi subconnata, obovata v. lineari-oblonga, 

appearance of the species of the former sections. The following are more shrubby, and though of a different 
habit, I am unable to separate them by any decided character into a distinct section. 

8. D. Lessonianum, A. Rich. ; frutescens, ramis castaneis, foliis fasciculatis 2^-3-uncialibus lineari-subu- 
latis semiteretibus supra planis, vaginis elongatis abrupte truncatis marginibus ciliatis, spica lj-2 unciali 
5-S-flora, floribus remotis, bracteis foliisque calycinis persistentibus coriaceis flore longioribus gradatim acumi- 
natis, corollas segmentis oblongo-lanceolatis tubo subgracili. — A. Rich. Flor. Nov. Zel. p. 233. A. Cunn. Prodr. 
Fl. Nov. Zel. I.e. DeC. Prodr. I.e. D. attenuatum, A. Cvnn. MSS. in Herb. Hook. Ardisia frondosa, a. lon- 
gifolia, Banks and Sol. MSS. in Mus. Brit. 

Hab. New Zealand ; a very common plant in the Northern Island, also found on the Middle Island. 

9. D. Urvilleanum, A. Rich. ; frutescens, ramis atris, foliis fasciculatis 2A-3-uncialibus strictis supra cana- 
liculatis, vaginis brevibus subciliatis, spica i unc. longa 3-4-flora, floribus approximatis, bracteis persisten- 
tibus foliolisque calycinis ovatis breviter acuminatis, corolla? segmentis ovato-oblongis tubo subcampanulato. — 
A. Richard, A. Cunningham et DeC. locis citatis. Ardisia frondosa, ft. squarrosa, Banks and Sol. MSS. in Mus. 

Hab. New Zealand ; Northern Island, generally at a little distance from the sea ; Tasman's Bay, Middle 
Island : D'Urville. 

Stems always black and as if charred on the surface. This and the preceding are very closely allied, but 
assuredly quite distinct ; the most prominent characters of the present are the shortly acuminated bracts, 
abbreviated spikes, and channeled leaves ; other distinctions are well pointed out by A. Richard, to which 
DeCandolle adds " foliis rigidis," though in our specimens they are less so, if anything, than in D. Lessonianum. 
but rather shorter. Cunningham appears to have confounded the two, though he knew both plants, this being 
the common species on the banks of the Keri-Keri river. His MSS. name of D. attenuatum is also attached by 
himself to specimens (in Herb. Hook.) of Lessonianum and not of Urvilleanum, under which, in his ' Prodromus,' 
he quotes his own name as a synonym. 

10. D. scoparium, Hook. fil. ; v. supra. 
Hab. Chatham and Campbell's Islands. 

11. D. robustum, n. sp. ; fruticosum, ramis fuscis, foliis fasciculatis 1^-2-uncialibus subcurvatis semitere- 
tibus rigidis supra planis, vaginis basi abrupte truncatis ciliatis, spica |-1 unc. longa valida 3-4-flora, floribus 
confertis, bracteis persistentibus foliolisque calycinis rigidis duris ovato-lanceolatis gradatim acuminatis, corolla? 
tubo subgracili segmentis ovali-oblongis. 

Hab. New Zealand ; Northern Island : Edgerley. 

This is a very distinct species though similar to the three former, and having leaves, though shorter and more 
rigid, of the same character as those of D. Lessonianum, as are the calycine leaves, flowers and segments of the 
VOL. I. H 

50 FLORA ANTARCTICA. [Auckland and 

primum erecta, concava, demum patentia et ssepe revoluta, ciliata, a?stivatione imbricata, quincuncialia. Sta- 
mina tot quot petala, prope basin corolla? inserta ; filamentis breviusculis, linearibus ; antheris ovato-lanceolatis, 

corolla, in all which respects it differs from D. Urvilleanum, but agrees with that plant in the few-flowered 

12. D. subulatum, n. sp. ; fruticosum, ramis fuscis parce foliosis gracilibus, foliis fasciculatis e basi lata 
vaginante lineari-subulatis |-|-uncialibus strictis erectis rigidis subtriquetris, vaginis latiusculis sub lente ciliatis, 
spicis J-i-uncialibus lateralibus ramulisque brevissimis terminalibus 2-fioris, floribus parvis approximatis, brac- 
teis persistentibus florem superantibus foliolisque calycinis late ovatis acutis v. acuminatis, corolla? tubo campa- 
nulato, segmentis latis. 

Hab. New Zealand ; mountainous interior of Northern Island : /. T. Bidwill, Esq., and IV. Colenso, Esq. 

A very distinct plant, readily recognised by the small size of all its parts. 

13. D. rosmarinifolium, Br. ; fruticosum, ramis apice foliosis, foliis 1^-uncialibus erectis rigidis coriaceis 
apice obtusis dorso convexis subcarinatis striatis antice canaliculars basi modice dilatatis vaginantibus, floribus 
sessilibus solitariis, bracteis lanceolatis acutis, corolla? segmentis ovatis obtusis. — Forst. MSS. in A. Rich. Fl. 
Nov. Zel. p. 220. Brown. Prodr. p. 556. A. Rich. A. C. Prodr. et DeC. locis citatis. Epacris rosmarini- 
folia, Forst. Prodr. n. 69. 

Hab. " Summis Alpibus Nova? Zelandia? ;" G. Forster. 

" Ha?c forte species ex E. longifolia enata, solo ingratiore et frigidiore pumila evasit, foliaque longa flores- 
que racemosos amisit." — Forst. MSS. I. c. 

In Lord Auckland's group the D. longifolium assumes no such form, and from the British Museum speci- 
mens this appears to be an entirely different species from any other. 

14. D. recurvum, n. sp. ; suffruticosum, ramis ad apices tantum foliosis, foliis uncialibus e basi vaginante 
linearibus gradatim attenuatis obtusis recurvis supra canaliculars subtus convexis. 

Hab. New Zealand ; Tongariro : Mr. Bidwill. 

Apparently a very small plant, 4-5 inches high, the branches terete, fuscous-black, above transversely 
scarred. In consequence of the blunt apices of the leaves I have placed this near D. rosmarinifolium, but I 
much regret having neither flowers nor fruit. 

RICHEA, Br. Prodr. p. 555. 

1. Richea dracophylla, Br. Prodr. 1. c. DeC. Prodr. vol. vii. p. 769. 

Hab. Tasmania ; on the high mountains, especially in the southern and western parts of the island. 

2. Richea pandanifolia, n. sp. ; caule erecto simplici 15-25-pedali apice tantum folioso, foliis crassis valde 
coriaceis 3-4-pedalibus squarroso-recurvis e basi vaginante lanceolata longissime lineari-subulatis superne planis 
marginibus argute serratis cartilagineis, paniculis axillaribus ovatis effusis basi spathaceo-bracteatis, floribus 
parvis breviter pedicellatis, pedicellis bracteolatis, bracteolis 1 v. 2 lineari-subulatis fugacibus, corolla clausa 
calyptra?formi, filamentis ovario vix ^ longioribus. 

Hab. Tasmania ; Port Davy, Peak of Teneriffe, Frenchman's Cap, and several other mountainous situations, 
especially in the southern parts of the island : Backhouse MSS. {in Bibl. Hook.) and in Ross' Hobartown Almanack, 
R. C. Gunn, Esq. 

I am indebted to Mr. Backhouse's valuable ' MSS. Notes on Australian Botany ' for information concerning 

Campbell's Islands.] FLORA ANTARCTICA. 51 

basi cordatis, bilocularibus. Pollen sphaericum. Ovarium ovatum, in stylum brevem attenuatum, 1-loculare, 
1- rarius 2-ovulatum, ovulis latere placentae globosae carnosae immersis. Stigma capitatum, cyathiforme, rarius 
infundibuliforme, varie divisum, crenatum v. lobatum, interdum flmbriatum. jFVurfwsbaccatus, putamine crus- 
taceo, 1-loculari. Semina 1 v. 2, reliquiis membranaceis placentas indusiata, subglobosa, interdum latere trans- 
versim constricta ; testa membranacea ; albumine corneo, albido. Embryo filiformis, cylindraceus, oblique trans- 
versa, paulo arcuatus v. sigmoideus. — Frutices vel arbusculae Nova Zelandice et insularum Norfolcice Auckland et 
Campbell, glabra, glanduloso-punctatte. Folia varia, plerumque subcoriacea, Integra, venosa. Pedunculi later ales, 
fasciculati, bracteali. Flores parvi. — Character genericus a Flora Novae Zelandiae Ach. Richardi (p. 349) 

1. Suttonia divaricata, Hook. fil. ; fruticosa, ramis divaricatis arcuatis tortuosis parce foliosis, 
foliis ad apices ramulorum lateralium 2-4 breviter petiolatis late-obovatis retusis v. obcordatis cori- 
aceis, pedunculis brevibus curvatis lateralibus basi squamosis, calycis 4-5-fidi lobis obtusis, petalis 
obovatis. (Tab. XXXIV.) — Myrsine ? divaricata, A. Cunn. Flor. Nov. Zel. in Ann. Nat. Hist. vol. ii. 
p. 47. Alph. DeC. in Prodr. vol. viii. p. 95. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island; abundant in woods near the sea, never 
ascending the hills. 

Frutex, rarius arbuscula, erectus, ramosus, parce foliosus, rigidus, primo intuitu spinescens, facie Coprosmce, 
4-S-pedalis. Radix lignosa, diffusa. Truncus brevis, subpedalis, cylindraceus, prope basin diametro 10-12 
uncias ; cortice atro, transversim rugoso, subannulato ; ligno duro, albo. Rami divaricati, horizontaliter 
patentes, apicibus plerumque deflexis, lignosi, tenaces, gemmis basibusque ramulorum delapsorum tuberculati, 
cortice fuligineo v. atro-fusco obtecti ; ramulis brevibus, subdistiche divaricatis, interdum pubescentibus, apicibus 
tantum foliosis. Folia parva, ^ unc. longa, ramulis ultimis alterna, vel plerumque 2-3 ad apices fasciculata, 
rarius solitaria, horizontaliter patentia, late obovata et retusa, v. obcordata, basi in petiolum brevem attenuata, 
integerrima, glaberrima, planiuscula v. concava, subcoriacea, nervis prominulis utrinque reticulata, glandulis 
sparsis, majusculis, elevatis, aurantiacis, pellucidis punctata, et serie intramarginali circumdata, supra laete 
viridia, nitida, subtus pallidiora ; petiolo brevi, glabro v. pubescente, supra canaliculato, | lin. longo. Flores 
parvi, inconspicui, breviter pedunculati, ramis ramulisque lateralibus 2-4 glomerulati. Pedunculi arcuati, 1-1^ 
lin. longi, basi pluribracteolati, e gemmulis squamosis orti; bracteolis minimis, ovato-rotundatis, brunnei 
marginibus scarioso-membranaceis. Calyx parvus, obovatus, carnosus, 4- rarius 5-fidus ; lobis suberectis v. 
patulis, late ovatis, obtusis, glanduloso-punctatis, marginibus erosis, ciliatis. Petala 4-5, basi remota, infra 
faucem calycis inserta, patentia, persistentia, demum basi ovarii crescentis appressa, obovato-oblonga, apice 
rotundata, \ lin. longa, subchartacea, rufo-brunnea, glanduloso-punctata, margine membranaceo, pellucido, 
eroso, cilato v. subfimbriato, pilis breviusculis, articulatis, flexuosis, medio uninervia, nervo obscure ramoso. 
Stamina 5, petalis \ breviora ; filamenta brevia, linearia, compressa, crassa, supra basin petalorum affixa ; an- 
therte coriaceae, filamento longiores, oblongo-lanceolatae, subacutae, basi cordatae, valde compressae, per totam 
longitudinem rimis lateralibus dehiscentes. Ovarium ovato-ampullaceum, teres, in stylum validum brevem 
attenuatum, 1-loculare, 1-ovulatum; placenta carnosa et subaquosa, globosa, ovarii loculum implens, basifixa, 
latere unico excavata ; ovulum solitarium, conico-pyriforme, horizontale, funiculo brevi, fundo cavitatis placentae 
affixum. Stigma capitatum, forma varians, saepe lobatum v. crenatum, nunc excavatum, cyathiforme, mar- 

this splendid plant, and to Mr. Gunn for magnificent specimens. It is known to very few of the inhabitants 
of the colony, in consequence of the remoteness and inaccessible nature of the localities it inhabits. Amongst 
the bushrangers it is called " cabbage- tree," and was always described by them as resembling an American aloe 
placed on the top of a long pole. I shall have a further opportunity of making some remarks upon it in the 
Flora of Tasmania. 

H 2 

52 FLORA ANTARCTICA. [Auckland and 

ginibus integris, varie lobatis vel fimbriatis, raro in acetabulum dilatatum. Bacca spharica, valde depressa, 
pallide cajrulea, 2-3 lin. diametro, breviter pedunculata ; epicarpio tenui, membranaceo ; sarcocarpio spongioso, 
insipido, albido ; putamine ovato-globoso, crustaceo, extus venoso, venis basi ad apicem radiantibus. Semen 
unicum, majusculum, reliquiis exsiccatis tenuiter membranaceis brunneis placenta? circumdatum, sphsericum, 
latere unico medio valde constrictum ; testa membranacea, tenui, prope hilum subplicata, pallide fusca ; albu- 
mine duro, corneo, albido. Embryo teres, filiformis, axi seminis contrarius, oblique transversus ; radieula elon- 
gata ; cotyledonibus parvis, semiteretibus. 

This is not an uncommon plant in the woods at the sources of rivers which fall into the Bay of Islands, 
New Zealand, and it has also been gathered in other parts of the Northern Island of New Zealand, where it 
assumes a more straggling and less woody appearance than the Auckland Island specimens present. It is the 
only shrub which in this longitude Inhabits a level so nearly that of the ocean in the respective latitudes of 35° 
and 52^° S. Mr. Cunningham, who first detected this species, describes the berries as spotted with black; in 
the southern specimens, which may in this respect be a variety, they are of a uniform pale blue, and quite 

I have ventured to retain M. A. Richard's generic name of Suttonia for this and several other Myrsinea 
of New Zealand, and though that author gives no etymology of the name, I cannot but suppose it was adopted 
as a well-merited compliment to the Rev. Dr. Sutton of Norwich, one of the original members of the Linnsean 
Society of London, and author of an excellent paper on the British species of Orobanche, read before that 
Society in 1797 (vide Linn. Soc. Trans, vol. iv. p. 193). 

The other species which will be included under Suttonia, as above characterized, are (1.) S. australis, A. 
Rich. (Myrsine Urvillei, Alph. DeC. ; Myrsine undulata, A. Cunn. ; Merista laevigata, Banks and Sol. MSS.); 
(2.) S. tenuifolia*, n. sp. ; (3.) S. salicina (Myrsine salicina, Hew. MSS.). All these have the petals free, 
except the last, in which they are slightly adherent at the base, and they further differ from Myrsine in having 
solitary or rarely (in M. salicina alone) two ovules and seeds. The original discoverers of the genus were Sir 
J. Banks and Dr. Solander, who, accompanying Captain Cook during a five-months' investigation of various 
parts of the shores of New Zealand, were the first Europeans that ever landed there, and the indefatigable col- 
lectors of most of the singular and new forms of plants with which those islands abound. The name Merista, 
given by them to one of the species, was probably adopted in allusion to the division of the corolla. The draw- 
ing and description of M. Richard were made from very imperfect specimens, and the genus incorrectly referred 
to Terebinthace e. 

The Myrsinea are for the most part inhabitants of climates whose temperature is equable, and they particu- 
larly abound in insular localities, as the islands of the Indian Ocean, Mauritius, Bourbon, and Madagascar. Their 
utmost northern limit in the old world seems to be the Azores, lat. 39° N., Madeira, lat. 32°, and Teneriffe ; 
but in no part of the adjacent continent of Africa do they cross the northern tropic ; in Europe they are entirely 
wanting, and in Asia extend only to Japan, in north latitude 40°. The order is very rare in North America, 
and especially to the northward of Mexico, only one species inhabiting the United States, the M. Floridana, A. 
DeC, and that is confined to the southern state whose name it bears, lat. 30° N. In the southern hemisphere 
they nowhere (except in New Zealand) are found to the southward of the 36th parallel, and there in S. Brazil 
only. In Africa they reach the 33rd, and the 34th in Australia. Their extension into the 53rd degree in the 

* Suttonia tenuifolia, n. sp. ; arbuscula, foliis petiolatis ovatis vel ovalibus obtusis tenuibus submembra- 
naceis integerrimis reticulatim venosis punctis glandulosis parvis, fructibus globosis solitariis v. binis pedicel- 

Hab. Norfolk Island, on the skirts of woods : A. Cunninyham (in Herb. Hook.). 

A larger and more membranous-leaved species than the S. australis, to which it is nearly allied. 

Campbell's Islands.] FLORA ANTARCTICA. 53 

South Pacific Ocean is hence a remarkable circumstance, and probably in some measure to be accounted for 
by the uniform temperature which the New Zealand Islands possess ; they further there bear a larger proportion 
to the other dicotyledonous vegetation than they do in any other part of the globe. I have alluded to the 
S. divaricata having a considerable range in latitude, a circumstance not without parallel in the order to 
which it belongs. Of this M. Africana, L. is an extreme instance, that plant being found both at the Cape of 
Good Hope, in Abyssinia, and in the Azores Islands. The species of the Natural Order are however, as M. A. 
DeCandolle well remarks (Linn. Trans, vol. xvii. p. 99), very confined as regards their geographical limits, 
MelastomacecB and Myrtaceos being two of the very few groups containing about the same or a greater number 
of species which are more so. 

Plate XXXIV. Fig. 1, a flower; fig. 2, the same laid open ; fig. 3, a petal and stamen ; fig. 4, a flower 
with the germen more advanced ; figs. 5, 6 and 7, various forms of stigmata ; fig. 8, half-ripe berry ; fig. 9, lon- 
gitudinal section of the same; fig. 10, placenta and young seed ; fig. 11, the same cut open longitudinally ; 
fig. 12, young seed; fig. 13, ripe berry; fig. 14, longitudinal section of the same; fig. 15, seed covered with the 
shrivelled remains of the placenta; fig. 16, seed removed from do. ; fig. 17, longitudinal section of seed showing 
the embryo ; fig. 18, embryo removed : — all magnified. 


1. Gentiana (Antarctophila, Griseb.) concinna, Hook. fil. ; annua, caule breviusculo ramoso, 
ramis teretibus suberectis v. patulis foliosis, foliis coriaceis elongato-spathulatis obtusis marginibus 
minutissime serrulatis, floribus confertis paniculatis inter folia sessilibus v. brevissime pedunculatis, 
segmentis calycinis linearibus corolla ^ brevioribus, corolla campanulata limbi lobis obovato-oblongis 
obtusis albidis rubro pictis, glandulis fauce corolla; 5 orbiculatis subdepressis, antheris post anthesin 
extrorsis. (Tab. XXXV.) 

Var. ft. elonguta ; caule ascendente spithameo vage ramoso, foliis majoribus subtus 3-costatis, floribus albidis 
rubro-purpureo pictis. 

Var. y. robusta ; caule erecto crasso simplici v. ramoso, foliis lanceolatis obtusis subtus 3-5-costatis. 
Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; on the bleak and exposed faces of the mountains. (3. amongst 
rocks and in sheltered situations on the tops of the hills. 7. Campbell's Island ; on the hills, abun- 

Radix simplex, elongato-fusiformis, 1-2 unc. longa, descendeus, hinc illinc fibrosa, ssepe multiceps, intus 
lutea, sapore amaro. Caules solitarii v. plures, perbreves, erecti, 1^-3 uncias longi, nunc ex ima basi dichotome 
ramosi, rarius solitarii, inferne simplices, elongati, superne fastigiatim ramosi. Rami abbreviati, rarius 1-2 
uncias longi v. ultra, erecti, teretes, foliosi, crassitie pennae passerinae, superne et ramuli laterales floriferi. 
Folia inferiora seu radicalia conferta, plerumque stellatim patentia, rarius laxa et suberecta v. stricta, ssepius 
plus minusve recurva, elongato-spathulata, in petiolum gradatim attenuata, latitudine varia, f-1 unc. longa, supra 
medium 4 lin. lata, coriacea, marginibus recurvis, sub lente minutissime cartilagineo-serrulatis, medio uniner- 
via, et nervis duobus lateralibus interdum obsoletis, superne convexiuscula, canaliculata, subtus costa elevata, 
lsete flavo-viridia, fusco purpureove picta, siccitate corrugata ; folia caulina breviora ; petiolus latiusculus, mar- 
ginibus basi membranaceis. Inflorescentia paniculata, sed ramis valde abbreviatis, foliosis, foliis superioribus 
multoties brevioribus, ita ut flores videantur glomerati, paucique inter folia summa sunt solitarii. Calyx 5-fidus, 
tubo brevi, obconico, segmentis lineari-oblongis, obtusis, coriaceis, dorso subacutis, corolla ^ brevioribus, viridibus. 

54 FLORA ANTARCTICA. [Auckland and 

versus apices purpurascentibus. Corolla campanulata, 5-fida, subrotata, 4-5 lin. longa ; tubo brevi, urceolato, 
pallide flavo, supra medium glanduloso, glandulis 5 majusculis, orbiculatis, depressis, pallide viridibus ; lobis 
obovato-oblongis, obtusis, concavis, integerrimis, sestivatione dextrorsum contortis, tubo duplo longioribus, 
albidis, basi macula nervisque latis pulcherrime rubris, siccitate pallide flavis. Stamina tubo corolla? infra faucem 
inserta, lobis glandulisque alterna, inclusa ; filamentis validis, lineari-subulatis, elongatis, erectis, purpureis, api- 
cibus arcuatis, primum incurvis, demum recurvis ; antheris versatilibus, oblongo-quadratis, violaceis, loculis 
lineari-oblongis, rimis longitudinalibus antice dehiscentibus, post antbesin (ob apicem filamenti reflexum) pos- 
ticis. Pollen stramineum, ellipticum, lseve, 3-lobatum, utrinque subacutum. Ovarium lineari-lanceolatum, basi 
in pedicellum breve contractum, superne in stylum validum, gradatim attenuatum, compressum, 1-loculare, pluri- 
ovulatum ; ovula biserialia, placentis suturalibus funiculis brevissimis adnexis, anatropis ; stigmata 2, patentia, 
carpophyllis contraria, subcapitata. Capsula lineari-oblonga, v. lanceolata, £ unc. longa, submembranaceo- 
coriacea, valvis planiusculis, dorso medio sulcatis. Semina numerosa, minuta, biserialia, globosa, subangu- 
lata ; testa membranacea, pallide fusca, albumini carnoso appressa. 

This elegant little species is one of the most attractive plants on the exposed hills, flowering copiously in 
November and December. The variety /3. is rather uncommon and seldom flowers ; its appearance is more that 
of a large leafy state than of perfect or characteristic specimens. The y. I have never found in flower, and it 
may prove a distinct species, though the roots are annual and its leaves of the same nature as some of the larger 
specimens of G. concinna. The former of these varieties approaches the G. montana, Forst., of New Zealand, 
Tasmania and Australia, itself a very variable plant, according to our own and Forster's original specimens 
in the British Museum, and to the description of Forster quoted by Richard (Fl. Nov. Zel. p. 203), and the 
works of Brown and Grisebach (Gen. et Sp. Gentian, p. 235). All the states of the latter however differ from 
this in the much larger flowers, acute lobes of the corolla, and long peduncles of the flowers. The present 
plant affords further a proof of a certain similarity in the whole Flora of the south circumpolar regions, a pecu- 
liarity more strongly marked in the analogous latitudes of the Northern hemisphere, where large tracts of land 
with a concomitant vegetation are situated nearer the pole. I must confess that I have much difficulty in recog- 
nising more than one species in Tasmania, which is itself closely allied to several South Chilian and Patagonian 
plants, as G. Patagonica, Griseb., G. multicaulis, Gill, and G. diffusa, H. B. K. 

I am here anxious to correct an error I have fallen into, in considering the G. Grisebachii (Hook. fil. in Ic. 
PI. t. 636) as distinct from G. montana, Forst. ; I have lately had the opportunity of examining large suites of 
specimens of the true plant, of which the G. Grisebachii is decidedly a small state. And so also with regard to 
the G. bellidifolia (Ic. PI. t. 635) ; though different from the ordinary states of Forster's G. saxosa, and especially 
from the specimens from which he made his drawings, it is not specifically distinct from other states which have 
been gathered by Forster, but which, when the G. bellidifolia was published, I had not the opportunity of 

Plate XXXV. Fig. 1, a flower ; fig. 2, corolla removed from the same ; fig. 3, corolla laid open ; figs. 4, 5 
and 6, stamens and anther ; fig. 7, pollen ; fig. 8, ovarium ; fig. 9, one valve of do. and ovules ; fig. 10, capsule ; 
fig. 11, seeds : — all magnified. 

2. Gentiana (Andicola, Griseb.) cerina, Hook. fil. ; perennis, caule prostrato vage ramoso, 
ramis ad apices adscendentibus, foliis cartilaginco-carnosis obovato-spathulatis obtusis vel retusis 
3-nerviis in petiolum latum attenuatis, floribus inter folia summa confertis sessilibus, corolla late 
campanulata subrotata lobis oblongo-lanceolatis obtusis albidis purpureo-venosis, tubo glandulis 
depressis 5, antheris post anthesin extrorsis. (Tab. XXXVI.) 

Had. Lord Auckland's group; near the sea on rocky islets in Rendezvous Harbour. 

Radix fusiformis, elongata, 3-4 unc. longa, cortice crasso, fusco, transversim rugoso tecta, inferne divisa, 

Campbell's Islands.] FLORA ANTARCTICA. 55 

superne plantis junioribus multiceps, ad collum foliosa, vetustioribus caules plurimos vel solitarios emitters. 
Caules prostrati, elongati, 4 unc. ad pedem longi, 2-3 lin. diametro, crassi, subsucculenti, teretes, siccitate sub- 
angulati, e basi rarnosi, per totam longitudinem foliosi v. inferne nudi, e foliis inferioribus deciduis annulati, 
internodiis |-f uncialibus, superne incrassati, apicibus ascendentibus, ramis abbreviatis ssepius floriferis. Folia 
nutnerosa, inferiora, pra?sertim exemplaribus raraosis junioribusque, latiora, rosulata, circa collum stellatim 
patentia, omnia plus minusve recurva, late spathulata, obtusa, retusa, v. emarginata, marginibus integerrimis, 
interdum recurvis, 1-1^ unc - longa, £-| unc. lata, 3-nervia et reticulatim venosa, nervis subtus prominulis, late 
sed pallide viridia, nitida, purpureo picta, siccitate fusca et nigrescentia, interdum membranacea ; petiolo lato, 
superne piano, subtus convexo, deorsum dilatato, semiamplexicauli, cum caule articulato. Inflorescentia vero- 
similiter paniculata, sed ramis obsoletis et pedunculis abbreviatis, hinc flores ut videtur solitarii v. bini, et inter 
folia subsessiles. Flores, solummodo plantis junioribus visi, iisque ramis caulibusque abbreviatis. Calyx cam- 
panulatus, 5-fidus, segmentis late linearibus, obtusis, corolla ^ brevioribus, 3-nerviis, apicibus recurvis. Corolla 
late campanulata, subrotata, 4-5 lin. longa, albida, 5-fida, lobis late obovato-oblongis, obtusis, concavis, 5-6 
nerviis, nervis rubro-purpureis ; — glandulis, staminibus, ovarloq\ie ut in G. concinna. 

During our stay in Lord Auckland's group I much regretted being unable in my drawings, to imitate the pel- 
lucid and waxv appearance, especially of the flowers and leaves of this most beautiful plant, to which in other 
respects the artist has done ample justice. It bears nearly the same relation to the G. saxosa, Forst., as the former- 
described species does to G. montana. Though placed by Dr. Grisebach (in his excellent Essay on Gentianece) in 
separate sections of that genus, there appears to me to be but little to remove these two species far from one another, 
except the annual root of one. As is the case with G. saxosa, the leaves of this are variable in breadth, but not 
to the same extent, and it entirely differs from that plant in the prostrate habit of growth, very short peduncles 
of the flowers, and in the broader and shorter corollas, which are not much longer than the lobes of the calyx. The 
anthers in all the New Zealand as in the Tasmanian species are versatile on the apex of the filament, which is 
curved and at first projects forward ; after the discharge of the pollen, or rather the first dehiscence of the anthers, 
the apex of the filaments immediately becomes erect and then reflexed, whence in the expanded flowers the 
anthers are almost invariably found to be extrorse. Although Gentians are seldom white-flowered as species, 
this and the former are decidedly so, with red or red-purple at the base of the segments, and the veins of the 
same colour ; the pure blue of the European species is unknown amongst those of these regions, or of the higher 
latitudes of South America. Indeed I think that few genera display so full a series of colours in the flowers as 
this does; red, blue, yellow and white are all exhibited in it, with many of the intermediate compound tints. 
Yellow and white are rare in the regions of the Gentians, but almost invariably present ; the red species are 
nearly confined to the Andes of South America and New Zealand. Amongst Dr. Jameson's ' Botanical Notes on 
the Flora of the Andes of Peru and Colombia' I find the following interesting remark: "Of sixteen species of Gen- 
tian with which I am acquainted, one-half are red, four purple, two blue, one yellow, and one white." (Bot. 
Journ. vol. ii. p. 649.) Their inferior limit under the line we find from the same source to be 7852 feet, and they 
ascend from thence nearly to the limits of perpetual snow on Cotopaxi* ; they do not in South America descend 
to the level of the sea in a lower latitude than 54° or thereabouts, where however there are no alpine species, 
though the snow-line does not descend below 4000-3500 feetf. In the Himalayan, where the species are all 
blue-flowered, one species has been gathered by my friend Mr. Edgeworth near Ratha Kona, on the ManaPass, 
at an elevation of 16,000 feet, near the limit of perpetual snow ; and another reaches in lat. 31° N. the altitude of 

* 15,646 feet, Jameson, I.e. p. 657. The mean lower limit of perpetual snow on the Andes under the 
equator is at an altitude of 15,748 feet, according to Humboldt; and 15,496 from the mean on six mountains 
measured by Dr. Jameson. 

t King, in Journ. Roy. Geog. Soc. vol. i. p. 165. Darwin, Journ. p. 277. 

56 FLORA ANTARCTICA. [Auckland and 

12,689 feet, according to Dr. Royle (Must. Plant. Himmal. vol. i. pp. 22 and 278). In Ceylon a species has 
been gathered at between 6000 and 8000 feet of elevation. One species, G.prostrata, H. B. K.,has a most extra- 
ordinary range, both in longitude and latitude : in southern Europe it inhabits the Carinthian Alps, between 
6000 and 9000 feet high ; in Asia it has been found on the Altai mountains about lat. N. 52°. Its American 
range is much more remarkable, it having been gathered on the tops of the Rocky Mountains in lat. 52° N., 
where they attain an elevation of 15,000-16,000 feet, and on the east side of the Andes of South America in 
35° S. : it descends to the level of the sea at Cape Negro ; in the Straits of Magalhaens in lat 53° S. ; and at 
Cape Good Hope in Behring's Straits, lat 683-° N. 

The fact of the occurrence, and the great number, of species of Gentiana inhabiting only the more elevated 
regions of the temperate and tropical zones, and there reaching the snow limit, renders it very remarkable that 
they should be so proportionally scarce in the higher latitudes both of the northern and southern hemispheres. 
Generally speaking, the inhabitants of these elevated and cold regions are species of such Natural Orders and 
genera as compose the mass of the Polar vegetation. It is so to a great extent with certain groups of Ranun- 
culacete, of Graminete, Caryophyllea, Cruciferee, Ericeee, &c. &c, but not with Gentianem ; the proportion which 
the species of the transition temperate zones bear to the other plants of those regions on the one hand, and to 
the tropical species of the same genus on the other, is in both cases remarkably small. They are entirely 
unknown to the Floras of the Polar American Islands ; very few inhabit Greenland, Iceland, or the Arctic sea- 
shores in the North, or Tasmania, New Zealand, Fuegia, or the Antarctic Islands in the South; and again in 
other parts of N. Europe and America, or of Chili and Patagonia, they are infinitely less numerous than in the 
Alps of Middle and South Europe, or the Andes of the equator. 

Plate XXXVI. Fig. 1 , flower ; fig. 2, corolla ; fig. 3, stamens ; fig. 4, ovarium : — all magnified. 


1. Myosotis capitata, Hook, fil.; radice perenni multicauli, caulibus validis ascendentibus 
foliosis pilosis pilis patentibus, foliis lineari-oblongis v. subspathulatis obtusis supra sericeo-pilosis 
rarius subhispidis subtus pilis laxioribus glabriusculisve, racemis capitatis densifloris simplicibus v. 
conjugatis foliis supremis brevioribus, calyce cylindraceo, corollae tubo terete calycem | superante 
limbi lobis planiusculis rotundatis. (Tab. XXXVII.) 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; on gravelly banks near the margins of the woods, close to high- 
water mark. 

Radix crassa, elongata, 2-3-pollicaris, diametro pennse anatinae, horizontalis et descendens, per totam lon- 
gitudinem fibras crassas, simplices vel fibrillosas emittens, fusco-nigra, ad apicem bi- tri-multiceps, reliquiis folio- 
rum vetustorum subsquamosa. Caules simplices, ascendentes, rarius lateralibus prostratis, apicibus tantum 
erectis, crassi, 4 unc. ad spithamsam longi, J- unc. lati, teretes, pilosi, pilis mollibus, patentibus, hie illic 
densis, foliosi. Folia plurima, radicalia, seu caulibus abbreviatis fasciculata, patentia, lineari-oblonga, obtusa 
rarius basi atteuuata et spathulata, 1^—2 unc. longa, 4-6 lin. lata, plana, medio uninervia, venis lateralibus reticu- 
latis, obscuris, supra pilosa, pilis appressis, subsericeis, simplicibus, albidis, vetustiora scabriuscula pilis basi glo- 
boso-incrassatis, subtus glabra vel parce pilosa, pilis laxis, mollibus, undique patentibus, basi glabra, lata, semi- 
amplexicaulia, marginibus ciliatis, caulina minora, suberecta v. recurva, basi marginibus membranaceis, suprema 
plerumque racemum superantia. Racemus terminalis, breviter pedunculatus, solitarius, simplex vel furcatus, 
interdum conjugatus, in capitulum circinatum volutus, pluriflorus, ebracteatus. Flores conferti, erecti, 
breviter pedicellati, pedicellis hirsutis sub lineam longis. Calyx elongatus. cylindraceus, 1^ lin. longus, hirtus, 
lobis elongatis, lineari-oblongis, obtusis, obscure 3-nerviis. Corolla hypocrateriformis ; tubus elongatus, teres, 

Campbell's Islands.] FLORA ANTARCTICA. 57 

rectus, calyce sub \ longior ; limbus explanatus, lobis rotundatis, venosis, intense cyaneis, alabastris rubris ; faux 
glandulis fornicatis, medio superne emarginatis fere clausa. Stamina 5, inclusa, apicibus solummodo antherarum 
exsertis, filamentis brevibus. Nuculic4, basifixa?, immatura? late ovata?, acuta?, piano compressa?, dorso convex- 
iuscula?, intus medio obscure carinatse, marginibus acutis, sub-ancipitibus ; pericarpium subcrustaceum, tenue, 
fuscum. Stylus elongatus, gracilis, stigmate clavato, obtuso, exserto terminatus. 

This is a very pretty species, though not quite so handsome as its near congener, M . alpestris, Schm., from 
which it differs at first sight in the smaller corollas, which are of a deep violet-blue, as in M. Azorica, H. Wats. 
It may I think be distinguished from any of the species of this difficult genus by the dense capitate racemes, 
together with the narrow calyces and calycine segments and the long tube of the corolla. Another allied species, 
the M.fulva, Hook, and Arn., which inhabits the west coasts both of extratropical North and South America, 
chiefly differs from this in the shorter tube of the white corolla, and in the calyces being densely covered with 
silky fulvous or pale brown hairs. 

Plate XXXVII. Fig. 1, a flower ; fig. 2, corolla laid open ; fig. 3, young achaenia and style ; fig. 4, dorsal, 
and fig. 5, anterior view of acha?nia nearly mature : — all magnified. 

2. Myosotis antarctica, Hook. fil. ; parvula, caespitosa, caulibus plurimis confertis prostratis 
v. ascendentibus foliosis, foliis obovato-oblongis subhispido-pilosis basi latis, floribus raris in axillis 
foliorum superiorum solitariis breviter pedicellatis, calycis segmentis lineari-subulatis obtusis, corolla? 
tubo calyce bis longiore limbo patente. (Tab. XXXVIII.) 

Hab. Campbell's Island; on the debris at the base of precipices in the most exposed places 
along with Cardamine stellata, and in clefts of rock on the very summits of the mountains. 

Radix perennis, brevis, subfusiformis, descendens, aterrima, multiceps, copiosissime fibrosa, fibris ramosis 
fasciculatis. Caules plurimi, abbreviati, 1 unc. longi vel breviores, undique patentes, subrigidi, parce ramosi, 
foliosi, interiores ascendentes, vetustiores prostrati, emortui anni prateriti longiores. Folia conferta, basi 
intcrdum imbricata, horizontaliter patentia, subcoriacea, obovato-oblonga, obtusa, inferiora et radicalia majora, 
vix # unc. longa, 2-4 lin. lata, supra medium uninervia, subhispido-pilosa, pilis albidis appressis, subtus glabri- 
uscula, pilis paucis, laxis, patentibus, versus basim latam glabra, marginibus ciliatis, vetustiora pilis sparsis, rigidis, 
basi globoso-incrassatis, demum deciduis obsita. F/ores 4-6, parvi, inconspicui, vix racemosi, terminales solum- 
modo in spicani nudam dispositi, 3-4 inferiores in axillis foliorum supremorum solitarii, subsessiles v. breviter 
pedicellati, plerumque inter folia occlusi. Calyx cylindraceus, segmentis corolla i brevioribus, § lin. longis, 
pilosis, pilis elongatis, fructiferis subfuliaceis. Corolla tubus cylindraceus, elongatus, limbo explanato, lobis 
concavis, obovato-rotundatis, azureis, venosis. Stamina 5 ; filamentis brevibus, incurvis, subulatis ; antheris 
majusculis. Ovaria 4, parva, sessilia. Stylus filiformis, stigmate simplice clavato terminatus. Nuculte 4, 
unico v. pluribus abortivis, valde compressa?, ancipites v. subbialata?, ovata?, acuta?, dorso convexiuscula?, intus 
planiores, medio subcarinata?. Pericarpium tenue, crustaceum, atrum, nitidum, la?ve. Testa membranacea. 
Embryo majusculus, compressus ; radicula parva, supera; cotyledonibus majusculis, plano-convexis. 

This is a very small species^ typical of a high latitude and rigorous climate, preferring also those localities 
where few other plants but lichens and mosses can exist. It is remarkable as belonging to a small section of 
the genus, apparently confined to the islands of New Zealand, of which the M. spathulata, Forst., is the type. 
These have many of the lower flowers solitary in the axils of the uppermost leaves, and the true ebracteate 
raceme reduced to a very short and few-flowered spike. 

The leaves of several of the New Zealand species of Boraginece so closely resemble one another in form, 

that unless good flowering specimens are examined, two genera may easily be considered as belonging to one 

and the same plant. Such are a species of Exarrhena, Br., and the M. spathulata of A. Richard. The latter 

is a very distinct plant from either M. capitata or M. antarctica, as also from the true spathulata of Forster, 

VOL. I. I 

58 FLORA ANTARCTICA. [Auckland and 

and has been described and figured (in Mus. Banks) as M. riglda, Banks and Sol, MSS. Forster accurately 
describes the flowers of his plant as solitary, most of them being truly so ; but, from its being similar in all 
other respects to a plant brought home from New Zealand by Admiral D'Urville, except in the latter having 
the flowers in a raceme, M. Richard altered (in his Flora Nova; Zelandire, p. 198) the character of Forster. 
His species is probably the M. rigida, Banks and Solander, or another nearly allied plant which we possess 
from New Zealand. 

The M. antaretica is certainly an extreme instance of any of the species having a leafy inflorescence ; 
although the genus is generally described as having " racemus ebracteatus," there are some European and even 
British species, which, in having the lower flowers solitary in the axils of the uppermost leaves removed from the 
base of the raceme, show an evident analogy to the southern ones. 

Several of the species of the northern hemisphere, though nearly identical with others of the southern, are 
not known to grow within 80 or 90 degrees of latitude of one another. This is the case both in the eastern 
and western hemispheres. A very few are inhabitants of the elevated and cold regions of the tropics, under 
the equator, where they attain, on the Andes of South America, an altitude of 12,000 feet. In the old world 
the present species represents the southern limit of the genus ; especially as, from the elevation it attains in 
Campbell's Island, it may be supposed capable of existing at the level of the sea in a much higher southern 

Plate XXXVIII. Fig. 1, flower ; fig. 2, corolla laid open ; fig. 3, ovaria ; fig. 4, stamen ; fig. 5, calyx with 
ripe fruit ; fig. G, back, and fig. 7, front view of an acheenium ; fig. 8, transverse section of an achaenium ; fig. 9, 
embryo removed : — all magnified. 



1. Veronica eUiptica, Forst. ; fruticosa v. arbuscula, ramulis obscure bifariam albo-puberulis, 
foliis decussatis horizontaliter patentibus ellipticis oblongis oblongo-lanceolatis v. obovato-oblongis 
acutis v. mucronatis rarius obtusis coriaceis glabris aveniis marginibus interdum ciliatis costa subtus 
prominula ultra apicem producta junioribus remote crenato-serratis, racemis axillaribus brevibus 
rarius corymboso-ramosis pauci-(4-10)-floris, calycis laciniis ovatis acutis v. acuminatis tubo corollae 
paulo brevioribus, corolla majuscula alba v. carnea, capsulis late ovatis. — Forst. Prodr. n. 10. et in 
A. Richard, Flor. Nov.Zel. p. 189. A. Cunn. Prodr. in Ann. Nat. Hist. vol. i. p. 458. V. decussata, 
Ait. Hort. Keiv. vol. i. p. 31. Sims, Bot. Mag. t. 242, et auctorum. V. decussata, 0, Banks and 
Sot. MSS. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island; margins of woods near the sea, abundant. 

This is a very well-known plant in our gardens, introduced from the Falkland Islands, and is one of the 
most antarctic trees, both in this longitude and in that of extreme Southern America, there reaching the 57th 
parallel of latitude. It was first collected in New Zealand by Forster, its original discoverer, in Dusky Bav, 
where it has since been found by Anderson and Menzies. I believe it however to have been noticed before 
as a native of the Straits of Magalhaens, by the older navigators. 

In combining the V. decussata Ait. with V. eUiptica, I have followed the unpublished opinion of Dr. 
Solander. In the British Museum there are drawings of the latter plant by Forster, New Zealand specimens 
collected probably by that author, and notes by Dr. Solander. The specimens alluded to are in fruit only, and 
agree in the foliage with the figures, which represent it in its flowering state. Dr. Forster's own handwriting 

Campbell's Islands.] FLORA ANTARCTICA. 59 

(of V. elliptica) is on the same sheet with it ; but another plant, V. Menziesii, Benth. MSS., has been fastened 
down on the paper at a future period, and the habitat " New Zealand, Dusky Bay, Gul. Anderson," is written 
on the back, a station probably applying to the latter specimen alone. Solander's handwriting, of V. decussata, 
/>, at the bottom of the sheet, applies to both, as in his manuscript he quotes both Forster and Anderson for the 
species. I am thus particular in alluding to the British Museum specimens, because there is a discrepancy be- 
tween the plant of Forster as described by him, and our own, according to his MS. description, published by 
M. A. Richard, I. c, where the tube of the corolla is described as being twice the length of the calycine segments, 
and the latter as subulate. In all our specimens, both from Lord Auckland and Campbell's Islands, as also in 
those of Antarctic America, the tube of the corolla is a little longer than the calyx, sometimes as much as one- 
third, but it appears even more so before the expansion of the corolla ; and by subulate that author might have 
alluded to the acuminated apex which the segments sometimes have. Though Forster's drawing does not exhibit 
the calyx, it coincides too closely with the preserved specimen, and both with our plant, to leave any doubt in my 
mind that we have here another instance of the similarity of the vegetation of the higher latitudes. Dr. Solander 
indeed considers the New Zealand plant as a different variety from the Southern American, and in his MSS. 
description of the southern species, to which I have access through the kindness of Mr. Brown, he separates the 
former as " /3. floribus carneis (Forster), rami's glabriusculis. Frutex sesquipedalis." In Forster's drawing the 
mineral white used to colour the flowers has become discoloured, and the pink alluded to by Dr. Solander 
almost obscured ; in our specimens they are of a pure milk-white when fresh. The want of down on the branches 
arises from age. 

In Lord Auckland's group this species attains a much larger size than it does in America, there seldom 
exceeding four feet in height, whilst Forster describes the Dusky Bay tree as twelve feet, and I have seen it as 
much as thirty on the margins of the woods close to the sea, where it may be readily distinguished by its pale 
green foliage and erect branches. I saw but one specimen in full flower, growing on an inaccessible rock 
overlooking Rendezvous Harbour ; from a distance it seemed powdered with white flowers. 

In New Zealand this genus is one of the most extensive of flowering plants, containing no less than 
twenty-five species, of which four-fifths are shrubby or arborescent. Of these, ten were originally discovered 
by Sir J. Banks and Dr. Solander during their visit to these islands, and are described in the MSS. above 
alluded to. Under one of them, the V. macrocarpa, Dr. Solander dwells upon that peculiarity in the structure 
of the fruit which separates many of them from the European forms of the genus : he writes, " Hsec, et quinque 
sequentes, (V. sulicifolia, myrtifolia, stricta, pubescens, parvijlora,) a reliquis Veronicis diff'erunt, corolla subrin- 
gente et cupsula apice integra acutiuscula, ut fere proprium constituant genus." Mr. Brown (Prodr. p. 434) 
dwells more at length on this peculiarity, explaining the structure and its modifications, and further using it as 
a sectional character. 

The extreme difficulty of determining the species of this section was also alluded to by Dr. Solander, who 
continues in the MSS. above quoted, " valde atfines sunt, ut differentia specirica difficillime eruatur, prsecipue 
si specimina sicca consulantur ; nee ilia sine capsulis distinguere possibile est. Plantae autem viva? habitu dis- 
crepant, facillimeque tunc dignoscuntur, ut alias species esse distinctas credam." This difficulty has not been 
a little increased by the accession of new species, similar to the above in form ; and the whole genus is now so 
large as to require a complete remodelling ; this is expected from the pen of Mr. Bentham, to whom 1 am 
indebted for the discrimination of my species. As his remarks bear reference to all the Auckland and Campbell's 
Island species, I shall avail myself of his kind permission to give the definition of the sections under which they 
will be arranged. " For this section," Mr. Bentham says, " I adopt as sectional Jussieu's name of Hebe, 
with the character : capsula septicido-bipartibilis, carpeliis dorso breviter intus profunde bifidis. Placentte 
stipitatre. Folia crassiuscula, nitida, glaberrima, omnia opposita. Racerni axillares, v. ad apices ramorum corym- 
bosi, v. paniculati. Corolla tubus latitudine vix longior v. rarius brevissimus." Of this section there are five 
subsections, almost wholly composed of New Zealand species ; under the second of these, this and the two follow- 

i 2 

60 FLORA ANTARCTICA. [Auckland and 

ing will rank, thus characterized : " § 2. Decussata. Frutices Antarctica? v. Australasica?. Folia crassiuscula, 
nitida, glaberrima, decussatim opposita, integerrima v. rarius subserrata, costa valida, venis inconspicuis. Racemi 
ad apices ramorum corymboso-congesti, v. rarius in axillis abbreviati, pauciflori. Capsula acuta v. obtusiuscula, 
turgida v. parallele compressa." — Benth. MSS. 

2. Veronica Benthami, Hook. fil. ; fruticosa, ramulis junioribus bifariam puberulis demum 
glabris, foliis decussatis oblongis v. oblongo-obovatis v. lineari-oblongis obtusis basi angustatis ses- 
silibus planis coriaceis uninerviis linea puberula alba marginatis integerrimis v. ultra medium remote 
serratis, racemis terminalibus, floribus inter bracteas foliaceas breviter pedicellatis, calycis laciniis 5 
valde inaequalibus obtusis corollas tubo multo longioribus, corolla 5-partita, capsula majuscula late 
ovata acuta. (Tab. XXXIX. & XL.) 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island ; on rocky places on the hills, abundant. 

Frutex erectus, 2-4 pedalis, ramosus. Caulis brevis, validus, fuscus. Rami patentes, demum ascendentes, 
annulati, nudi, cortice fusco, opaco, longitudinaliter corrugato tecti. Ramuli erecti, validi, crassi, interdum 
crassitudine penna? anserinae, 5-7 unc. longi, obscure tetragoni, angulis obtusis, creberrime annulati v. potius 
transversim cicatricosi, basi nudi, sursum versus apices tantum foliosi, cortice pallide testaceo. Folia decussata, 
irobricata, horizontaliter patentia, inferiora majora, 1—1 ^ unc. longa, |-1 unc. lata, gradatim minora, sessilia v. 
in petiolum brevissimum attenuata, ima basi interdum connata, plana, forma varia, saepius obovato-oblonga, nunc 
elliptica v. oblonga, rarius lineari-oblonga v. angustiora, obtusa, subacuta v. mucrone obtuso, basi semper atte- 
nuata, coriacea, integra v. supra medium remote crenato-serrata ; margine tenuiter recurvo, linea latiuscula, 
alba, puberula, subargentea circumdato, versus apicem latiore et interdum plus minusve super pagiuam supe- 
riorem folii extensa, et tomento molli breve ciliata ; supra intense viridia, subnitida, medio canaliculata, avenia ; 
subtus pallidiora, subglaucescentia, costa medio prominula, valida; siccitate atro-fusca v. testacea, supra sa?pius 
transversim corrugata. Racemi elongati, 1|-2| unc. longi, terminales, erecti, validi, bracteis foliaceis tecti, 
sa?pius simplices, interdum basin versus ramosi, ramis abbreviatis. Rachis tota albido-pubescens v. subtomen- 
tosa, teres, stricta ; fructifera, demum elongata, basi nuda; anni praeteriti persistens, lignosa, ramulo lateralis. 
Bractece foliaceae, folia summa omnino simulantes, sed minores, inferiores f, suprema? ^ unc. longa?, albido-mar- 
ginata? ut folia caulina, brevissime petiolatae, petiolis basi distantibus, omnes floriferae. Flores racemo singulo 
circiter 20-30, quorum 6-8 tantum simul explicant, in axillis bractearum solitarii, pedicellati, limbo corolla? 
exserto, conspicuo. Pedicelli±-l unc. longi, erecti, pubescentes ; fructiferi elongati, validi, lignosi. Calyx pro- 
funde quinquepartitus, majusculus, campanulatus v. infundibuliformis, corolla? tubo multo longior, interdum 
limbum ejus aequans ; laciniae 2 exteriores laterales, caeterae \ longiores et bis latiores, obovato-spathulatae, 
obtusae, foliaceae, sub 2 lin. longae, albo marginatae ; caeterae subaequales, lineari-spathulatae, apicibus rotundatis 
paululum recurvis. Corolla hypocrateriformis, ampla, ringens v. patens, diametro 5-6 lin., intense azurea, venis 
violaceis ; tubus limbo A brevior ; laciniae inter se aequales v. inaequales, plerumque 5, rarius 3 v. 6, nunquam 4 
(mihi visae), obovato-spathulatae v. late obovata?, forma variae, nunc angustiores, nunc latiores. Stamina 2, 
rarius 3, fauce corolla? inserta ; filamenta brevia, valida, subulata, laciniis sub \ breviora ; antheris majusculis, 
purpureis, loculis divaricatis. Ovarium late ovatum, subacutum, compressum, 2-sulcatum, 2-loculare, loculis 
pluriovulatis ; ovulis marginibus inflexis dissepimentorum adnexis. Stylus validus, breviusculus, paulo curvatus. 
Stigma capitatum. Capsula in spicam v. racemum elongatum, erectum, nudum disposita?, breviter v. longius 
pedicellata?, pedicellis nunc 3-5 lin. longis, majuscula?, erectae, paulo longiores quam lata?, 3-4 lin. longa?, cori- 
acea?, late ovata?, acutae, turgidae, bi- tripartibiles, bi- triloculares, septicide v. rarius locuiicide bi- trivalves ; 
valvula? ovata?, acutae, pallide (lava? v. atrae, dorso ab apice ad medium et antice ad basim fissa? ; placentae pedi- 
cellata?, ab urraque valvula discedentes, pedicellis gracilibus ; rarius, et solummodo ubi capsula trilocularis sit, 
semina marginibus connatis dissepimentorum affixa sunt. Semina parva, imbricata, brunnea, compressa, ala lata, 

Campbell's Islands.'] FLORA ANTARCTICA. 61 

coriacea, olivaceo-fusca, basi profunde emarginata circumdata. Testa membranacea. Embryo clavaformis, 

This is not only a beautiful, but a very remarkable plant, and one of the greatest ornaments to the barren 
hills it inhabits, the flowers being nearly as large as those of V. elliptica, Forst., and of a most beautiful blue 
colour. In the pedicellate flowers, crowded upon an erect, leafy, terminal raceme, a few of which only expand 
at one time, it is more nearly allied to some of the British herbaceous species than to the shrubby group of New 
Zealand. It may also be remarked, that two of the largest-flowered species, whose corollas are of the finest 
blue, are more alpine in their habitats than most of their congeners, as is the case with this plant and with the 
V. saxatilis of the European Alps. 

In garden specimens of the V. speciosa, R. Cunn. (Bot. Mag. t. 4057), I have observed the calyx and 
corolla to vary in the number of parts, from three to four, but I am not aware that the stamens in any species 
except the present ever exceed two, or that the corolla is constantly pentamerous. The V. decussata, Ait. 
(elliptica, Forst.) is figured and described in the 'Botanical Magazine' by Mr. Curtis (t. 242) as sometimes 
having five parts to the corolla, which is the nearest approach I know of to the present case. I shall however 
first point out the remarkable structure of the calyx, before more fully describing the corolla. 

The calyx is constantly 5-cleft; the segments very large and singularly unequal in size, two being much 
larger than the rest, always external and of the form of cauline leaves ; the other three are nearly equal, so that 
at first sight the calyx appears 3-cleft, with two lateral bracts on its base ; the large segments are however 
remote from the true bract on the base of the pedicel. Neither of these is the posticous lobe, nor is the solitary 
smaller one placed between them, which is the lowest ; but the two others, one of which is a little larger than 
the other, are nearly opposite the back lobe of the corolla. 

The corolla is rather variable in form ; when regularly developed it is 5-cleft, with rather broad, nearly 
equal, patent segments, the two lowest being the smallest, the upper the posticous. The segments are however 
often so very equal in size, that, from their appearance alone, it is not possible to judge which is the upper one. 
The increased number of parts might be supposed to arise from the division of the back lobe, which is in so 
many Veronicas the larger, and the stamens would thus be placed one at the outer base of two contiguous 
segments. This however is not the case in any 5-cleft flowers ; when diandrous, only one segment separates 
them, which I have seen to be the upper when they are equal in size, and it is more evidently so when two of the 
lobes are smaller than the rest, which are then placed opposite the two stamens and are the lower. The addi- 
tional lobe is formed thus from the division of the lower, or what is generally the smaller, lobe in others of the 
genus. Some analogy to this structure may be found in the case of V. nivea, nob. (Icon. Plant, t. 640), which 
has the lower lobe truly bifid, as I have proved by an examination of other specimens, and not accidentally, as 
suggested in the description of that plant on its first publication. In some spikes all the flowers are ringent, 
the tubes of the corollas longer, and the segments narrower than in the normal state of the plant. Of these 
some are 6-cleft, of which I found two instances, one diandrous and the other triandrous. In the diandrous 
flower the sixth lobe was formed from the division of the upper or posticous lobe into two unequal segments, 
and one of the stamens was abortive and inserted lower in the tube of the corolla than the other. In the tri- 
androus specimen the sixth lobe was due to the splitting of the lower into three. We have here instances 
of both the upper and lower segment in this species becoming divided. I never saw any tendency in either of 
the lateral ones to divide, further, than that, in one instance of a 5-lobed corolla, one of these had a large 
tooth on its lower margin. Three-lobed corollas are rare ; the two I examined were regular, with the segments 
nearly equal and very broad. The genus Veronica is generally described as having the upper or back lobe the 
largest; this is not constantly, though often the case, but the lower lobe is generally the smallest, sometimes 
remarkably so. In V. nivea, mentioned above, the lateral divisions are much the largest, as is the case with 
V. Cataracts, Forst., and its ally V. diffusa, nob., very distinctly. The V. tetragona, Hook. (Icon. Plant, t. 5S0) is 
figured with the upper lobe bifid ; it is probably rarely so, as in all the specimens I examined it was quite entire. 

62 FLORA ANTARCTICA. [Auckland and 

In the several instances of the flowers being triandrous, the stamens were all perfect ; two in the usual 
position of those organs in Veronica, and the third opposite the upper segment, and hence in a position analo- 
gous to the centre of the lower lobe. I found no trace of abortive stamina in other parts of the corolla, or in 
the position of the third stamen in diandrous flowers. 

The capsules vary much in size, from 2 lines to nearly ^rd of an inch in length. Those with three valves 
were very large, and in one instance occupied the whole raceme ; in other cases only a few of the capsules 
were 3-celled. In most instances, and always in the 2-valved, the valves separate from the central column 
which bears the placenta? and seeds, and the dehiscence is truly septicidal. In many of those with the addi- 
tional valve, the capsule is only partially septicidal, one or more of the valves separating from the central column ; 
whilst the inner margins of the dissepiments of the others are united from above the middle to the base, with 
the seeds attached to an inflexed portion and escaping at the top of the capsule, which is split no further down 
in front than at the back ; in other cases all the contiguous dissepiments were thus united, and with the valves 
not separating at all, either from the axis or from one another, or with the axis itself dividing into three por- 
tions, which remain attached to the valves ; in both the latter cases the capsules are spuriously loculicidal. I 
am not aware of this dehiscence occurring in any other of the New Zealand shrubby species of Veronica, or that 
a 3-valved capsule has been previously observed in the Natural Order Scrophularinece. 

Plate XXXIX & XL. Fig. 1, flower; fig. 2, calyx with an outer segment removed, showing the ovarium ; 
fig. 3, a regular triandrous corolla; fig. 4, the same laid open ; fig. 5, a diandrous corolla ; fig. 6, a similar one 
with a lateral segment toothed ; fig. 7, a 6-cleft corolla, the upper segment split and one stamen abortive ; fig. 8, 
another 6-cleft corolla, triandrous, the lower segment divided into three ; fig. 9, a 3-cleft corolla ; fig. 10, a sta- 
men ; fig. 1 1, transverse section of an ovarium ; fig. 12, back, and fig. 13, lateral view of a capsule ; fig. 14, 
transverse section of do. ; fig. 15, column and seeds ; fig. 16, a 3-celled capsule; fig. 17, transverse section of 
do., with one valve free, the other partially united to the column ; fig. 18, transverse section of another 3-valved 
capsule, with the central column divided into three parts and adhering to the valves; fig. 19, back view of a 
ripe seed ; fig. 20, front view of another ; fig. 21, lateral view of do.; fig. 22, embryo : — all magnified. 

3. Veroxica odora, Hook. fil. ; fruticosa, glaberrima, ramis ramulisque erectis strictis virgatis, 
foliis decussatis uniformibus breviter petiolatis elliptico-ovatis submueronatis v. obtusiusculis concavis 
crassis rigidis marginibus tenuiter cartilagineis minute crenulatis, racemis brevibus ad apices ramu- 
lorum corymboso-confertis, calycis laciniis 4 obtusiusculis corollas tubum asquantibus, corollas laciniis 
majoribus oblougis tubo longioribus, staminibus corolla paulo brevioribus. (Tab. XLI.) 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; in woods near the sea, not uncommon, forming scattered bushes. 

Frutex elegans, gracilis, 2—4 pedalis, parce fastigiatim ramosus. Caulis erectus, validus, nudus, semipedalis 
et ultra, planta juniore obscure tetragonus, cortice atro-fusco. Rami elongati, erecti, stricti, virgati, superne 
foliosi, hie illic divisi, 2-3 pedes longi, cortice fusco, pallidiore obtecti. Ramuli graciles, crassitie fere penna? 
anatinse, subangulati, angulis obtusis, creberrime annulati, utrinque decussatim sulcati, in sulcis puberuli, per 
totam longitudinem foliosi, simplices v. rarius divisi v. ad apices floriferos furcati, olivaceo-fusci, siccitate fragiles. 
Folia decussatim opposita, ^-f unc. longa, sub \ unc. lata, omnia magnitudine formaque conformia, horizon- 
taliter patentia, inferiora subreflexa, caduca, brevissime petiolata, concava, interdum subcymbiformia, exacte 
elliptico-ovata, subacuta, basi vix truncata, avenia, glaberrima, valde coriacea, subcornea, dura, marginibus 
acuentibus, tenuiter cartilagineis, sub lente argute et creberrime crenulatis, supra luride viridia, subnitida, 
polita, medio canaliculata ; subtus pallidiora, costa valida, elevata, percursa, opaca, punctis minimis, albidis 
notata, siccitate fusco-brunnea, supra obscure transversim rugosa, rigida, subpungentia. Petioli breves, vix 
•§ lin. longi, crassi, erecti, ramulo appressi, basi latissimi, cum ramulo incrassato articulati, facile soluti. Flores 
inter folia summa corymboso-racemosi, conferti, conspicui, odorem Jasmini officinalis spirantes. Racemi axil- 

Campbell's Islands.'] FLORA ANTARCTICA. 63 

lares et terminales, aggregati, subcapital, densiflori, A- unc. longi. Pedunculi (seu rachides) brevissimi, angu- 
lati, bifariam puberuli, articulati, siccitate fragiles, infra flores bracteolati. Bractea parvse, sub \ lin. longse, basi 
subconnatae, latissime ovatse, concavse, subcymbiformes, crassa? et coriacese, marginibus membranaceis, ciliatis. 
Pedicelli brevissimi, v. subnulli. Calyx profunde 4-partitus, v. subtetraphyllus, lacinise inter se suba?quales, 
bracteis wquilongae, late ovato-oblongae, obtusa;, tubum corollas Eequantes, medio et pracipue versus apices incras- 
satae, 3-nerves ; marginibus tenuioribus, sub lente ciliatis. Corolla alba, subrotata v. hypocrateriformis, tubo 
(pro genere) elongato, diametro 3-4 lin. ; tubus paulo longior quamlatus, rectus ; limbus tubo longior, 4-fidus ; 
lacinise subsequales, patentes, subrecurvse, oblongo-obovata?, obtusse, venosas, superior paulo major, inferior 
angustior. Stamina 1 ; filamenta crassiuscula, subulata, laciniis corolla; paulo breviora, versus apices attenuata ; 
anthers purpurea?, majuscuhe, loculis paulo divaricatis, superne confluentibus ; hinc anthera subunilocularis, 
rima hypocrepiformi debiscentes. Pollen ellipticum, profunde 3-sulcatum, luteum, siccitate castaneum, opacum. 
Ovarium ovatum, acutum, compressum, bisulcatum, biloculare. Stylus gracilis, paulo curvatus, exsertus. Stigma 
minutum, vix capitatum. Fructus non visus. 

This species is more remarkable for the delicious fragrance of its flowers than for any beauty of appear- 
ance. From the uniform size of the leaves and their regularly patent disposition on the slender simple branches, 
it affords a more striking example of folia decussata than any of the genus. It is in this respect allied to the 
V. elliplica, Forst., as also in having crowded, white, subcapitate flowers, and in their being sweet-scented. 
Most of these characters, and especially that of the corolla being white, seem more usual amongst the alpine 
species of this genus in New Zealand, than in those of the lower lands of this or of other countries. 

There are three other species to which this is allied ; V. diosmwfoUa, R. Cunn., V. buxifolia, Benth., and V., 
Icevis, Benth. The first of these, which has also white flowers, may be recognized at once by these being in larf e 
lax panicles ; they are small, on long, often slender peduncles, with acute calycine segments ; the leaves 
also are longer and serrated. The V. buxifolia is a very fine alpine species, brought from the mountains of the 
interior by Dr. Dieffenbach, which differs from the V. odora in the leaves being more densely imbricated, shorter, 
shining on both sides, and remarkably truncate at the base above the petiole ; it has also very short, often sim- 
ple racemes, covered with large concave imbricating bracts, as in the V. Benthami, but closer ; the tubes of the 
corolla are sometimes as long as the very broad segments, — that organ is thus truly hypocrateriform ; the leaves 
are covered on both sides with more numerous minute white dots. V. lavis, Benth. is more nearly allied to our 
plant than any of the above in the form of the leaves, but they are more acute, more distantly placed, without 
any white dots ; the panicles also are lax, minutely pubescent, the flowers smaller, and the branches sin- 
gularly black and opake when dry, terete and wrinkled, with the transverse annuli or scars remote and incon- 
spicuous, very unlike the generally crowded transverse contractions of its congeners, which often give the stem 
the appearance of being jointed. 

The leaves are closely placed in V. odora, and each is jointed upon a thickening of the stem, which thick- 
ened portion appears like a broad petiole, united to the branch, and extending from the base of the true petiole 
to the leaf below, its edges almost meeting those of a similar thickening below the opposite leaf, but leavin"- a 
furrow between, which is covered with a fine pubescence. As this thickening occurs opposite and below each 
pair of leaves above it, and the furrow to the pair below, the stem is decussately furrowed throughout its 
length. In many, and in most species indeed, the stem is incrassated below the leaf, but the thickened portion 
has not, as here, the appearance of a distinct body. 

Plate XLI. Fig. 1, portion of the stem and pair of leaves ; Jig. 2, flower ; fig. 3, calyx; fig. 4, corolla ; fig. 5, 
the same cut open ; fig. 6, front, and fig. 7, back view of stamen ; fig. 8, ovarium : — all magnified. 

64 FLORA ANTARCTICA. [Auckland and 


1. Plantago (Psyllium, Endl.) Aucklandica, Hook. fil. ; acaulis, collo crassissimo elongate, foliis 
vix petiolatis numerosis confertis obovato-lanceolatis obtusis glabris 7 _ 9- n erviis integerrimis v. 
obscure sinuato-dentatis, basi angustatis intus ferrugineo-tomentosis, scapis plurimis erectis v. ascen- 
dentibus parce hispido-pilosis, spicislineari-elongatis densifloris, bracteis obtusis, segmentis calycinis 
late ovatis obtusis, capsulis calyce duplo longioribus 2-spermis. (Tab. XLII.) 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group; on the mountain ridges at an altitude of 1000-1200 feet, in a 
peaty soil. 

Planta 4-10-pollicaris, niagnitudine satis varia, habitu P. media. Radix perennis, perpendicularis v. incli- 
nata, tri- quadri-pollicaris, fusiforniis, crassa, per totam longitudinem fibras crassas, succulentas, elongatas 
emittens, et interne in fibras ramosas, subsimiles desinens ; collum cra^sissimum, interdum J pollicis diametro, 
tomento rufo reliquiisque paucis foliorum vetustorum cinctum, rarius elongatum et supra terram elatum, sim- 
plex v. rarissime biceps. Folia numerosissima, singula planta 15-30, conferta, exteriora patentia, plurima 
suberecta, crassa et coriacea, exemplaribus plerisque 4-5-pollicaria, 2^ unc. lata, inter se admodum conformia, 
obovato- v. elliptico-lanceolata, obtusa v. subacuta, in petiolum latum, ima basi dilatatum contracta, 7-10- 
nervia, vix costata, utrinque glaberrima, v. rarius pilis conspersis, paucis, albis subhispida, praecipue ad basim 
scaporum villoso-barbata, tomento molli, denso, ferrugineo, e pilis intertextis, simplicibus, remote articulatis for- 
mata ; marginibus tenuiter subrecurvis v. planis, remote et obscure sinuato-dentatis ; supra luride-viridia, opaca ; 
subtus pallidiora ; siccitate fusca, v. atro-fusca ; interiora et juniora angustiora, subspathulata, 3-5-nervia ; inti- 
mislineari-lanceolatis. Scapi plurimi, 5-10, elongati, una-cum spica 5-8-pollicares, erecti v. ascendentes, cur- 
vati, graciles, teretes, pilis patentibus, albis, superne praecipue subhispidi, basi ferrugineo-tomentosi, crassitie 
pennre corvinas, siccitate atri. Spica 2-3 unc. longs, ^ unc. lata?, cylindricae, obtusae, superne praecipue densi- 
florae, floribus basi distantibus ; racbi pilosa. Flores magnitudine P. majoris, omnino sessiles, unibracteati. 
Bractea late ovatos, obtusae, concavae, subcymbiformes, crassae et carnosae, calyce paulo breviores, basin ejus fere 
cingens. Calyx tetraphyllus, basi villosus, | lin. longus ; segmentis late ovato-oblongis, suborbicularibus, sca- 
pbiformibus, medio carnosis, marginibus membranaceis, siccitate scariosis. Corolla tubus calyce paulo longior ; 
limbi segmentis ovato-lanceolatis, acutis, patenti-reflexis, marginibus involutis, medio late uninerviis, tubo paulo 
brevioribus. Stamina filamentis planis, flexuosis, longe exsertis ; antberis majusculis, late sagittatis. Pollen 
angulatum, flavum. Ovarium obovatum, compressum, utrinque sulcatum basi attenuatum, spurie biloculare ; 
columua centralis placentifera a dissepimentis retractis discedens, ovula 2, peltata gerens. Capsula turgida, 
ovata, foliolis calycinis bis longior. 

This species is very distinct from any with which I am acquainted, and is apparently most nearly allied to 
the P. hirtella, H.B.K. (Nov. Gen. et Sp. t. 127), but that plant has the bracteas and calycine segments acute ; 
it grows nowhere on the low grounds of Lord Auckland's group, but appears confined to the summits of the 
hills, where it is not unfrequent. It is remarkable for its numerous leaves, which are generally quite smooth 
and very fleshy, often forming a dense head, not unlike that of a small cabbage. In the smoothness, thick and 
succulent habit and stout collum, it bears some affinity to the caulescent species of Juan Fernandez and other 
insular situations ; in some of which the apparent stems are, as in P. Fer/iandeziana, Bert., in reality an elon- 
gation of the naked collum : indeed of the so-called shrubby or caulescent species, very few of this group or 
form are really so, except the P. princeps, Cham, and Schl. (Linnaea, vol. i. p. 167). The stem of P. Que- 
leniana, Gaud., is of the same nature as that of P. Fernandeziana, the two plants indeed are very closely allied, 
as are those of P. arborescens of Madeira and the Canary Islands, and of P. robusta of St. Helena. 

The uniform and equable climate of insular situations, especially in the southern hemisphere, would appear 

Campbell's Islands.] FLORA ANTARCTICA. 65 

peculiarly favourable to a vigorous development of the stem and leaves of plants ; there being no winter's cold 
sufficient to destroy even the herbaceous vegetation, a constant accession of new matter ensues in the 
summer, which only decays with the death of the plant. The elongation of the collum is, under these circum- 
stances, very frequent amongst many truly herbaceous, perennial-rooted plants, whose congeners in other cli- 
mates are cut off during the winter's frosts, close to the ground, and where the summer season is too dry to 
admit of much exposure of so large a portion of the root. In the group of islands now under consideration, I 
have remarked this peculiarity of structure in Ranunculus, Cardamine, Sieversia, Pozoa, both species of Pleu- 
rophyllum, Cehnisia, Gentiana, and others. In Kerguelen's Land a remarkable instance occurs in the famous 
Cabbage of that island, a new genus and species of Crucifera, to which the generic name of Pringlea was given by 
its discoverer Mr. Anderson, and which I shall shortly have the opportunity of figuring as P. antiscorbutica. In 
the southern extreme of America the P. monanthos, D'Urv., assumes this spuriously caulescent form, as well as 
Statice and many other herbaceous genera, and in the various small oceanic islands the same character prevails. 
As a natural sequence, it is to be expected that plants generally represented by small suffruticose species, should 
under these circumstances become frutescent or arborescent, of which we have many instances. Veronica:, 
Composites, Araliacea, Myrtacete, Rubiacete, Campanulacete, Lobeliacece, and Ferns, are all more fully developed in 
the Pacific islands in proportion to the number of smaller species, and to the mass of the vegetation, than they 
are in other climates. 

Plate XLII. Fig. 1, flower and bractea ; fig. 2, corolla ; fig. 3, the same cut open ; fig. 4, anther and upper 
part of filament ; fig. 5, ovarium ; fig. 6, young capsule ; fig. 7, transverse section of the same ; fig. 8, immature 
seeds on the column ; fig. 9, capsule surrounded by remains of corolla, calyx and bractea ; fig. 10, hair from the 
bases of the leaves : — all magnified. 

2. Plaxtago (Arnoglossum, Encll.) carnosa, Br.; acaulis, collo crassissimo, foliis plurimis con- 
fertis stellatim patentibus crassis carnosis spathulatis lanceolatisve obtusis inciso-dentatis seu runci- 
natis glaberrimis aut rarius pilosis basi nudis, scapis plurimis foliis aequilongis, floribus capitatis, 
capitulis compressis 1-4-floris, bracteis foliolisque calycinis acutis, capsula calyce inclusa rotundata 
4-8-sperma. (Tab. XLIII.) — P. carnosa, Br. Prodr. p. 425 (wore Lam.). P. triantha, Spreng. Syst, 
Veg. vol. i. p. 439. 

Var. ft. foliis glaberrimis majoribus. 

Var. y. pumila, foliis plus minusve hispido-pilosis. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; on rocks near the sea, generally immediately above high-water 
mark, all the states ; abundant. 

Planta maritima, depressa, succulenta, rupibus tenaciter affixa. Radix perennis, breviter fusiformis, copio- 
sissime fibrosa ; fibris aterrimis, plerisque tenuibus, fastigiatis, aliis validis, crassis, subsucculentis. Collum cras- 
sissimum, breve, nigrum, simplex v. rarius biceps, nudum, fibrosum, non raro surculos emittens. Folia petio- 
lata, 1-3 unc. longa, horizontaliter stellatim patentia, conferta, numerosissima, singula planta 40-60, succulenta, 
lanceolata, spathulata, v. lineari-spathulata, obtusa, basi attenuata, margine varie secta, sinuato-dentata, inciso- 
dentata v. ssepius runcinata, rarius utrinque uni-bidentata v. omnino integra ; supra luride virescentia, opaca, 
medio sulcata, avenia ; subtus pallidiora, costa medio prominula, nervisque 2 per totam longitudinem percursa ; 
glaberrima v. in var. /3. pilis patentibus v. appressis, sparsis, rigidis, albis subhispida ; intima breviora, dense com- 
pacts, rosulata, obovata, margine sinuata. Scapi valde numerosi, 15-20, horizontaliter pateutes, apicibus ascen- 
dentibus, ex axillis foliorum orti, longitudine foliorum v. iis breviores, interdum brevissimi, glabri v. plerumquc 
pilosi, pilis patentibus ut in foliis. Spica ad capitulam late ovatam, superne truncatam redacta, valde com- 
pressa, \ unc. lata, latior quam longa, pauci-2— 4-flora. Bracleie majuscula?, ovatae, cymbiformes, subacute v. 
acuminata;, carnosse, marginibus membranaceis, basin calycis fere cingentes. Calyx tetraphyllus, foliolis late 
VOL. I. K 

66 FLORA ANTARCTICA. [Auckland and 

oblongo-ovatis, valde concavis, acutis v. subito acuminatis, medio carnosis, marginibus late subscarioso-membra- 
naceis. CorolltE tubus latiusculus ; limbus quadrifidus, segmentis ovatis, acutis, marginibus involutis, medio 
late uninerviis. Staminum filamenta basi lata ; antherm oblongo-sagittatre. Pollen globosum, flavum. Ova- 
rium parvum, elliptico-ovatum, compressum, utrinque sulcatum, spurie biloculare j ovulis 6-8, peltatis, placentas 
columnari affixis. Stylus simplex, erectus, filiformis, per totam longitudinem glanduloso-pilosus, apice simplex. 
Capsula chartacea, brunnea, late obovata, turgida, paulo compressa, basi stylo apiculata, infra medium circum- 
scissa. Columna centralis libera, erecta, clavata, bialata, alis ultra columnam in cornubus 2 productis. Semina 
valde depressa, 6-8, etsi compressione mutua angulata, pleraque triangularia, pallide testaeea, translucida ; 
testa mucilaginosa, membranacea ; albumen inter corneum et carnosum, semini conforme ; embryo compressus, 
ut mihi videtur oblique transversus ; radicula obtusa, ad hilum paulo versa ; cotyledones niajusculre, plano-con- 

This plant was first detected by Mr. Brown in Tasmania, in the southern parts of which island it is not 
uncommon, growing, as in Lord Auckland's group, on maritime rocks, and from whence we have specimens of 
both varieties from Mr. Gunn. In habit and foliage it most resembles the P. Coronopus of any European species, 
but it differs totally from that plant in the structure of the capsule, as also in the inflorescence. It belongs to 
a small group of the genus, not hitherto recognised, but which are remarkable for having the flowers solitary or 
truly capitate and not spiked, never more than from three to five in number. This inflorescence differs very 
much from that of several species in which the spike is abbreviated, either naturally or by accident, to a few 

The species naturally allied to P. carnosa are the P. rigida and nubigena, H. B. K., P. monanthos, D'Urv., 
P. andieola, Gill., P. pauciflora, Lam., and P. barbata, Forst., all natives of the southern regions of the globe 
and of the western hemisphere, whose only representative in the old world is the present plant. If however 
the sections proposed by Endlicher are adopted, these species will be found to be in several cases widely sepa- 
rated from one another. P. nubigena, a very beautiful species, has only two-seeded capsules ; the seeds are 
quite unlike those of carnosa, being large, elliptical-oblong, black and punctated, with a broad hollow on the 
face. Of P. rigida we have specimens gathered by Mr. Mathews on the Pampas of the Cordillera in Peru; 
it is perhaps the most singular species of the genus in the structure of its flowers, which are solitary, almost 
sessile, on very short peduncles, surrounded by a very broad sheath or spatha rather than bract at the base ; the 
calycine segments are lanceolate, acuminate, with a tuft of silky hairs at the base ; the tube of the corolla is 
twice as long as the calyx, slender, and at least three times longer in proportion to its breadth than in any of the 
genus which I have examined ; the filaments very long, straight and erect. M. Kunth places it in a section " cap- 
sular loculis 1-spermis," but says he has not seen the fruit. From the small size of the ovarium I could not detect 
the ovules in the flower I examined. P. monanthos, though generally single-flowered, has often two or even 
three flowers ; the capsule is four-seeded ; it is a very distinct species, common in the Falkland Islands and in 
Fuegia, singularly variable in size, and in favourable situations often becoming spuriously caulescent, with stems 
similar to those of the P. arborescens of Madeira ; the leaves are then two inches long ; whilst in other situations, 
as on the exposed rocks of Cape Horn, the whole plant resembles a densely tufted moss, the leaves being rosu- 
late and not two lines long. Had I not the opportunity of examining it in its native state, I should not have con- 
sidered several of its varieties as belonging to one and the same species. P. andieola, Gill., is a very singular 
plant with roots as thick and long as the little finger, the collum often much thicker, bearing two or more capi- 
tula of very coriaceous, lanceolate, smooth or pilose leaves, about 1^ inch long. The scapes are longer, often 
twice as long as the leaves, slender and hairy, with three to five flowers. The ovarium contains several ovules, and the 
capsule four or more seeds, rarely less, but sometimes only two. It has been gathered on the Andes of Chili, both 
by Dr. Gillies and by Mr. Bridges. P. pauciflora, Lam., and P. barbata, Forst., seem involved in some confu- 
sion ; I have seen no specimens answering to the description of either, if they be truly distinct. In Mr. Ander- 
son's collection, formed during Captain King's voyage, there is a species (P. imberbis, MSS.) agreeing with 

Campbell's Islands.'] FLORA ANTARCTICA. 67 

the description given by Lamarck, except that the whole plant is perfectly glabrous ; it also is four-seeded, and 
the flowers vary from one to three. These species pass into other forms of the genus : the P. monanthos, by 
P. arborescens, into the ovate and compressed spike of P. Psyllium and its allies ; and the P. nubigena through 
P. tumidu, Link, into the ordinary forms with cylindrical elongated spikes. 

Plantago is perhaps as universally distributed a genus as any of dicotyledonous plants. In Arctic Ame- 
rica Dr. Richardson has gathered the P. major, L., in lat. 68° N., and I have seen the P. monanthos, D'Urv., in the 
immediate neighbourhood of Cape Horn, in the 57th degree of south latitude : other species not only run along 
the whole chain of the Andes, from Fuegia through Chili, Peru and Colombia, from whence they are continued 
along the Rocky mountains, but they also frequent the vast plains on both sides of these great barriers. Under 
the equator in South America they attain an altitude of 13,000 feet, whence Prof. Jameson has sent to us a 
species, gathered on Pichincha in Colombia. In the continent of Europe they are no less universally distributed, 
P. major, which Mr. Humboldt brought from a height of 6000 feet on the Andes of Peru, occurring in 
Lapland as far north as 67°, whilst in the same country the P. maritima reaches the 72nd degree. In Asia their 
principal parallel is in Persia, Cashmere and Affghanistan, where Mr. Griffiths has collected numerous species, 
and from whence they spread over the great Siberian plains to Kamtschatka and the borders of the Chinese 
empire. A few species are natives of Upper India, Nepaul, and the Himalayan mountains. Only one occurs 
in the Peninsula of India, the P. Uspaghool, Roxb. ; this is cultivated in the colder season, and Dr. Ro) T le considers 
it as probably a native of Persia. Hitherto they are unknown in the Malay peninsula and islands, being natives 
of open and not wooded localities. For this reason they are not found, as far as we know, in central Africa, 
though several species are natives of the Cape of Good Hope, and are frequent along the southern shores of the 
Mediterranean. The various Atlantic islands, as well as the Mauritius and Ceylon in the Indian Ocean, and 
those of the Pacific, Australia and New Zealand, have all representatives of the genus. 

I have retained Mr. Brown's name for this species, the P. carnosa of Lamarck being probably a variety of 
P. maritima, L. 

Plate XLIII. Fig. 1, flower and bract; fig. 2, corolla cut open ; fig. 3, stamen; fig. 4, ovarium ; fig. 5, 
capsule with persistent calyx and bract ; fig. 6, the same removed; fig. 7, the same with the upper valve fallen 
away; fig. 8, side view of dissepiments and seeds ; fig. 9, front view of the same; fig. 10, seed showing the 
hilum ; fig. 11, side view of the same ; fig. 12, seed cut open parallel to, and fig. 13, at right angles to the axis : 
— all magnified. 


1. Rumex Cuneiforms, Campd., Mon. des Rum. p. 95. Cham, et Schlecht. in Linncea, vol. iii. p. 5S. 
Roem. et Schult. vol. vii. p. 1416. 

Var. alismafiolius, Hook. fil. ; foliis ovato- v. lineari-oblongis rarius basi attenuatis : — an species distincta ? 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; on the sandy and pebbly beach near the N.W. point of the 
large island, rare. 

Of this plant I have seen neither flower nor fruit, having met with it in a very young state only. In habit, 
s ize, and general appearance it very closely resembles the R. cunei/olivs. It has the large membranous stipules 
of that plant, which are fimbriated only in age ; the branching and size of the two are also the same ; but in the 
Auckland Island specimens the leaves are not decidedly cuneate at the base, often indeed quite the contrary. 
Of the true plant we have many specimens from both sides of America, from the southward of the province of 
St. Paul on the east coast, and Valdivia or. the west, to the Straits of Magalhaens. They vary but slightly in 
the form and length of the leaf, some being attenuated, others cordate at the base ; always, in the American 
specimens, broadest above the middle, and crisped rather than undulated at the margin. 


68 FLORA ANTARCTICA. [Auckland and 


1. Urtica australis, Hook. fil. ; caule elato basi prostrato radicante vnlido glaberrimo v. parce 
piloso ad nodos setoso, foliis amplis longe petiolatis ternatis infimis oppositis late ovato-cordatis grosse 
crenatis sinubus segmentisque acutis 5-7-nerviis utrinque parce setosis et sub lente scabriusculis 
subtus pilosiusculis, stipulis ovato-lanceolatis acuminatis integris v. bifidis. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; in woods near the sea, rare ; also on the pebbly beach above 
high-water mark. 

Caulis basi repens, remote nodosus, ad nodos radicans, deinde ascendens et erectus, 2-3 pedalis, teres, 
crassus, crassitie pennae olorina?, herbaceus, succulentus, glaberrimus v. hie illic parce pilosus, pilis albidis, ple- 
rumque ad nodos subincrassatos setosus, internodiis 3-4 uncialibus. Folia longe petiolata, infima opposita, 
superiora ternata, camosiuscula, siccitate submembranacea, majuscula, 4-6 unc. longa, 3-5 lata, late ovata, 
acuta, basi plus minusve profunde cordata, grosse serrato-dentata, segmentis latis, acutis v. rarius breviter acu- 
minatis, saspius cucullata, nervis 5-7 validis percursa, tuberculis minutis scaberula, setis paucis, sparsis, subtus 
pilosiuscula, pilis obscuris albis. Petioli folio aequilongi v. paulo breviores, graciles, glaberrimi. Stipulce ad 
basin petioli 2, i-| unc. longae, foliaceae, erectas, lanceolatae, acuminata?, glaberrimaa, interdum foliorum opposi- 
torum connatae, tunc latiores et plus minusve profunde bifidse. 

Planta maritima paulo diversa ; humilior, crassior, foliis minoribus petiolis superne stipulisque majoribus 
setosis. Plantis junioribus folia inferiora latiora evadunt, argutius serrato-dentata. 

I find no species in the Herbarium exactly agreeing with this ; it is however nearly allied to a New Zea- 
land plant of which we have very imperfect specimens collected in the southern part of the Northern Island by 
Mr. Bidwill, with the petioles rather shorter and the leaves and stem copiously setose. 

2. Urtica Aucklandica, Hook. fil. ; tota pubescens, caule erecto robusto angulato, foliis omni- 
bus oppositis petiolatis late ovatis acutis basi plus minusve cordatis grosse serrato-dentatis segmentis 
acuminatis multinerviis rugosis sparse setosis coriaceis, petiolo lamina | breviore, stipulis subfolia- 
ceis plerisque connatis late ovatis bifidis nervosis, perigonio masc. tetraphyllo. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group; on the sea-beach near the margins of woods, rare. 

Herba rigida, tota pilis brevibus, cinereo-albidis pubescens. Caulis erectus, validus, durus, rigidus, pedalis, 
crassitie pennae anserinae, tetragonus, angulis obtusis, ad nodos incrassatus et setosus ; internodiis contractis, 
subuncialibus, sulcatis. Folia opposita, patentia, petiolata, majuscula, 2-3 uncias longa, li-2|lata, late ovata, 
acuta, basi saepius cordata, interdum imo rotundata, cucullata, grosse serrato-dentata, sinubus acutis, seg- 
mentis latis breviter acuminatis, coriacea et rigida, rugosa, subplicata, pluri-7-9-nervia, nervis subtus prominulis 
costata, reticulata, sparse et praecipue subtus ad nervos setosa, setis urentibus, luride virescentia, opaca ; sicci- 
tate nigrescentia ; juniora fusco-pubescentia. Petioli subunciales, validi, sulcati. Stipulce majuscula?, foliaceae, 
late ovatae, bifidae, bipartitae v. rarius usque ad basin fissae, et tunc lanceolatae, acuminata^. Spica mascula 
axillares, breviusculae ; immaturae tantum mihi visas. Flores aggregati, pedicellati ; pedicellis basi bracteolatis ; 
bracteola ovata integra. Perigonii foliola rotundata, concava, \ lin. longa, dorso setosa. Stamina 4, filamentis 

This is unlike any species with which I am acquainted, and apparently quite distinct from the last, though 
I much regret having been unable, from the early season of the year, to obtain more satisfactory specimens of 

Campbells Islands.'] FLORA ANTARCTICA. G9 


1. Chiloglottis cornuta, Hook. fil. ; perianthio ringente, foliolis inferioribus linearibus obtusis 
canaliculars, interioribus erectis ovato-lanceolatis acutis dorsali ovato-lanceolato acuminate, labello 
trulliformi versus apicem attenuate disco 6-glanduloso, glandula intermedia basali (appendix labelli) 
porrecta subrecurva. 

Hab. Campbell's Island ; on the decaying roots of trees in shaded places, rare : D. Lyall, Esq. 

Radix tuberosa ; tuberibus 2, pisiformibus, remotis, caudice elongato, radiciformi, descendente connexis. 
Folia 2, petiolata, patentia v. subrecurva, ovata, v. ovato-lanceolata, subacuta, 1-1^ unc. longa, l-i unc. lata, 
nervis parallelis, venisque transversalibus reticulata, planiuscula. Petioli erecti, §-f unc. longi, basi vaginantes, 
vagina scariosa, integra. Scopus erectus, gracilis, brevis, i uncialis, medio bracteatus, uniflorus. Bractea spa- 
thacea, ovata, acuminata, membranacea, florem immaturum amplectens. Flos una cum ovario | unc. longus, 
erectus. Perianthium obliquum, foliola omnia erecta ; exteriora v. sepala subaequalia, superius v. dorsale paulo 
majus, concavum, vix cucullatum, ovato-lanceolatum, longe acuminatum, apice subulatum, sub 5-nerve ; infe- 
riora labello supposita, ima basi lata, deinde linearia, obtusa, curvata, marginibus involutis, superiore aequilonga ; 
foliola interiora sive petala erecta, ovato-lanceolata ; exteriora breviora, submembranacea, trinervia, versus 
apices subserrulata v. undulata. Labellum erectum, unguiculatum, petalis paulo brevius ; lamina planiuscula 
trulliformis, vel triangulari-cordata, attenuata, basi truncato-biloba, breviter petiolata, disco 6-glanduloso ; 
glandula v. tubercula valde prominentes, 4 laterales subquadratae, compressae, squamseformes, duae prope basin, 
aliaeque altius sitae ; intermediarum basali (v. appendicula) supra discum elata, porrecta, cornu referens, et re- 
curva, antice canaliculata ; quinta trilobata. Columna erecta, modice arcuata, valida, superne bifida, bialata, alis 
angustis. Anthera apice recurva. 

An glandula? laterales labelli vere clavats, siccitate tantum compressae et quasi squamaeformes ? 

This is a very interesting plant, belonging to an Australian genus of which only two species were previously 
known. I have never seen it alive, and am therefore unable to give a coloured figure of the plant. In Tasma- 
nia two species grow at the foot of Mount Wellington, in a latitude however much below that of Campbell's 
Island and in a widely different climate. The flower is smaller than that of C. Gunnii, Lindl., to which, of the 
two other species, the present is, on account of the erect petals, most nearly allied. I am inclined to think that 
the glands on the disc of the labellum will be found to prove a variable character. In one Tasmanian species 
they bear the most striking resemblance in form and colour to an ant. 

2. Thelymitra stenopetala, Hook. fil. ; foliis petiolatis lineari-lanceolatis gradatim acuminatis, 
scapo 1-2-floro, perianthii foliolis lanceolatis acuminatis, cuculli lobulis lateralibus plumosis, capsulis 
inclinatis paulo curvatis lineari-oblongis. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; in woods and on the bare ground in exposed places, not un- 

The leaves of this plant are dark green, very coriaceous, about 4 inches long and 3-4 lines in breadth, gra- 
dually attenuated below into a narrow sheathing petiole. The scapes of the former year, bearing the fruit and 
crowned with the withered, persistent perianth, were found along with the young leaves. The capsules are 
shortly pedunculate, pale brown, i-| of an inch long ; the column considerably curved, the lateral lobes each 
with a tuft of hairs. 

I have closely compared my very indifferent specimens of this plant with the several species of New Zea- 
land and Tasmania, and have no hesitation in describing it as new. 

70 FLORA ANTARCTICA. [Auckland and 

3. Thelymitra ? uniflora, Hook. fil. ; perianthii foliolis exterioribus ovato-oblongis acutis, 
interioribus obovato-lanceolatis breviter acuminatis, labello late obovato-spathulato subcuneato basi 
depresso, cuculli lobulis lateralibus erectis apice bifidis medio uninerviis imberbibus, anthera sub- 
term in ali. 

Hab, Lord Auckland's group ; on the bare ground and growing in tufts of moss, Forstera, &c, 
on the bleak hills. 

Of this species I possess only the old scapes, which are about six inches long, each bearing a solitary cap- 
sule, with the withered perianth. The leaves I have never seen, but there are traces of sheaths or leaves on 
the scape, and of a larger one, probably a bractea, below the flower. The capsule is turgid, elliptical-obovate, 
erect, about half an inch long and quite glabrous. The leaflets of the perianth are rather shorter than the 
capsule and strongly nerved, as is the labellum, which is rounded at the lower extremity, with a short apiculus. 
The anther is inserted a little below the apex of the column. 

I am very uncertain as to the genus of this plant ; it differs from any with which I am acquainted ; yet I 
am unwilling, in the absence of better specimens, to constitute a new one of it. In the petaloid, very distinct 
lateral lobes of the column, which is 3-cleft 'nearly to the base, it shows some analogy to Diuris, and in the ter- 
minal anther to the group which includes Caladenia and many other New Holland Orchidete. The regular and 
nearly equal leaflets of the perianth, to which the labellum is very similar in form and structure, induce me to 
retain it among Thelymitra. It is further undoubtedly nearly allied to a plant included by Mr. Gunn under the 
genus Macdonaldia (vid. Lindl. Swan River Botany, p. 50. no. 217, and Gen. and Sp. Orchid, p. 385), which 
contains two Tasmanian species, one M. Smithiana, Lindl. (I. c. t. 9. B.), in which the column is undivided or 
obliquely trifid or three-lobed ; the rounded anther is situated below the apex of the column, on its inner face, 
and is villous ; in the colour and appearance also of the plant, and in the shape of the leaflets of the perianth, 
it differs from Thelymitra. The other species, M. cyanea, Lindl., very much resembles the more ordinary forms 
of Thelymitra in size, habit, colour, and in the shape of the perianth ; in the more terminal acute anther, and in 
the lateral lobes of the column being produced upwards beyond the anther and bifid at the apex, it agrees with 
the T. ? uniflora. 

4. Caladenia sp. ? ; folio lineari acuto parce glanduloso-piloso, perianthii foliolis subaequilon- 
gis dorsali late ovato acuto lateralibus ovato-lanceolatis interioribus lanceolatis subacutis, labello sub- 
quadrato unguiculato disco nudo. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; amongst moss in the woods near the sea. 

This apparently belongs to the genus Caladenia, but it is in a very young state, and the glands on the 
labellum are probably undeveloped. The roots are small, oblong tubers, connected by a terete cauliculus. Leaves 
i-2 inches long. The only flowers I possess are just emerging from a large cucullate bractea ; they are of a 
pale flesh-colour mixed with yellow. 

5. Caladenia sp. ?; foliis ovato-lanceolatis acutis parce piloso-glandulosis seu glabriusculis, 
perianthii foliolis exterioribus extus glandulosis lateralibus linearibus obtusis dorsali latiore, interiori- 
bus anguste linearibus obtusis, labello obovato-cuneato basi seriebus 2 glandularum ornato. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island ; amongst moss in the woods, not un- 

What I take to be the leaves of this plant (for though growing along with the scapes they were not 
attached to them) are solitary or rarely two together, arising from a short cauliculus terminating in an 
elongated tuber and throwing out stout horizontal fibres from its lower extremity. The withered scapes, which 

Campbell's Islands.'] FLORA ANTARCTICA. 71 

bear solitary capsules, are 2-3 inches long ; the capsules half an inch long, oblong-turbinate, obscurely glandular, 
and crowned with the reflexed leaflets of the perianth. In one specimen the labellum was furnished with only 
four glands in two lines ; in another they extended to the middle with four or six in each series. 

6. Acianthus rivularis ? A. Cunningham, Prodr. Flo?: Nov. Zel. in Hook. Comp. hot. May. 
vol. ii. p. 376. Lindl. Gen. et Sp. Orchid, p. 397. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island ; on mossy banks in the woods, common. 

I have seen neither flower nor fruit of this plant, and only a withered capsule of what I believe to be Mr. 
Cunningham's A. rivularis, gathered in New Zealand by Mr. Colenso. The leaves of the former vary very much in 
size and shape according to their age ; the younger ones are cordate or ovate and cordate at the base, acute ; as 
they grow older they become orbicular, deeply lobed at the petiole, of the same size and texture and similarly 
nerved as in the genus Acianthus. 

Dubii generis. 

The following species I am unable to refer to any genus, the flowers being too imperfectly developed for 
a satisfactory determination. 

7. Tuberibus didymis obovatis ad collum fibras validas horizontaliter emittentibus, caule erecto 
basi vaginato, vagina elongata integra ore abrupta tenuissime scariosa, folio solitario lineari-elongato 
semiterete superne canaliculato crasso et subcarnoso basi fisso scapum vaginante, scapo 3-5-floro, 
floribus spathaceo-bracteatis ut in Orthocerate, perianthii foliolis valde immaturis subcequalibus ex- 
terioribus late ovatis acutis, interioribus paulo angustioribus, labello late obovato nudo, columna 
semiterete lobis lateralibus nullis, anthera majuscula terminali. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; in woods near the sea, not uncommon. 

Tubers about 3 lines long, similar to those of Orchis latifolia, but much smaller ; from these the leaf springs 
at once, its petiole surrounded by a tubular cylindrical sheath. The leaf is 6-8 inches long, 1-2 lines wide, 
acute or blunt at the apex, green, and of a singularly thick and fleshy texture when recent, coriaceous w'hen dry 
and quite black. The young scape is covered with what appear sheathing cucullate bracts ; they arise one from 
the base of each of the flowers ; the latter are very small. 

8. Foliis solitariis (rarius binis) lineari-lanceolatis acutis valde concavis coriaceis nervis paral- 
lelis basi vaginatis, scapo ut videtur bibracteolato, flore immaturo solitario, perianthii foliolo dorsali 
late ovato subacuto cucullato lateralibus interioribusque linearibus obtusis, labello ovato disco ob- 
scure 6-7-glanduloso, anthera terminali. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; in woods, rare. 

The leaves here are 2-3 inches long, very concave ; the petiole inclosed in a long scarious sheath which 
is split above ; the flower is small and inclosed in two sheathing bracts. This plant has some points in common 
with Chiloglottis, Br., but the leaves are not like those of that genus. 

72 FLORA ANTARCTICA. [Auckland and 



Dioicum. Flores racemosi. Masc. Perianthium corollinum, hexaphyllum ; foliola patentia, aequalia, ovato- 
oblonga, obtusa, medio incrassata. Stamina 6, hypogyna ; filamenta elongato-subulata, perianthio breviora, 
nuda; antherce versatiles. Ovarium ovatum, acuminatum, trisulcatum, vacuum. Flor. fcem. Perianthium ut 
in./?, masc, sedfoliolis post anthesin erectis, demum deciduis. Stamina 6, antheris incompletis. Ovarium late 
ovatum, profunde trisulcatum, triloculare, lobis dorso canaliculars, loculis bi- rarius uniovulatis. Ovula, ubi 2, 
collateralia, funiculis brevibus infra apicem loculi angulo interiori suspensa. Stylus validus, erectus, teres. 
Stigma capitatum, parvum, obscure 3-6-lobum. Capsule ovata, trilocularis, loculicide trivalvis ; valvce coriaceo- 
submembranaceae, intus medio septiferae. Se7iii7ia loculis plerumque bina, collateralia, triquetra ; testa atra, sub- 
crustacea ; albumen corneum ; embryo axilis, paulo curvatus, albumine parum brevior ; radicula incrassata. — 
Herba speciosa, elata,perennis, Aucklandica, et in insula Campbell proveniens. Radix elongata, tuberibus elongatis 
fasciculatis donata. Folia late ensiformia, basi vaginantia. Scapi solitarii v. plurimi, pedales et ultra. Flores 
racemosi, uurantiaci. 

1. Chrysobactrox Rossii, Hook. fil. (Tab. XLIV. & XLV.) 

Radix, rhizoma horizontale seu perpendiculare, crassum, carnosum, 1-2 unc. longum, pollicis humanse et 
ultra diametr., transverse rugosum, hie illic constrictum, atrum, tubera elongata, fasciculata undique emittens. 
Tubera cylindrica, 2-3 uncialia, carnosa, atro-fusca, crassitie pennae anserinae, fibris crassis intermixta. Collum 
validum, brevissimum, simplex v. rarius bi- triceps, tuberibus minoribus, horizontaliter patentibus circumdatum. 
Caulis nullus. Folia plurima, circiter 12-16, omnia radicalia, erecto-pafcentia, inferiora horizontalia v. recurva, 
elongata, interdum bipedalia, lato-ensiformia, 2-4 unc. lata, integerrima, obtusa v. subacuta, superne praecipue 
concava, plurinervia, nervis approximatis et venis transversis inconspicuis reticulata, late viridia, nitida, subtus 
pallidiora, crassa, herbacea, basi longe vaginantia ; vaginis 3-4 unc. longis, integris, striatis ; ore obliquo sub- 
membranaceo ; sinu obtuso. Scapi solitarii vel nonraro plurimi, 6-8, erecti, validi, pedales, ^— ^ unc. diametr., 
striati, ad apices canaliculati, intus spongiosi, fructiferi et anni prateriti emarcidi, fistulosi, dealbati. Racemi 
conspicui, erecti, 4-7 unc. longi, 14—2 unc. diametr. ; masculi breviores, subconico-ovati, pedicellis nempe florum 
inferiorum elongatis, horizontales, apice attenuati, subacuti ; faminei elongati, cylindracei, obtusi, paulo angus- 
tiores ; rachis infra pedicellos sulcata, saepe medio turgida, vacua, vel per totam longitudinem fistulosa. Flores 
numerosissimi, conferti, pedicellati, odore suavi. Pedicel/i graciles, ^-1 unc. longi, in floribus famineis suberecti, 
fructiferi subincrassati, erecti, basi bracteolati. Bractcohe lineari-elongatae, obtusae v. subacuta?, pedicellis nunc 
longiores, sed saepius abbreviatae, foliaceae, floribus concolores. Perianthium corollinum, hexaphyllum, aureum, 
3-4 lin. diametr. ; foliola lineari-oblonga, v. oblongo-ovata, supra medium paulo contracta, costa paulo incras- 
sata e nervis 3 approximatis, valde inconspicuis formata, 3 interiora vix ac ne vix minora, floribus masculis 
patentia, ad apices subincurva, famineis erecto-pateutia, post anthesin erecta, capsular immaturae appressa, dein 
decidua. Stamina 6, foliolis perianthii opposita, iis breviora, hypogyna, erecto-patentia ; filamenta valida, elon- 
gato-subulata, teretia, glaberrima ; antherce versatiles, oblongae ; loculis parallelis, contiguis, rimis longitudina- 
libus dehiscentibus ; in floribus fcemineis imperfectis, vacuis. Pollen flavum, ovoideum, longitudinaliter bi- vel 
trisulcatum. Ovarium, fl. masc, elongato-ovatum, trisulcatum, apice acutum v. trifidum, una cum perianthio 
marcescens et deciduum ; fl.foem. late ovatum, turgidum, 2 lin. longum, obscure trigonum, angulis obtusis, 3-sul- 
catum,3-loculare ; loculi 2- rarius 1-ovulati; ovula collateralia, ex angulo interno infra apicem loculi orta, funiculis 
brevibus suspensa. Stylus terminalis, erectus, validus, teres, longitudine ovarium aequans, stigmate parvo, sub- 
capitato, obscure 3-6-lobato terminatus. Capsulce late ovata, 3-4 lin. longse, submembranaceae, 3-loculares, loCa- 
licido trivalves ; valvce ellipticae, dorso canaliculatae ; dissepimenta membranacea. Semina elliptico-ovata, triquetra, 

Campbell's Islands.'] FLORA ANTARCTICA. 73 

dorso convexa ; dum solitaria latiora, intus carinata. Testa utrinque in alam producta ; membrana exterior 
laxa, membranacea, atro-fusca; interna Crustacea, aterrima, nitida, sub lente impresso-punctata. Albumen car- 
nosum, pallide viride. Embryo axilis, filiformis, teres, paulo arcuatus, carnosus, viridis, albumine parum brevior ; 
extremitate radiculari incrassata, obtusa : — Monstra, racernis bifidis, seu scapis divisis, dicephalis, non raro 

I am unable to refer this to any described genus of Asphodelea, and have adopted the name* in allusion to 
the magnificent racemes of golden-yellow nowers which it bears. It will rank near Anthericum, L., from which 
it differs in having only one or at most two ovules and in the erect style. It is also very nearly allied to Bul- 
binella, Kunth (En. Plant, vol. iv. p. 569), especially in general appearance; but in that genus the perianth is 
persistent, a character probably of more importance than the number of ovules or bearded filaments, which have 
hitherto been considered sufficient to distinguish genera too nearly allied in other respects. 

Perhaps no group of islands on the surface of the globe, of the same limited extent and so perfectly isolated, 
can boast of three such beautiful plants, peculiar to their flora, as the Pleurophyllum speciosum (Plate XXII. & 
XXIII.), Celmisia vernicosa (Plate XXVI. & XXVII.), and the subject of the foregoing description. The last, 
from its greater abundance and conspicuous colour, is certainly the most striking of the three, not only giving 
a feature to the landscape wherever it grows, but in Campbell's Island covering the swampy sides of the hills 
in such profusion as to be distinctly visible at the distance of a full mile from shore. The specific name I have 
given in compliment to Sir James Ross, who, during our two days' stay in this island, brought to me, 
amongst many other new plants, one most luxuriant specimen of this, having three crowns of leaves from one 
root and no less than seven racemes of flowers, some of which were bifid ; it was between three and four feet 
high ; I much regretted the impossibility of preserving it whole, and the necessity there was of cutting it up 
into many fragments. The difficulty of preserving specimens at all, in latitudes so constantly wet and stormy, is 
very great ; especially on board ship, where, from the vicissitudes of the climate, they can rarely be exposed to 
the air on deck : the operation is rendered doubly tedious, when, as in the islands under consideration, the vege- 
tation is of a very succulent and coriaceous consistence. Most of my specimens required to be changed daily, and 
the papers to be dried over a long smoke funnel which traversed Captain Ross's cabin, the limited accommodation 
of our ships affording no other place available for this purpose. But for this privilege, constantly allowed me 
during the voyage, and which to any one less devoted than that officer to the objects of the expedition must 
have proved an insupportable annoyance, my collections would have been small indeed. The present plant 
was collected on the 15th of December 1840, but not fully dried when we had reached the 78th degree of lati- 
tude in February 1841. 

It is very natural that the great size and luxuriance of this and several other plants of the high southern 
latitudes should excite surprise. Arguing from those countries in the northern hemisphere which are upon the 
limits of terrestrial vegetation and which have a similarly rigorous climate, the vegetation of the former might be 
expected to consist of small and densely tufted plants. This is however not the case, and I have endeavoured to 
account for the apparent anomaly from the fact that the higher southern regions enjoy a singularly equable, though 
to the human constitution always inclement climate. It is further to be remarked, that the Flora, even under these 
circumstances of a peculiar luxuriance in individuals, is composed of very few species ; and again, that in the 
South, hardly any state of vegetation is met with between that of considerable abundance and almost complete 
sterility, and on ascending the mountains few or no new forms occur : the great mass of the alpine plants (even 
on the limits of perpetual snow) being those which inhabit the open lands at the level of the ocean. The botany 
of the densely wooded regions of the southern islands of the New Zealand group and of Fuegia is much more 
meagre, not only than that of similarly clothed regions in Europe, but of islands many degrees nearer the North- 

VOL. I. 

* Derived from \pvcrus, gold, and fictKrpov, a staff. 

74 FLORA ANTARCTICA. [Auckland and 

em Pole than these are to the opposite one. Iceland for instance, in lat. 62° N., proverbially barren as it is, 
and upon which no tree, but a few stunted birches, is to be found, contains certainly five times as many flower- 
ing plants as Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island together, whose rich vegetation is evident on their 
being first approached from sea ; and yet the numerical proportion which the two great groups of flowering 
plants bear to one another in each country is almost identical. Kerguelen's Land is on the southern limit of 
vegetation in its own longitude, as we may presume from its containing only eighteen species of flowering 
plants ; but these cover as much of the surface of the island as the plants of Spitzbergen do, and yet the latter 
country contains forty-five species, though on the verge of Arctic vegetation and infinitely nearer the Pole. 
Lastly, on Walden Island (lat. S0^° N.) we have the last traces of phsenogamic plants in the northern hemi- 
sphere, and in the opposite one beyond the South Shetlands (63° S.) no flowering plants exist ; but whilst the 
former islet boasts of ten species of flowering plants, the latter contains but a solitary grass. 

The uniformity of the Flora at the different levels in any given island of the South is to be expected from 
the paucity of species, and we further find that these are spread over vast extents of country. This is remark- 
ably the case with the southern American Flora, where the northern limit at which the antarctic Beech grows 
near the sea is 45°, from which latitude as far as 56° S. the level of the ocean seems to be its natural habitat : 
again, the plants which form the bogs of the Chonos Archipelago in lat. 45° S. are the same as those of Cape 
Horn, and the general features of the vegetation of the two localities are the same. In the northern temperate 
regions a very different state of things will be found to prevail : compare the Flora of the south of France, in 
the latitude of the Chonos Archipelago, with that of Argyleshire in the parallel of Cape Horn, and how little 
similarity exists ; and this not only because the plants of France cannot bear the climate of Scotland, but be- 
cause new forms are developed in the latter country, equally unsuited to the south of France. Many parallel 
cases to this might be adduced, all tending to prove that there are conditions in the physical geography of the 
southern islands which render them unfavourable to the production of species, but which are accompanied with a 
luxuriant development of such as do exist : and further, that species which form the mass of the vegetation 
under these conditions are such as continue to be typical of the Flora through many degrees of latitude whose 
mean temperature is considerably different. 

The equable climate which these countries now under consideration enjoy, is doubtless mainly attributable 
to the vast body of ocean surrounding them ; and though the want of new species must in a measure depend 
on the limited extent of surface for their development, it is not altogether from the want of space that the pau- 
city of new forms in proceeding to the South is to be accounted for, since in no other part of the globe can 
sixteen degrees of so luxuriant a Flora composed of so few species be traversed. 

All parts of antarctic America as it is called, a name its ungenial climate alone, and not its geographical 
position, warrants, are wet, foggy and cold ; snow-storms and gales of wind prevail throughout the year ; and not 
only on the hills, for the atmosphere seems so loaded with moisture, that a precipitation on the upper regions 
is generally followed at once by rain or snow on the lower grounds. In the summer the sun scarcely exerts 
any power without raising mists which intercept its rays. The difference between the summer and winter tem- 
perature is small, and the diurnal changes trifling. The perennial hurricanes which sweep the exposed surfaces 
of the hills seem alone materially to check the vegetation, for even on the mountains the plants of the plains 
reappear wherever a shelter is afforded. In no part of Scotland does 1700 feet of elevation exist without show- 
ing a material change in the vegetable kingdom, such a height producing many subalpine and even alpine 
plants not met with at the level of the ocean ; but though in Hermite Island the mountains attain that height, 
there is scarcely a plant growing upon them which does not equally exist in the open grounds near the sea. 
Nor is there probably any country where the prevailing species, forming the mass of the Flora, have such wide 
ranges as in Antarctic America. 

From this we may presume, that plants will pass through many degrees of latitude, and consequently from 

Campbell's Islands.'] FLORA ANTARCTICA. 75 

one climate to another, provided there is no sudden change of temperature to check their progress* ; that is to 
say, if in each climate the difference between the extremes is the same, small, and that change slow ; and that 
we may expect the range of individual species to increase with the uniformity of the temperature throughout 
the year. 

The above observations have been drawn chiefly from a consideration of the antarctic American Flora, 
which is the only one sufficiently investigated hitherto for this purpose. The plants of the Middle Island of 
New Zealand are only known from the collections of Banks and Solander, Forster and Menzies, which were 
made in Queen Charlotte's Sound and Dusky Bay, chiefly in the latter ; those of the Southern or Stewart's 
Island are entirely unknown; the Northern Island maybe considered as pretty well explored, but an aggregate 
of the whole shows the Flora of New Zealand to be in all probability the poorest of any country of its size 
situated in the same latitude. Though this group extends from lat. 34° to the 48th degree, the summers of the 
northern extremity are not scorching, nor the winters, in its southern, severe. It is true that its high moun- 
tains have been but partially explored ; but botanists have ascended them, as Mr. Bidwill, Dr. Dieffenbach, and 
Mr. Colenso, in whose collections the amount of new forms from so considerable an altitude as that of 6-10,000 
feet is very trifling, and the species brought by each person the same. In the immediate neighbourhood of Port 
Jackson, 400 species of flowering plants may be easily collected in four days' excursions ; in the same time 
scarcely half that number would be detected in the Bay of Islands, very little to the southward of Sydney in 
latitude ; and on extending the journeys further in each country to thirty or forty miles, the disproportion in- 
creases. A remarkable uniformity in the Flora pervades all the South Sea Islands, also accompanied with a 
singularly equable temperature. The change which an elevation of 10,000 feet produces in the Flora of Colom- 
bia is complete, and the number of species inhabiting the plains of Quito much exceeds that in the low forests 
of the west coast of America, in the same parallel ; but though the volcanic islands of the Sandwich group 
attain a greater elevation than this, there is nosuch development of new species at the upper level. 

Amongst the many branches of inquiry into which the science of Botanical Geography divides itself, that 
which concerns the comparative richness in species of countries similarly situated is a highly interesting one. An 
exuberant vegetation we find not to be necessarily the index of an extensive flora, nor is it in the most densely 
clothed spots that the greatest variety of forms is to be met with, but very often the contrary. Few lands we 
have seen are so deceptive in this respect as New Zealand and Tierra del Fuego ; and on extending the inquiry, 
we further see that the sandy plains of Australia, the Cape of Good Hope, and the campos of central Brazil, are 
richer in species than the more luxuriant woods of those or most other countries. 

Plate XLIV. & XLV. Fig. 1, a male flower ; fig. 2, petal ; fig. 3, stamen ; fig. 4, pollen ; fig. 5, imperfect 
ovarium of male flower ; fig. 6, female flower with pedicel and bractea ; fig. 7, ovarium from do. ; fig. 8, ovule ; 
fig. 9, immature capsule ; fig. 10, longitudinal, and fig. 11, transverse section of do. ; fig. 12, ripe capsule, the 
valves burst open ; fig. 13, side, and fig. 14, front view of a seed ; fig. 15, transverse section of do., showing the 
outer membrane ; fig. 16, albumen coated with the inner membrane removed from the outer ; fig. 17, embryo : 
— all magnified. 

* A familiar instance of the advantage of slow changes of temperature in enabling plants to endure trans- 
portation, is found in the application of Mr. Ward's glazed cases for transmitting plants to England through 
different climates. One of the main features of his philosophical contrivance is, that their construction induces a 
slow change of temperature in the atmosphere immediately surrounding the plants, and prevents their suffering 
from any sudden variations. 


76 FLORA ANTARCTICA. [Auckland and 

" Genus inter ASPHODELEAS et JUNCEAS."— Brown. 

ASTELIA, Banks et Soland. 

Flores polygamo-dioici. Herm. Masc. Perianthium semiglumaceum, sexfidum v. profunde sexpartitum ; 
laciniis oblongis lineari-oblongisve, sub apice incrassatis, 3 exterioribus paulo majoribus, dorso sericeis. Sta- 
mina 6, laciniis perianthii inserta ; filamentis brevibus v. elongatis ; ancheris brevibus, didyrnis, introrsis ; pollen 
ovoideum v. angulatum, granulatuni v. minutissime echinulatum, latere unico excavaturn. Ovarium aborti- 
vum. Fl. Herm. F<em. Perianthium ut in masculo, persistens. Stamina imperfecta. Ovarium oblongum v. 
globosum, obtuse trigonum v. trilobum, uni- tri- sexloculare. Ovula plurima, biserialia, ascendentia, anatropa. 
Placenta in ovariis unilocularibus 3-seriales, parietales, v. summo loculi affixa? ; in iis trilocularibus angulo in- 
teriore superne suspensse. Stylus brevissimus, crassus, teres, saepius subnullus. Stigma sessile, trilobum. Bacca 
turgida, globosa v. elongata, perianthio emarcido v. rarius baccato suffulta v. inclusa et stigmate plerumque coro- 
nata, interdum submembranacea uni- trilocularis, rarius 5-6-locularis, loculis 2-polyspermis. Semina ovoidea 
v. angulata, ad raphin incrassata v. subcarinata, in bacca uniloculari plurima, interdum pulpa immersa, horizon- 
talia, biserialia, rarius pendula ; in bacca pluriloculari ex apice loculi pendula ; funiculis brevibus ; umbilico nudo. 
Membrana seminis externa Crustacea, interdum ossea, aterrima, nitida. Nucleus pendulus ; membrana interior 
tenuis, chalaza lata orbiculari ope raphis cum umbilico junctus. Albumen dense carnosum. Embryo parvus in 
basi albumiuis inclusus, extremitate radiculari incrassata bilo proxima. — Herbse insularum Oceani Pacifici et 
Antarctici, Nova Zelandia Tasmaniwque incola, nullibi copioste, caspitosa , plus minusve sericeo-paleacea. Caules 
breviusculi, foliosi. Folia elongata, plerumque carinata, trinervia. Flores racemosi, paniculati v. scapis abbreviates 
bini, basi bracteolati. 

1. Astelia linearis, Hook. fil. ; foliis patulis lineari-elongatis acutis canaliculars appresse 
argenteo-paleaceis sericeis v. glabriusculis subtus carinatis, scapo perbrevi 1— 2-flore, flore inferiore 
basi bracteato, bacca lineari-oblonga carnosa obtuse trigona 1-loculari, seminibus plurimis placentis 
parietalibus affixis. 

Var. /3. subulata ; pumila, foliis lineari-subulatis. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island ; on the bare ground, not uncommon, 
especially on the hills in open places. 

Species pusilla, polymorphs, dense caespitosa, habitu A. alpinat et pumila sed foliis multoties angustioribus, 
magnitudine varians. Radix lignosa, fusiformis, descendens, parce fibrosa, fibris patentibus, flexuosis, elon- 
gatis, 2-3 unc. longis, 1 lin. diametr. Caules breviusculi, £-3 unc. longi, densissime compacti, pluries divisi, 
vaginis fuscis foliorum obtecti, una cum foliis i-| unc. diametri, basi reliquiis fibrosis et squamosis foliorum 
vetustorum obsiti. Folia omnia radicalia, inferiora interdum recurva, undique patentia, (an obscure trifa- 
riam imbricata ?) basi late vaginantia, 2-4 unc. longa (in var. /3. ^-| uncialia), lineari-elongata v. rarius an- 
guste lanceolata, 2-3 lin. lata, gradatim acuminata, crassa et coriacea, supra profunde sulcata v. canaliculata, ad 
margines plerumque recurva, subtus medio carinata, utrinque plus minusve paleis squamisve argenteis v. rufo- 
fuscis obtecta v. subsericea, interdum sed rarius glaberrima, luride viridia, ad apices fasciculo squamarum peni- 
cillata ; vagina latiusculae, scarioso-membranaceae, squamosa; ; squamis byalinis, appressis, elongatis, fimbriato- 
laceris, deciduis. Scapus solitarius, perbrevis, \ unc. longus, inter vaginas foliorum occlusus, argenteo-squa- 
mosus, apice bifidus, biflorus. Flores approximate erecti ; inferior subsessilis, basi bracteatus ; superior pedi- 
cellatus. Bractea lineari-elongata, obtusa, utrinque furfuraceo-squamosa. Fl. Masc mihi ignoti. Fan. 
Perianthium sexpartitum ; lacinia; lineares, obtusae, exteriores majores, extus sericeae, versus apices incrassatae, 
subcucullatae, dorso penicillatee, interiores angustiores, apicibus subincrassatis. Stamina imo perianthii inserta, 

Campbell's Islands.] FLORA ANTARCTICA. 77 

parva, imperfecta. Ovarium ovato-oblongum, obtuse trigonum, stigmate trilobo sessili terminatum, uniloeulare. 
Placentce parietales, triseriales, nerviformes. Ovula plurima, biserialia, semi-anatropa, ascendentia. Bacca 
carnosa, oblongo-elongata, ^ unc. longa, prismatica, angulis obtusis, pallide rufa, perianthio duplo longior. 
Semina plurima, horizontalia, obovata, obtusa, latere unico compressa, subcarinata ; funiculus crassiusculus, sub- 
elongatus, filamentosus ; membrana exterior Crustacea, subossea, aterrima, nitida; nucleus pendulus solutus, 
chalaza orbiculari apiceque fusca ; membrana interior tenuis, pallide fusca. Albumen carnosum. Embryo 
parvus, ovatus, basi albuminis inclusus ; radicula hilo proxima. 

Since the first appearance of the ' Prodromus Flora; Nov. Holl.,' in which Mr. Brown published the genus 
Astelia from the manuscripts of Banks and Solander, nothing seems to have been done by the many authors who 
have transcribed his characters and remarks towards determining its affinities. Mr. Brown himself views 
it as intermediate between Asphodelcce and Juncece, and retains it at the end of the former order ; from this it 
has been removed with one consent by all future classifiers, some placing it after Juncece and others with Me- 
lanthacece. Mr. Forster's name of Melanthium pumilum, given to the Fuegian species, shows that he considered 
it as being most nearly allied to the latter-named order ; but I am not aware that any other author has stated 
his reasons for following Forster's views of its affinity, except perhaps Thunberg, whose dissertation de Melan- 
thaceis I have never seen. 

In 1819 Sir J. E. Smith (Appendix to Rees's Cyclopaedia) added a new species to the genus, the A. Men- 
ziesiana of the Sandwich Islands ; the form of the seeds is mentioned, but no particulars of their structure. 
This species was redescribed by Gaudichaud (Voy. Freyc. Bot. p. 420), who does not seem to have been 
aware of Sir James Smith's paper, and he named it A. veratroides, placing it in Melanthacecc without any 
remark ; the fruit seems unknown to Gaudichaud, but was described as three-celled by Smith and again by 
Hooker and Arnott (Bot. Beechey Voy. p. 97), who also retain it in the same order. 

A. Richard published his 'Flora Nova; Zelandiae ' in 1830, wherein no notice is taken of the genus 
Astelia, but a species of it is figured and described as Hamelinia (nov. gen.) veratroides : the male flowers and 
ripe fruit appear to have been both unknown to that author, the ovary is described as trilocular, and the genus 
arranged in Colchicacece (Melanthacece). 

In 1836 Mr. Cunningham described (in his Prodr. Flor. Nov. Zel.) two species of Astelia, under one of 
which {A. Banksii), Richard's Hamelinia is quoted as a synonym ; it is placed in Junci. Shortly afterwards 
Endlicher (in his ' Genera Plantarum ') removed it to the end of Juncece. Lastly, Kunth takes up the genus 
Astelia (Enum. Plant, vol. iii. p. 364) and follows Endlicher's views of its affinity. Though however his work 
was published as late as 1841, all notice of Cunningham's species are omitted, and the A. Banksii receives the 
third name of A. Richardi. 

I have had the opportunity of examining the ripe fruit of six species of the genus, and find the seeds of all 
to agree in structure and to partake of the peculiarities both of Liliacea and Juncece ; with Melanthacets they have 
fewer characters in common. 

Except in the more fleshy substance of the capsule in most of the species and its not bursting by valves, 
to which however there is a manifest tendency in the A. pumila, there is no material difference in that organ 
between Astelia and Juncus. The ovaria are the same in both, being one or more celled ; when one-celled 
generally bearing the anatropous ovules in two series on three lines of parietal placentas, and when three-celled 
they are pendent from the inner angles of the cells. The internal structure of the seeds of the two genera is 
identical ; the outer coat alone, from becoming thick and even in Astelia, agrees only with Rostkovia amongst 
Juncece, but in being crustaceous and black differs from all. The nucleus, raphe, chalaza, inner coat of the seed 
immediately surrounding the albumen, the albumen itself, and form and position of the embryo, are precisely 
alike in both. Together with these remarkable accordances in structure there are many points of discrepancy, 
especially in habit, as also in the chaffy covering of the leaves and other parts, the uniformly dioecious or poly- 

78 FLORA ANTARCTICA. [Auckland and 

gamous flowers, the texture of the leaflets of the perianth and their being often united above the base, the subulate 
and generally terete, not linear or compressed filaments, the short anthers and different nature of the pollen, which 
is minutely granular and furrowed on one side, and the constantly nearly sessile and three-lobed stigma. 

With Asphodeleee, Astelia has many points in common : though, as stated above, the internal structure of 
the seed is more manifestly that of Juncece, it is not opposed to the description of that organ in Asphodeleee, and 
the brittle black shining testa is almost typical of that order. The stamens are the same, in some Astelia being 
much elongated and bearing versatile anthers ; and the form of the pollen likewise, though I have always ob- 
served it to be granulated. The thickened and subincurved apices of the leaflets of the perianth are analogous 
to the cucullate tips of these organs in Drimia and Albuca. The form of the perianth is variable in the New 
Zealand species, nor is its texture always peculiarly semi-glumaceous, as in one species the lacinise, which are 
linear, are also thin, membranous and white ; in another it expands at the base into a broad, flattened or cup- 
shaped disc with six equal lobes ; in a third the base is subcampanulate, with erect linear lacinke, subpeta- 
loid in texture ; and in a fourth species it completely surrounds the ripe berries, which are very large. Nor is 
the berry itself very constant in internal structure, as in Dianella, Lam., amongst Asphodelea, it is baccate, and as 
in Allium, L., it varies in the number of cells from one to three. In one of the above New Zealand species it 
is, as far as I can judge from dried specimens, one-celled, with many seeds pendulous from the summit, attached 
by short funiculi to what probably was a fleshy pendent column, but of which I see only the membranous re- 
mains ; if any dissepiments existed they must have been very imperfect. Another species has the berry con- 
stantly three-celled, with several seeds pendulous from the upper inner angle of the cell ; and in a third the fruit 
is membranous and subcapsular with three to six cells, each containing two or more pendulous seeds, which are 
convex at the back and with the sides much compressed like those of many Asphodelea. To Melanthacea the genus 
is allied inhabit, in the polygamous flowers, in the perianth sometimes (exactly similar to that of Wurmbia, Thunb.) 
forming a tube round the fruit, in the baccate fruit, and in the form and surface of the pollen, which in some Melan- 
thacete is minutely granular : from this order however they essentially differ, in the aestivation of the perianth not 
being induplicate, in the anthers being at no period extrorse, in the single style, sessile, lobed stigma, and in the 
crustaceous integument of the seed. Whilst alluding to this order I may mention another plant whose affinity has 
been considered dubious, the Campynema linearis, Lab. (Flor. Nov. Holl. vol. i. p. 93. t. 121). This I have 
lately examined, and find it to be, as Mr. Brown rightly conjectured (Prodr. p. 290), truly Melanthaceous, with 
the tube of the perianth united to the ovarium. The fruits I have only seen in an immature state ; but in them 
the adhesion of the perianth to the capsule is evident, and in a forwarder state the line of separation would 
doubtless be more clear. The plant is dioecious or probaoly polygamous, the anthers extrorse and caducous, 
the filaments after their falling away becoming recurved and projecting between the segments of the perianth ; 
the pollen is yellow and granulate. The immature seeds are very numerous, imbricated in two series in each 
cell, and are attached to the middle of the dissepiments. 

I have not ventured to subdivide the genus Astelia, as I doubt if characters of sufficient importance will be 
found to render it necessary, especially until good specimens in all states of the New Zealand species shall have 
been examined. The A. pumila, Br., is the most abnormal species in habit and in the subcapsular fruit; it is 
allied to the Tasmanian A. alpina, Br. in the form of that organ and shape of the leaves, and, on the other hand, 
to A. linearis in the short two-flowered scape. The A. alpina again, having a racemose inflorescence, con- 
nects these with the New Zealand species, in one of which the ovarium is one-celled. There are probably two 
species in the Sandwich group, one of which has two seeds in each of the cells of the berry and the seed-coat is 
very thick and osseous. 

The A. linearis is the most inconspicuous of any of the species, owing to the grassy appearance of the 
leaves and its small size. Both the A. pumila and A. alpina are very striking plants ; the former constituting 
singular hard flat green beds on the bogs, often several yards across ; while the latter, with its beautifully 
silky and copious foliage, is a great ornament to the top of Mount Wellington and other mountains of Tasmania. 

Campbell's Islands.] FLORA ANTARCTICA. 79 

Some of the New Zealand species are wonderful features in the forest scenery of those islands ; they form huge 
tufted masses, often as large as the human body, perched on the naked limbs of the most lofty pines ; elevated 
as they are 80-100 feet above the ground, they remind the beholder of the nest of some gigantic bird. 


1. Juncus antarcticus, Hook. fil. ; pumilus, casspitosus, culmo terete superne nudo foliis sub- 
ajquilongo, foliis radicalibus e basi vaginante linearibus serniteretibus versus apices obtusos cylin- 
draceis, floribus 2-4 capitatis hexandris, perianthii foliolis subulato-lanceolatis exterioribus concavis 
dorso acutis, stylo nullo, capsula perianthii longitudine triloculari. (Tab. XLVI.) 

Hab. Campbell's Island ; on the exposed summits of the mountains : alt. 1000 feet, rare. 

Plantce perpusillae, vix unciam longae, inter muscos csespites densos formantcs. Radix fibrosa; fibris elon- 
gatis, tortuosis. Culmi erecti, \-^ unc. longi, ima basi divisi, rarius parce ramosi, reliquiis foliorum vetustorum 
vaginati, foliosi. Folia plurima, radicalia, numerosa, sub \ unc.longa, basi vaginantia, suberectavel paulo cur- 
vata, e basi latiore lineari-subulata v. linearia, semiteretia v. superne obscure canaliculars, versus apices cylin- 
dracea, obtusa ; basi vaginante elongato-ovata, medio coriacea, striata, marginibus subscariosis. Scapi solitarii, 
rarius bini, stricti, erecti, subvalidi, foliis breviores, post anthesin elongati. Flores plerumque 3, capitati, basi 
bibracteolati, unico non raro incompleto, altero breviter pedicellato. Bracteolte ovatae, acuminatae, longitudine 
variae, flores plerumque superantes, unica interdum subelongata, folium simulante. Perianthium li lin. longum, 
castaneum, nitidum ; foliola subaequalia; exteriora lanceolato-subulata, coriacea, concava, dorso acuta, vix cari- 
nata ; interiora planiuscula, sublatiora, medio coriacea, marginibus anguste membranaceis. Stamina 6 ; fila- 
menta latiuscula, plana, uninervia ; anthera oblongae, subrecurvae, apice brevissime unguiculatae. Ovarium parvum, 
obovatum, turgidum, triloculare, in stylum non attenuatum ; valvis dorso carinatis. Stigmata 3, sessilia, inclusa, 
lineari-subulata, post anthesin torta. Ovula plurima, angulo interno loculi biserialia. Capsula perianthio 
inclusa, castanea, ovata v. ovato-oblonga, subacuta, 3-locularis, 3-valvis ; valvce convexae, medio dorso canalicu- 
late, intus septiferae ; dissepimentis in axi capsulae primo inter se cohaerentibus, denique solutis. Semina plurima, 
quovis loculo 15-20, funiculis brevibus margini septorum adnexa, ovato- v. elliptico-oblonga, obtusa, flavo- 
brunnea; funiculi incrassati, reliquiis filamentosis membranae externa; seminis circumdati : testa membranacea, 
pallide flavo-brunnea, obsolete striata v. reticulata. 

This curious little species is allied to none with which I am acquainted ; in size and general appearance it 
somewhat resembles the Luzula arcuata, Hook., of the Scottish Alps. The form of the leaves is that of Juncus 
castaneus, Sm., but they are in this plant solid internally and of quite a different structure. The capitate flowers 
and naked scapes are common to this, with the J. biglumis, L., /. triglumis, L., and with the following. 

Plate XLVI. Fig. 1, leaf ; fig. 2, section of central part of do. ; Jig. 3, upper part of do. ; fig. 4, capitulum ; 
fig. 5, flower ; fig. 6, outer leaflet of perianth ; fig. 7, inner leaflet of do. ; fig. 8, stamen ; fig. 9, ovarium ; fig. 10, 
capsule inclosed in perianth ; fig. 11, the same removed with the valves burst open ; fig. 12, transverse section 
of do. ; fig. 13, one valve of capsule ; fig. 14, seeds : — all magnified. 

2. Juncus scheuchzerioides, Gaud.; culmo brevissimo compresso basi fastigiatim ramoso, foliis 
erectis longissime lineari-subulatis compressis basi longe vaginantibus intus articulatis, scapo bre- 
vissimo foliis multoties breviore, floribus 6-8 capitatis hexandris bractea elongata subtensis, perian- 
thii foliolis ovato-lanceolatis medio coriaceis omnibus planiusculis, stylo elongato, capsula perianthio 

80 FLORA ANTARCTICA. [Auckland and 

sublongiore semitriloculari. — Gaud, in Ann. Sc. Nat. vol. v. p. 100, et in Freyc. Voy. Bot. pp. 132 
& 419. D'Urv. Fl. Ins. Mai. in Trans. Soc. Linn. Paris, vol. iii. p. 124. Rcem. et Schultes, vol. vii. 
pt. 1. p. 196. La Harpe, June. 36. Kunth, En. Plant, vol. iii. p. 325. — Var. /3. inconspicuus. J. incon- 
spicuus, D'Urv., Gaud., La Harpe, locis citatis. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island; sparingly in marshy places near the 
tops of the hills, alt. 1000 feet ; more abundant in the latter island at the level of the sea. /3. Camp- 
bell's Island, not uncommon in gravelly places. 

Cuhni brevissimi, sub \ unc. longi, saepius pluries divisi, surculos radicantes interdum lateraliter emittentes, 
basi fibrosi ; fibris simplicibus. Folia subdistiche inserta, stricta, erecta, basi longe vaginantia, longitudine 
varia, in var. (i. plerumque vix 1 unc. longa, sed exemplaribus plerisque 4-8 uncialia, per totam longitudinem 
compressa, in acumen curvatum v. uncinatum saepe ad apicem attenuata, herbacea et subgraminea, nunquam 
dura v. coriacea, striata, pallide viridia ; intus fistulosa, transverse articulata, nodis siccitate solummodo externe 
conspicuis, internodiis 2-4 iin. longis, nervis prominentibus costatis ; vagina A-^ folii aequantes, nienibranaceo- 
dilatatae, superne oblique rotundatae v. truncatae, seu in auriculas interdum sursum productae. Scapi foliis £-A 
breviores, graciles, teretes vel paulo compressi, superne nudi. Capitula 4-8-flora, bractea foliiformi, plus 
minusve elongata subtensa. Bracteola late ovatae, acuminata?, 3-5-nerves, dorso infra apicem carinatae. Peri- 
anlhii foliola exteriora vix concava, ovato-lanceolata, acuminata, medio coriacea, trinervia, dorso subcarinata ; 
marginibus late membranaceis, subscariosis, infra apicem involutis, fusco-purpureis ; interiora planiuscula, ovato- 
oblonga, obtusa v. breviter acuminata, medio incrassata, nervosa, viridia ; marginibus albidis v. pallide fuscis, 
late membranaceis. Stamina foliolis periantbii breviora ; filamenta plaDa, linearia, subelongata ; antheralineari- 
oblongae, apice breviter unguiculatse. Ovarium triquetrum, triloculare. Stylus erectus. Stigmata 3, elongato- 
filiformia, horizontaliter patentia, post anthesin torta. Capsula ovato-oblonga, perianthio paulo longior, trigona, 
angulis obtusis, 3-valvis ; valvce dorso concava?, medio subcanaliculatae, septiferae ; dissepiment is retractis, poly- 
spermis. Semina plurima, bisei'ialia, ovoidea ; membrana externa byalina, filamentosa, tenuissima, caduca, ad 
raphin incrassata ; interna pallide fusca, reticulata, utrinque reliquiis membrana? externa; subfilamentosa ; cha- 
laza latiuscula, opaca. 

The Auckland and Campbell Island plant is assuredly identical with that of South America, and as a spe- 
cies it is exceedingly distinct from any other with which I am acquainted, except perhaps, as Kunth suggests, 
the /. microcephalus, H. B. K. Of this plant we have copious specimens, but as they are in the hands of 
Meyer, who is now preparing a monograph of the genus Juncus, I am unable to compare them. So far as my 
recollection serves me, there is much similarity between this species and one from the Andes of South America ; 
but judging from the descriptions of Kunth in Humboldt's Nov. Gen., the J. microcephalus differs materially 
from this in size, in the creeping rhizoma, in the leaves being shorter than the scapes, the dichotomous corymb and 
many other characters ; in fact, the articulated leaves, described by Kunth as terete, but by La Harpe as compressed, 
seem to be almost the only character the}* possess in common. This is a much more common species than the 
J. antarcticus, and differs as materially from it in the structure of the leaf, as the J. biglumis does from J. tri- 
glumis. The J. scheuchzerioides has the leaves of a very soft texture, as are the leaflets of the perianth, none of 
which are carinated at the back. The difference between the length of the scape and leaf is very remarkable. 

I have retained the /. exiguus, Gaud., as a variety, though it hardly possesses characters sufficient to rank 
as such ; it consists here, as in the Falkland Islands, of small specimens of the plant, often growing in a poorer 
soil or drier locality. 

Campbell's Islands.] FLORA ANTARCTICA. 81 

2. ROSTKOVIA, Desv. 

Flos majusculus, solitarius. Perianthium glumaceum, hexaphyllum ; foliolis lineari-subulatis, 3 exteriori- 
bus paulo majoribus, dorso acutis. Stamina 6, imo perianthii inserta, foliolis opposita ; antherm apice unguicu- 
latae. Ovarium oblongum, elongatum v. ovatum, trigonura, uniloculare. Ovula plurima, biserialia, placentis 
3 parietalibus adnexa, anatropa. Stylus validus, elongatus, apice incrassatus. Stigmata 3, exserta, maxima, 
lineari-subulata, intus glandulosa, dorso profunde canaliculars. Capsula unilocularis, trivalvis, valvis medio 
intus carinatis, carinis e septis retractis formatis. Semina plurima, horizontalia v. ascendentia. Testa, varia. 
Embryo minimus, subquadratus, in basi albuminis carnosi inclusus. — Herbae Antarctica. Culmi basi vaginati. 
Folia solitaria v. plurima, elongata, teretia. Scapi graciles, apice uniflori, foliis breviores. — Character ex Des- 
vaux, paucis mutatis. — Rostkovia et Marsippospermum, Desv. 

1. Rostkovia Magellanica ; culmis casspitosis simplicibus v. ima basi divisis, foliis plurimis 
strictis erectis basi vaginantibus longe lineari-subulatis semiteretibus infra medium canaliculatis, sea- 
pis foliis longioribus, floribus bractea elongata subtensis, perianthii foliolis ovato-lanceolatis margini- 
bus late scarioso-membranaceis, capsula perianthio paulo longiore, seminum testa albumine conformi 
coriacea. — Rostkovia sphaerocarpa, Desvaux, Journ. de Bot. vol. i. p. 327. Juncus Magellanicus, Lamk. 
Encycl. Method, iii. p. 266. Gaud, in Ann. Sc. Nat. vol. v. p. 100, et in Freyc. Voy. Bot. p. 132. 
D'Urv. Fl. Ins. Mai. in Ann. Soc. Linn. Paris, vol. iv. p. 604. Kunth, En. Plant, vol. iii. p. 357- 

Hab. Campbell's Island ; in mossy and springy places on the hills, especially at the sources of 

Culmi basi compressi, subelongati, inclinati, fibras crassas emittentes, interdum subsurculosi, simplices vel 
divisi, rarius parce ramosi. Folia plurima, ad basin scapi cujusvis 8-10, erecta, stricta, rigida, longissime 
lineari-subulata, 5-10 unc. longa, basi longe vaginantia, semiteretia v. obscure trigona, intus solida, supra basi 
ad medium canaliculars, superne subtriquetra, ad apices pungentia, plus minusve curvata, glaberrima, polita, 
nitida : vagina? compressse, \- 1 unc. longse, basi 3-4 lin. lata, subchartacea?, superne coriacea?, oblique trun- 
cate. Scapi solitarii v. rarissime duo, erecti, graciles, teretes v. subtrigoni, foliis ^—^ breviores, infra florem soli- 
tarium subincrassati, rigidi, solidi. Bractea ad basin floris 2, valde inaequales ; superior e basi ovato-lanceolata 
subulata, concava, chartacea, perianthium vix superans ; inferior concava, e basi vaginante late ovata, longe 
subulata, erecta, stricta, perianthium bis quaterve superans, interdum folium omnino simulans. Perianthium 
\ unc. longum ; foliola lineari-oblonga, attenuata, acuta v. acuminata, inter se subsequalia ; exteriora paulo 
majora, concava, dorso acuta, superne carinata, coriacea, striata, castanea, nitida, marginibus late scariosis, pal- 
lidis ; interiora planiora, medio incrassata. Stamina 6, inclusa ; filamenta linearia, medio uninervia, perianthio 
£ breviora ; anthera lineares, elongate, filamentis paulo breviores ; connectivo ultra apicem in unguem brevern, 
obtusum, subrecurvum producto ; loculis parallelis, rimis lateralibus dehiscentibus. Pollen tetragonum, intus 3-4- 
granulosum, flavum. Ovarium elliptico-ovatum, in stylum attenuatum, obtuse trigonum, 1-loculare. Placenta 
nerviformes, parietales, dissepimentis obsoletis site. Ovula plurima, biserialia, ascendentia, funiculis brevibus pla- 
centis adnexa, anatropa. Stylus elongatus, erectus, validus, strictus, basi gracilis, superne gradatim incrassatus, 
ovario aequilongus. Stigmata 3, tota exserta, erecto-patentia, subulato-filiformia, ad baseos latiores confluentia, 
intus per totam longitudinem glandulosa, dorso glaberrima, profunde canaliculata. Capsula perianthium superans, 
late obovato-oblonga, prismatica, angulis obtusiusculis, apice acuta, v. stylo persistente mucronata, dura et cori- 
acea, sublignea, castanea, nitida, quasi vernicosa, unilocularis, polysperma, trivalvis ; valvce oblonga?, utrinque 
acuta?, concava?, dorso medio canaliculate, intus septo incompleto costatre. Semina numerosa, conferta, lentifor- 
mia, utrinque obtusa, paulo compressa, latere unico subcarinata, hevia, castanea, nitida, basi pallidiora ; umbilico 
nudo. Membrana seminis exterior crassa, coriacea, intus spongiosa ; interior membranacea, obscure reticulata, 
VOL. I. M 

82 FLORA ANTARCTICA. {Auckland and 

pallide flavo-brunnea, utrinque (chalaza apiceque) fusca, albumini appressa, exteriore remota ; inter has duas 
raphe saepius solutus apparet. Albumen carnosum. Embryo parvus, albidus, oblique tetragonus, in basi albu- 
minis immersus, hilo proximus. 

This species was, according to Lamarck, originally discovered by Commerson, who accompanied Bougain- 
ville in his voyage to the Straits of Magalhaens, &c. I have gathered it abundantly both in Tierra del Fuego and 
the Falkland Islands. In the latter locality it is very abundant, and had been previously detected by M. Gau- 
dichaud and by Admiral D'Urville. It is rare in Campbell's Island, and was not observed upon Lord Auckland's 
group. It is equally distinct from the R. grandiflora (Marsippospermum grandiflorum, Desv., Hook. Ic. Plant, 
t. 533) and from the following, in the elongated bractea which subtends the flower, as well as the size of the 
plant, form of the leaf and capsule, and curious structure of the seeds. I have no hesitation in retaining 
Lamarck's specific name of Magellanica for this plant, the species being well characterized by that author, and 
known to Desvaux at the time he established the genus Rostkovia ; this he did upon different grounds however 
from those which induce me to retain it. 

M. Desvaux founds the genus on this solitary species, but grounds his generic character on an erroneous 
idea of the structure of the capsule, which he describes (Journ. de Bot. 1. c.) as " capsula globosa, uniloculars, 
non dehiscens ; trophospermum suturale " (p. 326) ; and again in the previous page, " Je crois que la capsule ne 
s'ouvre point; par suite d'une observation generale, e'est que tout fruit qui n est point anguleux dans aucune de 

ses parties, n est pas dehiscent, surtout s'il est sph&rique les graines en grand nombre sont disposees sur 

trois trophospermes (placentae) fixes sur les parois de la capsule et alternant avec les indices de dehiscence qui 
s'aper^oivent au milieu des parois des loges, et qui sont toujours indiques, malgre que cette dehiscence n'ait 
point lieu dans quelques genres de la famille des Joncinees" (p. 325). The capsule of R . Magellanica I have 
described as of a very hard consistence, and its dehiscence does not take place until a considerable period after 
the apparent ripening of the seeds ; that it does burst is however abundantly evident, and the dehiscence takes 
place by three valves, exactly as in Desvaux's genus Marsippospermum and in other Juncece, the placentae occupy- 
ing the axis of the valves. From the above extract I conclude that M. Desvaux did not examine fully ripe cap- 
sules, and took the groove at the back of the valves, which is seen in almost all Junci, denoting the position of 
the placenta, for the line of dehiscence. In the work alluded to no description of the seeds themselves is given, 
though another genus is founded on a supposed peculiarity of structure in that organ. Mr. Brown (Piodr. 
p. 258), in his observations on the genus Juncus, remarks that no dependence is to be placed on the form of the 
testa as a generic character, " nee secernendae eae seminibus scobiformibus, testa nempe, quae in pluribus 
utrinque laxa, in his valde elongata ;" and as in the genus Juncus itself there are several forms of that organ, 
so in Rostkovia, as it now stands, it differs remarkably in two of the species. In R. grandiflora the outer inte- 
gument of the seed is lax and drawn out at both ends, as in Juncus castaneus, Sm., and several other species ; 
but in the R. Magellanica it assumes a form which I have not seen in any other species of the Natural Order, 
forming a very thick, even seed-coat, hard, smooth and shining externally, marked on one side with a pro- 
minent ridge, indicating the position of the raphe ; within it is soft and spongy, with a large cavity. Inside this 
the nucleus hangs loose, suspended by the vessels of the raphe, which are more or less detached and often quite 
separate from the walls of the seed-coat, except at the base. The inner membrane immediately surrounds the 
albumen ; it is thin and membranous, obscurely striated or reticulated, of a pale brown colour with a broad orbi- 
cular dark-coloured chalaza at the summit and another dark spot and apiculus at the pendent apex. This mem- 
brane is quite free from the outer, and analogous to what is generally considered as the testa in many Junci 
which are described as not having that organ scobiform, but in which the true outer membrane of the seed, ana- 
logous to the coriaceous one of the present species, is delicate and hyaline, either altogether deciduous or leaving 
a few filamentous residua round the base and apex of the seed, or as in J. scheuchzerioides, leaving the raphe 
as the only attachment between the seed and placenta. In some species of the Order this outer membrane forms 
with water a transparent jelly, in which the seed appears immersed ; it is very similar to what is seen surround- 

Campbell's Islands.'] FLORA ANTARCTICA. 83 

ing the moistened achaenia of some Composites. In South American specimens of R. Magellanica the seeds are 
paler and generally angled or. compressed ; the vessels of the raphe are also seen entirely detached from the 
walls of the membranes and running quite free between them to the summit of the albumen covered with the 
inner membrane, which thus appears suspended in the cavity of the outer coat, like the seed of some Amaran- 
thaceous plant attached to a long funiculus. 

The R.grandiftora is the type of this genus, to which the name of Marsippospermum was given by Desvaux ; 
but from that word denoting a structure in the seed foreign to this species, and not implying a character pecu- 
liar to any group of Junci, I have substituted that of Rostkovia, to include both these and the following. The 
very peculiar habit and appearance of the species, the singularly large and solitary flowers, unlike those of any 
Junctis, together with the elongated style and the disproportionate size of the stigmata, are characters peculiar 
to all these, and appear of sufficient importance to warrant the retaining them under a separate generic name. 
M. Kunth in his ' Enumeratio Plantarum' (vol. iii. p. 356) places the R. Magellanica near Juncus trifidus, L., 
a plant to which it has assuredly no affinity, either in habit, inflorescence, or structure of the capsule. The 
R. grandiflora the same author removes to another section, and arranges it (probably following Mr. Brown's 
suggestion) along with /. castaneus, Sm., biglumis, L., triglumis, L., and some others of more dubious affinity, 
in a group at the end of the genus. 

2. Rostkovia gracilis, Hook.fil. ; rhizomate valido repente, culmis erectis fastigiatis gracilibus, 
foliis solitariis elongatis basi squamosis et vaginatis filiformibus teretibus rigidis, scapis solitariis folio 
ter brevioribus, bractea infra-florali solitaria brevissima obtusa, perianthii foliolis longissime lanceo- 
late- subulatis, capsula lineari-oblonga perianthio multoties breviore. (Tab. XLVII.) 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island; amongst rocks and also in marshy 
places ; common at an elevation of 800-1200 feet. 

Rhizomata caespitosa, intertexta, horizontaliter repentia, 3-4 unc. longa, valida, crassa, sub ^ unc. diametr., 
dura, lignea, per totam longitudinem et praecipue versus apices culmos perplurimos superne emittentia, reliquiis 
foliorum vetustorum ubique vestita, subtus fibrosa; fibris validis, elongatis, 1-2 unc. longis, descendentibus, 
cuivatis, diametro pennae passerinas, copiosissime fibrillosis. Culmi numerosi, fastigiati, erecti, stricti, teretes, 
basi squamosi et vaginati ; squama e vaginis junioribus explanatis formats?, striata?, nitidas, castanese ; vagina 
2-3, folium arete amplectentes.elongatae, l-l|unc. longae, teretes, striata?, fulvaev. pallide castaneae, basi brunneae, 
politae, vernicosae, ad apices rotundatae, mucronata? ; mucrone plus minusve elongato, pungente. Folium soli- 
tarium v. rarius duo, erectum, filiforme, elongatum, |-1 pedale, gracile, teres, striatum, vix ^ lin. diametr., gra- 
datim acuminatum, apice subpungente, pallide viride, politum, intus spongiosum, fasciculis 8-10 tubulosis intra- 
marginalibus vasorum percursum. Scapus erectus, solitarius, gracilis, teres, 2-3 uncialis, folio bis terve brevior, 
infra fiorem paulo incrassatus. Flos solitarius, majusculus, erectus, |-1 unc. longus. Bracteola infra- floralis 
solitaria, parva, late ovato-oblonga, obtusa, membranacea, sub lineam longa. Perianthium angustum ; foliola longe 
lineari-subulata, gradatim acuminata ; exteriora subinaequalia, longiora, et paulo latiora, interne plana, supra 
medium concava, dorso carinata, medio pergamentacea, striata, castanea, nitida, marginibus late scariosis ; inte- 
riora subsimilia sed breviora et angustiora. Stamina breviuscula, foliolis interioribus perianthii | breviora ; Jila- 
menla brevia, latiuscula, plana, medio uninervia ; antherce filamentis quadruplo longiores, lineari-elongatae ; con- 
nectivo ultra apicem in unguem obtusum, subrecurvum producto ; loculis parallelis, contiguis, rimis lateralibus 
dehiscentibus. Pollen flavum, obtuse tetragonum. Ovarium elongatum, ovato-oblongum v. subconicum, obtuse 
trigonnm v. prismaticum, in stylum gradatim acuminatum, uniloculare, pluriovulatum, staminibus brevius. Pla- 
centa nerviformes, 3-seriales, a valvis facile divulsae. Ovula plurima, ascendentia, biserialia, funiculis brevibus 
placentis adnexa. Stylus rectus, elongatus, validus, ovario aequilongus, superne subincrassatus. Stigmata 3, 
majuscula, erecta, basi confluentia, perianthio inclusa, filiformi-subulata, intus glandulis pellucidis obsita, dorso 

M 2 

84 FLORA ANTARCTICA. [Auckland and 

glaberrima, profunde eanaliculata ; marginibus recurvis. Capsula lineari-oblonga, trigona, angulis obtusis, peri- 
anthio | brevior, unilocularis, trivalvis, polysperraa. Valvm lineari-lanceolatre, acuminata?, concava?, coriacese, 
pallide fuscre, medio intus dissepimento incomplete) carinata?, dorso canaliculate. Semina — ? 

I mucb regret not finding the seeds of this fine species amongst my dried specimens ; a few were contained 
in the old capsules when first collected, of which I neglected to make any note at the time : if my memory does 
not deceive me, they were small and covered with a pearly white, very lax and much elongated outer membrane, 
not unlike that of Narthecium ossifragum. It is most remarkable for the apparently entire suppression of one 
of the bracteola? at the base of the flower, and also differs from the two other species in having a coriaceous, 
not indurated capsule. It is more nearly allied to the R. grandiflora (Marsippospermum grandiflorum, Desv.) 
than to R. Magellanica in size, in the creeping rhizoma, the solitary leaf sheathed at the base, the unequal outer 
leaflets of the perianth, and in the long capsule and lax outer coat of the seed ; that plant is however of a much 
larger size, has longer rhizomata and scapes, with two or three bracteola below the flowers, and an almost woody 
capsule. The seeds of R. grandiflora, like those of Juncus castaneus and especially of J. triglumis, are fusi- 
form, invested with a loose, pale yellow, lax, glistening membrane, thickened ou one side, denoting the position 
of the raphe, and produced at both ends ; it is formed of elongated cellular tissue. The albumen is covered by 
a rather thick inner coat, composed of hexagonal cellular tissue, and is pendulous in the cavity of the outer mem- 
brane by the vessels of the raphe, which, arising from near the funiculus, terminate in a broad dark-coloured 
chalaza at the top of the inner coat. The small quadrate embryo is placed at the lower or opposite extremity, 
close to the apex, which is acute and discoloured. 

Plate XLVII. Fig. 1, flower and bractea; fig. 2, stamen; fig. 3, ovarium, style and stigmata; fig. A, 
transverse section of ovarium, showing the young ovules ; fig. 5, an ovule ; fig. 6, a ripe capsule : — all magnified. 

3. LUZULA, DeC. 

1. Luzula crinita, Hook. fil. ; foliis planiusculis crinito-ciliatis, spicis plurimis in capitulum 
majusculum solitarium sessile late ovatum foliaceum arete congestis rarius unico pedunculato brac- 
tea elongata foliacea subtensis, bracteolis scariosis fimbriato-laceris, perianthii foliolis ovato-lanceo- 
latis coriaceis exterioribus carinatis apicibus subrecurvis, stylo elongate, membrana exteriore seminis 
fugacea. (Tab. XLVIII.) 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island ; in the former locality found only near 
the tops of the hills, alt. 1200-1400 feet ; more abundant in the latter, from the sea to alt. 1200 feet. 

Herla csespitosa, magnitudine sat varians, summis montibus locisque algidis vix pollicaris, sole sub calidiore 
8-pollicaris ad pedalem evadit. Radix descendens, perennis, elongata, 1-2 unc. longa, valida, reliquiis copiosis 
foliorum vetustorum vestita, ubique fibras tenues, elongatas, fasciculatas emittens ; saepius superne pluries divi- 
sa, non raro autem simplex vel biceps. Culmi plurimi, rarius solitarii, basi prsecipue et plus minusve per totam 
longitudinem foliosi, erecti, stricti, validi, glaberrimi, striati, superne obscure trigoni, ad apices mono-dicephali, 
plerumque ultra folia extensi, interdum abbreviati foliisque multoties breviores. Folia plurima, erecto-patentia, 
seu omnia v. infima solummodo squarroso-recurva, plantis junioribus planiuscula, demum marginibus plus 
minusve incurvis involuta, subcoriacea, lineari-subulata, ad apices obtusas incrassata, 3-5 unc. longa, ^— i unc. 
lata, niargine pilis elongatis, flexuosis, albidis ciliata et crinita, laete viridia, basi vaginantia, superiora abbre- 
viata, omnia vaginantia ; vagina elongats, erect*, striata?, integrae ; ore obliquo, laxe lanuginoso. Spica 
v. potius panicula, multiflora?, ramis pedunculisque abbreviatis hinc inflorescentia capitata ; capitula solitaria, 
terminalia, v. rarius 2, unico pedunculato, late ovata, obtusa, v. globosa, integra v. lobata, 3 unc. longa, atro- 
fusca, opaca, basi lanuginosa, medio 2-3-bracteata, et bractea unica v. bracteis duabus foliaceis, interne con- 
cavis, 1-1 5 unc. longis subtensa. Flores parvi, sub 1 lin. longi, numerosissimi, dense conferti, brevissime pedi- 

Campbell's Islands.] FLORA ANTARCTICA. 85 

cellati ; pedicelli bracteolati ; bracteoke parvae, late ovata?, longe acuminate, pilosas, concavse, membranaceo-scariosse, 
finibriato-lacerse, laciniis longe piliferis, ultra florem productis. PeriantMi ibliola 3 exteriora lanceolata, longe acu- 
minata, versus apices leniter recurva, concava, superne earinata, coriacea, atro-fusca; interiora breviora, planiuscula, 
oblongo-lanceolata, acuminata, medio coriacea, rufo-brunnea, marginibus late scariosis, pallidioribus. Stamina (5, 
perianthio i breviora ; filamenta elongata, linearia, compressa ; authene breviusculse, oblongse, ad apices brevissiine 
unguicidate. Pollen straminemn, globosum, immatururn trigonum, hyalimun, nucleo opaco, intus tripartito. 
Ovarium elliptico-ovatum, trigonum, utrinque angustatmn, superne in styliun attenuatum, uniloculare, triovulatum ; 
stylus ovario brevior, erectus, gracilis, in stigmata 3 inclusa filiformia desinens. Ovida 3, e basi loculi erecta, 
anatropa ; funiculis brevibus. Capsula perianthio inclusa et subaequilonga, membranacea, obovata, acuta, turgida, 
trigona, angulis obtusis, uuilocularis, trisperma, trivalvis ; valvar late obovato-oblongoe, acute, concavfe, dorso cana- 
liculate, intus medio carinate. Semina 3, parva, ovoidea, fundo loculi funiculis brevibus adnexa, valvis opposita ; 
membrana exterior laxa, tenuis, hyalina, albida, latere unico ad raphem incrassata, lacera, demum decidua, reHquiis 
circa chalazam tantum et funievdum persist entibus ; interior albiunini appressa, brunnea, striata v. reticidata, ad 
chalazam latam apicemque pendulum atra. Albumen camosum. Embryo parvus, ovato-oblongus, teres, funiculo proxi- 
mus albumine iuclusus. 

This appears to be a very distinct species, most nearly allied to the L. Alopecunis, Desv., of Tierra del Fuego 
and the Falkland Islands, a plant which Mr. Kunth considers as a form of L. Peruviana, Desv., and which much 
resembles the present in size, general appearance, and in all particulars but the segments of the perianth, which are 
in L. Alopecurus lacerated and fimbriated at the scarious margins, like the braeteola>. It also resembles some states 
of L. campestris, D. C, as that plant appears in Tasmania, but the leaflets of the perianth are nearly scarious through- 
out in that species, more plane and not so thick and coriaceous ; the outer ones are also in this very convex and 
distinctly carinated above the middle. 

Plate XL VIII. Fig. 1, flowers ; jig. 2, outer leaflet of the perianth ; jig. 3, inner do. ; fig. 4, a stamen ; fig. 5, 
immature pollen ; jig. 6, the same more advanced ; fig. 1, ovarium ; fig. 8, longitudinal section of the same ; fig. 9, 
a ripe capside ; fig. 10, seed ; jig. 11, vertical section of the same : — all magnified. 


1. GAIMARDIA, Gaud. 

1. Gaimakdia ciliata, Hook, fil.j dense raespitosa, foliis erectis undique arete imbricatis lmeari-subu- 
latis obtusis teretiusculis compressis fistulosis basi vagioantibus dorso versus medium marginibusque vagi- 
narum ciliatis, pedunculis fruetiferis folio longioribus. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; exposed places on tlie liills, very abundant, forming large green patches. 

Radix fibrosa ; fibris simplicibus, tortuosis, spongiosis, albidis. Caules erecti, ramosi, 2-3 una longi, dense 
fastigiatim compacti, fobosi. Folia plurima, erecta, caidi appressa, \ unc. longa, lineari-subulata, gradatim attenuata, 
apicibus obtusis, teretia, lateraliter compressa, intus fistulosa, dorso ad medium ciliata, basi longe vaginantia, hete 
viridia, nitida, vctustiora flavo-bnumea ; vagina folio adnata;, scarioso-membranacese, hyalina?, superne in ligidam 
breveni, apice rotundatam, integram producte, marginibus dorsoque ciliatis, pOis elongatis, albidis, articulatis. 
Pedunculitis anni praeteriti elongatus, validus, erectus, folio longior. — Csetera mihi omnino ignota. 

A close examination of this species with the Gaimardia australu (Gaudichaud in Freyc. Voy. Rot. p. 418. t. 30). 
has satisfied me that they are, as far as I can judge without flowers or fruit, congeneric. The habit of the two 
plants is entirely the same, and both form extended plane hard green tufts on the bare boggy surface of the hills in 
their respective islands, often of two or three yards across. The present is rather the smaller species, with much 
smaller leaves, not flattened on the upper surface, ciliated at the back about the middle, as also on the sides and 
margins of the sheaths, which are produced upwards into a shorter ligula than in G. australu. 


86 FLOEA ANTARCTICA. [Auckland and 

2. Gaimardia pallida, Hook, fil.; csespitosa, rainosa., ramis brevibus fastigiatis compressis, foliis sub- 
distichis cquitantibus lanceolato-ensiformibus acuminatis compressis fistiilosis basi ad medium vaginantibus, 
pedunculis brevissimis flores fcemineos 1-3 stamenque luiiciun gerentibus, fructiferis folio brevioribus, ovario 
1-3-loculari, stylis 1-3. 

Hab. Campbell's Island ; forming small pale-coloured tufts amongst other plants in springy places on 
the hills. 

Radices fibrosse ; fibres simphces, tenues, horizontaliter patentes, spongiosse, albidae, saepe e basibus foliorum v. 
ramorum ortae. Catties fastigiatim ramosi, 1-1 \ unc. longi, casspites densos, convexos, 2-3 une. latos formantes, 
copiose fobosi; rami una cum foliis pateutibus compressi, -Lime, lati et ejusdein longitudinis. Folia arete imbricatn, 
in rarnis ultiniis plurima, subdisticlie inserta, flabellatim cbsposita, basi equitantia, deinde erecto-patentia, stricta, 
lanceolato-ensii'ormia, acuminata, vix aristata, sub 3 liu. longa, lateraliter compressa, supra obscure eoncava, basi ad 
medium et ultra vaginantia, intus fistidosa v. junioribus laxe cellidosa, glaberrima, albida, ad apices immaturaque 
palbde viridia, textura mollia ; vagina apertae, membranaceae, subhyalinse, obsnne reticulata", superne gradatim in 
folium evanidae. Flores valde immatmi tantum mihi visi, inter folia summa omiiino occlusi. Pedunculus brevissimus 
terminalis, fructiferus post anthesin elongatus, anni prasteriti ramo lateralis, compressus, anceps, foliis brevior. Glumes 
duae, flore -| breviores, tenuissime byalinae, oblique tmncatae ? an a dissectione laeerae ? Stamen sobtarium ; jUamen- 
tum crassum, erectum, teres ; anthera majuscula, ovoidea, undocularis, riiua longitudinab dchiscens, medio dorso 
affixa. Ovaria 2-3 v. rarius plura, distincta v. inter se plus minusve coabta, sessdia? eoUateraJia, 1-3-locularia, stylos 
tot quot loculos gerentia ; nunc ovarium solitarium columniforme abortivum. 

The early season in which we visited Campbell's Island was a subject of much regret, as some of the most 
interesting, especially of the alpine plants, were detected only in a state unfit for satisfactory examination. It is 
with much hesitation that I have referred the present to Gaimardia, in preference to erecting it into a new genus from 
such imperfect specimens, though I have bttle doubt but that it will prove to be a new form of that interesting group 
to which Mr. Brown's genera Desvauxia {Centrolepis, Lab.) and Alepyrum belong, but which have, with the excep- 
tion of Gaimardia, been hitherto considered as confined to Australia. With Desvauxia it has much similarity in 
texture, in the soft leaves, green oidy towards the extremities, and fistulose, in the simple spongy fibrous roots and 
glistening appearance of the lower parts of the stem ; there is also a marked tendency in this plant to a union of the, 
carpels into one pistil, with as many styles as there are ovaries. In the tufted habit, alpine and antarctic locabty, 
short peduncle and apparent want of spatha, it agrees with Gaimardia, but differs from that genus in the sohtary 
stamen, greater number of ovaria which are probably sessde, the latter, however, I am not inclined to consider as a 
character of much value, as in Ms description of that genus M. Gaudichaud says, "Ovarium unicum, interdmn ovaria 
duo, allero effoeto," and, further, I have gathered capsules of that species which are truly one-celled and dehisce down 
one side only. In the present plant the ovaria vary from one to three, and are either one, two, or three-celled, fre- 
quently there are three together, with as many variations in developement, and not rarely one is reduced to a simple 
column ; at other times all are combined into a single axis. In the imperfect state of these minute organs, in the 
only specimens I possess, I have found it impossible to decide whether or not two of the upper leaves are analogous 
to the glumes or spatha; of Desvauxia, or whether the two hyaline scales surrounding both stamen and ovaria are 
the only floral envelopes. 

M. Gaudichaud's genus appears to me certainly most nearly allied to the order Centrolepidem or Desvauxieee, and 
from their near affinity to Erioeattlon in all respects but the want of as many iioral envelopes, of which several modi- 
fications occur in the former group, I have considered them true species of Itestiarere with a reduced number of 
parts. G. atistralis is described as having the stamens opposite the glumes ; I have only examined that plant in the 
state of ripe fruit, wherein it appears to me that the remains of the filament alternate with the glumes and carpels. 

Campbell's Islands] FLORA ANTARCTICA. 87 


1. Oreobolus pectinatus, Hook, fil.; culniis dense csespitosis rainosis foliosis, foliis distichis equitan- 
tibus lineari-subulatis apicibus obtusis rigidis basi vaginantibus, scapo brevissiuio terrninali unifloro post 
anthesin elongato, perianthii foliolis ciliatis interioribus utrinque unidentatis. (Tab. XLLX.) 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island; on the bare and exposed faces of the lulls, 
forming dense convex masses. 

Radix fibrosa ; fibra elongata?, 2-3 una longu\ valid*, crassitie penna? passerina?, teretes, liic illic tortuosa?, 
suberosa? v. spougiosa?, inferno fibrillosa?. Caules densissime ca?spitosi, duri, rigidi, ramosi, per totam longitudinem 
foliosi, plerumque 2 unc. longi sed locis udioribus 4-6 unciales, interne pra?cipue radices fibrosaa emittentcs. Folia 
densissime imbricata, disticlia, equitantia, basi vaginantia, flabellatim disposita, lineari-subnlata, obtusa, \— J unc. 
longa, paulo curvata v. ascendentia, supra canaliculata, subtus convexa, medio obscure 1-nervia, basin versus 5-7 
nervia, rigide coriacea, erassiuscula, ad margines minute cartilagineo-serrulata, la?te viridia, inferiora pallide fusca, 
vetustiora suberosa, grisea ; vagina lamina? \ longitudine, una basi integra?, sinu obtuso, superne Mantes, coriacea?, 
ad margines subscariosa?, nervis promincntibus 7-9 eostata?, superne oblique truncata?, palbde rufo-fusca?. Pecluu- 
culi terminales ; floriferi brevissimi, post anthesin elongati ; fruetiferi validi, i-f unc. longi, infra medium turgidi, 
superne sidcati, obscure angulati, ad apicem a lapsu glmnarmn cieatricosi. Ghana 2, subsequales, lineari-oblonga?, 
subacuta?, 2 lin. longa?, coriacea?, enerves, concava?, albida?, convoluta?, superior inferiorem amplcctens, decidua?, 
tlorem solitarium iucludentes. Perianthinm minimum, sexpartitum v. potius hexaphyllum ; foliola erecta, ovata, 
acuta, planiuscula, ad margines ciliata, subenervia, ad mecbum obscure incrassata, coriacea, subreticulata, persistent ia, 
post anthesin subincrassata, pergamentacea ; interinra minora, utrinque obtuse uni-dentata. Stamina 3, hypogyna, 
fohohs perianthii exterioribus opposita ; filameuta longissime linearia, medio uninervia, longe exserta ; aniheree line- 
ares, basifixa?, longitudinaliter dehiscentes ; eonnectivo ultra locidos producto, apice obtuso j pollen hyalinum, 
stramineum, tri-tetragouum, angidis obtusis, intus granulis opacis tot quot anguhs. Ovarium minutum, triquetrum, 
elongato-obovatum, obtusum, uniloculare, uniovidatum, superne hemisphericiun, hispidulum ; oval inn erectum. 
Stylus elongatus, exsertus, gracilis, teres, erectus, basi modice bulboso-incrassatus, cum ovario articulatus, deciduus, 
in stigmata 3, aequilonga, filii'orniia, pilosa productus. Nux obovata, obtusa, perianthio persistente basi circumdata, 
trigona, ad angulos longitudinaliter sidcata, quasi trivalvis, valvis coalitis, extus nitida, intus Crustacea, subossea ; 
vertex depressus sub lente granulatus v. subhispidus. Semen erectum, locido confonne, pyriforme, basi subito atten- 
uatum ; funiculus brevissimus. Testa membranacea, pallide viridis; chalaza apicahs, orbicularis, fusca; raphe tenuis, 
superne latior, deorsum evanida. Albumen copiosmn, carnoso-farinacciun. Embryo par\iis, late obconicus, obtusus, 
parte superiore solummodo vix et ne vix basi albuminis mrmersa. 

The equitant leaves will at once distinguish this very distinct species from either the Tasmanian 0. pmiiilio, Br. 
or 0. obtusanguhts, Gaud., which are more nearly allied to one another than to the present in appearance. 

M. Gaudichaud describes four imbricating scales or glumes in the Falkland Island species ; but in this, as in the 
Tasmanian, there are certainly only two. The six leaflets of the perianth are most probably analogous to the hy- 
pogyuous seta? in Scirpns, and more especially to those organs in Pterolepis, in which genus they are flattened ; 
from their great breadth in Oreobolus they are seen to belong to two series, a character difficult of detection if it 
exists where those organs consist of simple slender seta?. The structure of the pericarp is somewhat singular, it is 
obovate and distinctly trigonous in all the species, the angles are channelled and the three sides much thickened, but 
the thickening is not continued to the apex, where there is a shallow cavity with a convex base ; in a longitudinal 
section the thickened sides are found to be coriaceous, and have the appearance of three valves united at their mar- 
gins and to the inner crustaceous pericarp, which they do not altogether enclose, but leave its convex apex free at the 

88 FLORA ANTAECTICA. {Auckland and 

snrmnit. This thickening of the three sides takes place during the growth of the seed-vessel, as in the young ova- 
rium the sides are much narrower than the apex, which is convex and hispid, and which answers to the convex 
base of the hollow at the top of the ripe nut. I have examined several embryos in all the species, and very many 
of the present ; their structure and forrn are exceedingly constant, lying in the very bottom of the seed, the broad 
upper end sunk in a shallow fossa at the base of the albumen. 

Plate XLIX. Fig. 1, a leaf; fig. 2, a flower enclosed in the glumes; fig. 3, the same, with the glumes re- 
moved; fig. 4, a stamen; fig. 5, ovarium, style and stigmata; fig. 6, immature nut after the style has fallen away; 
fig. 7, a ripe nut enclosed in the persistent perianth ; fig. 8, longitudinal section of a nut, showing the seed ; fig. 9. 
a seed removed, cut vertically, showing the embryo : — all magnified. 


1. Isolepis AucJdandica, Hook, fil.j pusilla, dense ceespitosa, culrnis erectis setaceis basi divisis foliosis 
teretibus polyphyllis, foliis culmo subsequilongis semiteretibus supeme canaliculatis striatis, spica solitaria 
lateralis squamis paucis omnibus floriferis, staminibus stigmatibusque 3, nucibus elliptico-ovatis trigonis 
laevibus pallide straniineis. (Tab. L.) 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island; in moist places especially near the sea, also 
amongst grass on the lulls, abundant. 

Radices caespites 2-3 unc. latos formantes, fibrosae, fibris elongatis, creberrime intertextis, tortuosis, fibrillosis, 
atro-fuscis. Culmi plurimi, dense fastigiati ; basi crassitie pennae passerinse, subelongati, i unc. longi, nodosi, ad 
nodos fibrillosi, vaginis rufo-castaneis foliorura vetustorum obtecti, ter quaterve clivisi ; supeme subvalidi, nudi, 
erecti, 24— 4-unciales, teretes, striata. Folia 2-6, plerumque 3-4, erecta, basi vaginantia, subcoriacea, glaberrima, 
laevia, filifonnia, obtusa v. apice rotundata, culinmn plerumque paulo superantia, interdum i- J unc. lata, semiteretia, 
dorso convexa, supra canabcidata, marginibus subinvolutis v. planiusculis, sub lente bneis alternantibus viridibus 
albidisque striata. Vagina 4/ unc. longae, teretiusculae, eompressae, basi rufo-castaneae, nitidae, nervosa?, amice 
membranacese, reticulata?, ore oblique truncato, intcgeirimo, ligula nulla. Spicula solitaria, v. rarius spieidae 2, parva, 
linea vix longior, latiuscida, apice truncata, nempe squamis inferioribus elongatis spicam a?quantibus. Squama 
paucse, 6-8, late ovatae, valde concavae, coriaceae, ad margines late membranacese, in apicem crassum productse, dorso 
superne subincrassatae, carinatae, lateribus tenuiter 3-5 nerviis, virides v. castaneo purpureove pictae, nitidae. Sta- 
mina 3 ; filamenta Mnearia, plana, reticulata, superne latiora ; anthera basifixas, elongatae, loculis basi apiceque 
divaricatis. Ovarium minimum, ovatum, in stylum rectum desinens. Stigmata 3, exserta, elongata, liispida. Nux 
squama paido brevior, elliptica, utrinque acuta, trigona, compressa, angidis obtusis, glaberrima, lasvis, non polita, 
pallide flava v. straminea. 

It is not before the most careful examination and comparison of this with many other similar species from 
various parts of the world, that I have decided upon describing it as new. Nor coidd I make it agree with the 
description of any of the numerous species of the southern hemisphere. It appears not only to differ from the 
European, but also from the twelve or fourteen plants belonging to this genus now known to inhabit Australia and 
New Zealand. In habit and appearance it resembles /. setacea, L. and /. Savii, from which it differs in the leaves 
being always more numerous and as long or longer than the culm, iu the shorter spikes, and more materially in the 
seed, which is twice as large as in those species and of quite a different shape, being elhptical-ovate, compressed, 
trigonous with the angles roimded, the surface is smooth but not shining and the colour pale yellow. My suite of 
specimens is very extensive, and these characters are constant in them all. The breadth of the leaves is greater in 
the upland specimens than in those of the sea-coast. 

Plate L. Fig. 1, apex of the culm and spikelet ; fig. 2, a scale and flower; fig. 3, a stamen ; fig. i and fig. 5, 
ripe achasnia : — all magnified. 

Campbell's Islands.} FLORA ANTARCTICA. 89 

3. CAEEX, Mich. 

1. Carex ternaria, Forst.; spicis 9-10 cylindraceis acutis pedunculatis alteniis evaginatis ferrugineis 
longissime foliaceo-bracteatis simplicibus gerninatisque, mascuks 3—4 remotiuscuks, fcemineis 5-6 geminatis 
unica solum simpKci, stigmatibus 2, perigyniis {peradolescentibus) oblongis ore integro squama lanceolata 
acuta v. obtusa ferruginea longe bispido-aristata multeities brevioribus. Boott, MSS. C. ternaria, Sol. MSS., 
Forst. Prodi: uo. 519. C. gerninata, Sckku/ir, Curie, p. 83. no. 51. Tab. IF. 8f P. p. A. Cunn. Prodi: 
Flat: Nov. Zel. in Hook. Comp. to Bot. Mag. v. 2. p. 373. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; on the margins of woods near the sea, but not common, growing with 
the C. trifida. 

Culm/us bipedalis et ultra, basi foliorum rudimentis purpuras lanceolatis, ad margines lacerato-reticidatis tectus, 
firmus, apice gracilis, triqueter, scaber ; pars spicas gerens pedalis. Folia 3—1 liu. lata, culmo longiora, carina rnar- 
gimbusque scabra. Bractea foliacese, longissima?, evaginatse, superiores setacea;, spicis suis (nisi 2 supremis nias- 
culis) longiores. Spica? 2-2-i- poll, longas, 1|— 2 lin. lata?, altemae ; supremae 3^< maseuke, simplices ; reliquae 
fcemineae, 2 superiores geminates, inferior simplex ; vel infima superioresque geniinatse, una media simplex. Pedtui- 
cnli triquetri, scabri, 1-2 poll, longi. Squama ferruginese, obtnsae v. acuta?, nervo viridi in aristam plus minus 
longam serratam producto. Perigynium immaturum. — Boott. 

For the above description I am indebted to Dr. Boott, who has most kindly given me the aid of his great skill 
and experience in determining such species of this fine genus as were collected during the voyage. With his sanc- 
tion I have retained Banks and Solander's manuscript name of this plant, as adopted by Forster in his Prodromus, 
and which was changed by Schkuhr into geminata, certainly without sufficient authority, and of which he says, 
" Cette plante me parvint sous le nom de C. ternaria, mais ne trouvant rien en elle qui ait quelque rapport avec ce 
nom, je me sms era a douter que ce soit la plante que Forster indique," &c. M. Schkukr's specimens seem 
to have been in a very imperfect state, but given him from Forster's herbarium. Our own entirely agree with 
those preserved in the British Museum. It appears to be rather a common plant in many parts of New Zealand. 

2. Carex trifida, Cav.; spicis 6-10 oblongo-cylindraceis obtusis alternis breviter vaginatis ferrugineis 
longissime foliaceo-bracteatis soktariis, masculis 2—1 sessilibus approximatis, foemineis 5-6 breviter pedun- 
culatis, stigmatibus 3, squamis lineari-oblongis integris v. apice trifidis segmento intermedio in aristam sub- 
ulatam liispidam producto, perigyniis pedicellatis obovato-oblongis longe rostratis, rostro bidentato. C. trifida, 
Cavanilles Icones, vol. v. p. 41. t. 465. Brong. Foy. de la Coqitille, Bot. Phan. p. 158. JFilld. Sp. PI. v. 4. 
p. 301. Spr. Sj/st. Feg. v. 3. p. 829. C. iucrassata, Banks and Sol. MSS. in Bill. Banks. C. aristata, 
HUrv. Fl. Lis. Mai. in Trans. Linn. Soc. Paris, vol. iv. p. 599. Gaud, in Freyc. Foy. Bot. p. 131. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island ; by the margins of the woods near the sea in 
moist places. 

Rhizomata densissime congesta et intertexta, ca?spites convexos, supra terram elatos, 1-2 pedales diametr. 
formantia, crassitudine pollicis humanse, inclinata v. prostrata, fnsca, fibras crassas, diametr. pennse anatinse demit - 
tentia, et in fibras subsimiles desinentia. Culmi 15-30 v. phues, fascicidati, erecti, 2-1 pedales, copiosissime foliosi, 
glaberrimi, basi crassi, una cum vaginis folioruni |— 1 unc. diametr., triquetri, reliquiis pallidis vaginisque scariosis 
ssepe laceris fohorum vetustonun obtecti, supeme graciles, inclinati, pars spicas gerens 1— 1-j pedalis. Folia plu- 
rima, circiter 12-20 quotas culmo, longe vaginantia, valde elongata, cuhuiun longe superantia, 3-5 pedalia, diffusa, 
flexuosa, supra medium curvata et pendula, gradatim in apicem trigonmn filiformem hispidurn producta, profunde 
striata, rigida, kete viridia, subtus pallidiora, subglaucescentia, ad costam subtus prominentem marginesque recurvas 
scabrido-ciHata, inferne carinata, superne medio per totam longitudinem canaUculata. Vagina fohorum inferiorum 

90 FLORA ANTARCTICA. [Auckland and 

2-4 pollicares, superiorum pedales, trigones v. compressa?, dorso coriacea?, carinata?, rigida?, nervosa?, profunde 
striata?, antice scariosa?, hyalina?, albida? ; ore integro, abrupto, margine nndulato ; ligula angusta, conica, integer- 
rima. Bractea foliacea?, folia superiora omnino simulantes sed minores, spicis multoties longiores, vaginis abbreviatis. 
Spicte 2-4-unciales, 3-5 lin. lata?, late cylindracea? v. elongato-ovata? v. oblongas, obtusa? v. subacuta?, basi saepius 
attenuata?, aristis elongatis squamarum quasi erinita?, inferiores rarius bifida?, v. spicula abbreviata subtensa? ; mas- 
cula? suprema?, 2-4, approximata?, ceteris breviores, medio sa?pius tiirgida?, breviter pedicellata? v. subsessiles, basi 
brevissime vaginata? ; bractea abbreviata, spiea brevior, torta ; fceminea longiores, longius pedicellata?, fructiferae 
squarrosa?. Pedunculi breviter exserti, sub \ uneiales, trigoni, striati, scaberuli, saepe apices versus flexuosi. Squama 
scariosa?, forma varia?, lineari- v. oblongo-lanceolata?, 3-4 lin. longa?, planiuscula?, erecta?, florifera? appressa?, fructi- 
ferae squarroso-subrecurva?, omnes striata?, castaneo-brunnea?, nitida?, linea pallida medio notata?, ad apices integrae, 
in aristam aequilongam vel ter longiorem producta?, vel sa?pius trifida?, segmento intermedio elongato arista?formi ; 
arista straminea, erecta, flexuosa, liispida, interduni \ unc. longa. Stamina 3 ; anthera lineares, straminea?, 2-3 lin. 
longae. Perigynium iminaturum elliptico-ovatum, utrinque attenuatum, pedicellatum, squama A brevius, valde com- 
pressum, dorso convexum, ore bifido : stylus 1, una cum stigmatibus 3 perigynio a?quilongus. Fructus (exemplari- 
bus Americanis tantum mihi visus), majusculus, squama? suba?quilongus, elongato-obovatus v. obovato-oblongus, 
turgidus, sublonge pedicellatus, obscure trigonus, superne rostratus, ad apicem bidentatus, fulvus, nitidus. Achanium 
parvum, perigynio duplo brevius, obovato-ellipticum, utrinque acutum, glaberrimum, angulis acutis, luride fuscum. 
Pericardium crustaceum. Embryo basi albuminis totus inclusus. 

This is a very handsome species, discovered by Sir Joseph Banks and Dr. Solander in New Zealand, though 
first described from Falkland Island specimens by Cavanilles. In Antarctic America it is more abundant, and attains 
a larger size than it does in Lord Auckland's group, but I can detect no further difference between them ; Dr. Boott 
also considers them entirely the same. In Cavanilles' figure the scales are represented as shorter and more 
abruptly truncated than they are in most of my specimens ; they, however, vary so much in form that little de- 
pendence can be placed upon that character. M. D'Urville, in his Flor. Ins. Mai. 1. c, describes this species 
under the name of C. aristata and says of it, " forsan eadem species ac C. trifida, Cav. ? verum in nostra nunquam 
squamam trifidani vidi." Cavanilles' character, however, " gluma apice trifida, laciniis lateralibus latioribus, media 
breviore ex qua arista prodit subulata," &c, seems to me sufficiently to accord with this and M. D'Urville's plant, 
whilst his characteristic figure leaves no doubt of their identity, or at least of the latter being a variety with all the 
scales short, in our plant it is only on the lower part of the spikes that they are so broad. The embryo appears to 
me wholly included in the base of the albumen. 

3. Cabex appressa, Br.; spica decomposita androgyna subelongata, partialibus appressis inferioribus 
distinctis, spiculis parvis ovatis acutis apice rnasculis, bracteis subulatis spicula brevioribus elongatisve, 
squamis ovatis acutis concavis, perigyniis late ovato-rotundatis infra orem minute bidentatum attenuatis 
utrinque nervosis marginibus supra medium denticulatis, stigmatibus 3. C. appressa, Brown, Prodr. p. 242. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Islands ; in the woods especially near the sea, forming 
large harsh tufts. 

Rhizomata intertexta, dense fasciculata, ca?spites 5-6 uncias latos formantia, repentia, crassiuscula, diametr. 
penna? corvina?, hie illic fibrosa, ad colluin reliquiis folioi-um vetustorum obtecta. Cidmi erecti, exteriores inclinati, 
ascendentes, basi una cum vaginis folioriun crassit. digiti minoris, pedales et infra, supeme nudi, paido inclinati, 
scaberuli, sulcati, rigidi, triquetri, ad angulos scabridi; pars spicas gerens 3-5-unciaHs, stricta. Folia plurirna, 
S-10 quovis culmo, basi vaginantia, flexuosa, rigida, divra, 2-3 pedalia, \ unc. lata, in apiceni elongatiun, trigo- 
num, scabridmn producta, medio canaliculata, subtus pra?cipue profunde striata, acute carinata, carina marginibus- 
que lente recurvis denticulato-ciliatis, pallitle riridia, subnitida, subtus palbdiora. Vagina 1-2-unciales, obtuse 
trigona?, compressa?, profunde striata?, coriacea?, antice scariosa?, Integra? ; ore integerrimo, truncato ; ligula angusta, 

Campbell's Islands.] FLORA ANTARCTICA. !Jl 

scariosa, horizontalis, vix liueam longa. Inflorescentia subpaniculata, e spicis plurimis cornpositis formata, in pani- 
culam linearem, elongatam, coarctatam, \ unc. latani, interruptaui disposita. Spica partiales muticae, \-\ unc. longs, 
breviter pedicellatae, rachi appressae, lineari-oblongaa, compress*, spiculas 5-10 gerentes, basi nud* v. bracteat*, 
evaginat*. Bractea duni adsit spica partiali brevior v. *quilonga, subulata, liispida, basi latior, serniamplexicaulis, 
scariosa, interdum ad squamam elongatam, aristatam, vacuam redacta. Spicules parv*, ovat* v. oblong*, obtusa?, 
cylindrace* v. paido compress*, androgyn*, squamis superioribus masculis. Squama appressse, fructiferae squarroso- 
pateutes, late ovat*, subacute v. obtus*, valde concav*, scariosae, medio coriaceae, dorso obscure carinatae, carina 
plerumque superne ciliata, li bin. longae, pallide flavo-brunne*, nitidas, medio linea straminea notatae. Stamina 3 ; 
anthera lineares, parvae. Perigynium immaturum breviter pedicellatum, elliptico-oblongum, utrinque attenuatum, 
valde compressum, nervosum, ad margines supra medium argute denticulaturn, dorso convexiuseulum, nervo utrin- 
que minute scabrido. Ovarium parvum, obovatiun, ad apicem profunde emarginatum. Stylus vix exsertus, in 
stigmata 3 desinens. Fructus squamam paido superans, nervis phirimis costatus, late orbicularis v. ampullaceus, 
basi subcordatus, breviter pedicellatus, superne in rostrum subelongatum apice bidentatum attenuatus, antiee planus 
v. concavus, dorso convexus v. turgidus, pallide fuscus v. atro-fuscus, subnitidus, acliaenio appressus, marginibus 
supra medium utrinque serratis. Achanium late elliptico-ovatmn, utrinque attenuatum, subinduratum. 

A frequent inhabitant of the woods in some parts of Tasmania, New Holland, and New Zealand ; of a rigid 
harsh texture, cutting the hand when incautiously grasped. 

4. UNCmiA, Pers. 

1. Uncinia Hookeri, Boott; spica ferruginea laxiflora tenui cylindracea apice mascula, stigmatibus 3, 
perigyniis (arista pallida duplo brevioribus) lanceolatis ore integro laevibus nervosis alternatim ccmtiguis 
squama lanceolata acuminata acuta ferruginea nervo viridi infra apicem evanescente brevioribus. — Boott, 
MSS. (Tab. LI.) 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island; grassy places in the woods, also on the rocks at 
the tops of the lulls. 

Radix stolonifera. Culmus 6-pollicaris (anni prioris marcidus pedalis), filiformis, laevis, basi foliatus vaginisque 
feiTUgineis striatis tectus. Folia plana, ^—1 hn. lata, culmo subduplo longiora, carinata, apice triquetra, scabra ; 
in exemplaribus minoribus vix tripollicaribus, locis siccis natis foha rigida cm-vat a. Spica 171in. longa, 1-g-lin. lata, 
ferruginea, laxiflora, e floribus laxis, alteniatim contiguis, pars tertia suprema mascula, nuda v. rarius setaceo-brac- 
teata. Squama omnes conformes, lanceolatae, elongatae, acuminatae, acutae, nervo viridi, infra apicem albo-hyalimmi 
evanescente, perigyniis (floriferis) paululum longiores. Perigynium (floriferum) 2-i Hn. longum (cum arista et sti- 
pite 4-1- lin. longum) i- hn. latum, lanceolatum, utrinque attenuatum, pallidum, nervosum, ore integro, stipitatum. 
Achanium immaturum. Stigmata 3, longe plumosa, ferruginea. — Boott. 

Plate LI. Fig. 1, a male flower and scale ; fig. 2, pollen; fig. 3, a female flower and scale; fig. -t, the same 
removed from the scale with the perianth laid open ; fig. 5, ovarium, style and stigmata ; fig. 6, arista : — all 


Tribe AVENACE^E, Kunth. 


1. Hierochloe redolens, Br.; panicida effusa subnutante, glumarum valvis flosculis subaequilongis 
interiore trinervi nervis 2 lateraHbus ad medium attingentibus, flosculis masculis 5-nerviis pubescentibus 

92 FLORA ANTARCTICA. [Auckland and 

basi sub barbatis infra apices trancatas aristatis marginibus longe dorsoque ciliatis, hermaphrodito obtuso 
apice mueronato v. subaristato, foliis plaiiis glabriusculis, ligulis late ovatis obtusis. H. redolens, Brown, 
Prodr. p. 209 (in observat.). Kunth Agrost. p. 37 (in part.). H. Banksiana, Encll. Bemerhmgen iiher die 
Flora der Siidseeinseln, p. 156. no. 549. Holcus reddens, Sol. MSS. et Font. Prodr. no. 563. non Vahl. 
Torresia redolens, Roem. et Schultes, vol. ii. p. 516. A. Cu?m. Prodr. Flor. Nov. Zel. in Hook. Comp. Bot. 
Mag. vol. ii. p. 372. 

Hab. Campbell's Island; in marshy places near the sea; rare, not observed in Lord Auckland's group. 

Gramen perenne, plerumque elatum tri-quadripedale, in Insula Campbell vix bipedale, efespitosum, odore suavi. 
Radices fasciculate?, intertextae, fibrosis ; fibris elongatis, 1-2-uncialibus, crassiusculis, crassitie penna? passerina?, de9- 
cendentibus, duris, albidis, hie illic fibrillosis. Cidmi basi plus minusve elongati, inclinati v. prostrati, diametr. pennae 
corvinae et ultra, rarius divisi, nodosi, cylindraeei, ad nodos fibrillosi, superne vaginis scariosis obtecti, interaodiis 
sub i uncialibus, siqierne ascendentes, rarius erecti, basi coinpressi, foliosi, una ciun foliis i mic. diametr., profunde 
striati, keves, nitidi, pallide virides, siccitate flavi, remote nodosi, ad nodos subgeniculati, nodis constrictis, 
fusco-brunneis, opacis, interaodiis J—2 -uncialibus, superioribus 5-8 unc. longis. Folia plurima, culmo subrequi- 
longa, basi longe vaginantia, infima stricta, abbreviata, superiora elongata, 1-2 pedalia, sub i unc. lata, erecto- 
patentia, demum flexuosa, plana, superne involuta, lierbacea, v. subcoriacea, profunde striata, superne glaberrima, 
laevia v. sub lente minutissime scaberula, nitida, la?te viridia, subtus glaucescentia scabriuscida. Vaginae 3-7 unc. 
longa?, compressas, ad basin fissae, profunde striata;, glaberrima?, nitidae, virides, rnbro-purpureo pietae, ad margines 
scariosa?, inferiores latiores, Mantes, basi purpurascentes, vemicosae ; bgula late ovata, obtusa, scariosa, integra v. 
lacera. Panic/da gracilis, elongata, inclinata v. nutans, effusa, 6-10 unc. longa, sub 2 unc. lata, pallide flavo-fusca, 
nitida ; radii striata, glaberrima ; ramis elongatis, gracillimis, angulatis, hie ilbc parce pilosis, inferioribus 2— t unc. 
longis, nutaiitibus. Spicule pedicellatae, pedicellis spicula f brevioiibus, pilosis. Gluma bivalvis, membranaceo- 
scariosa, glaberrima, nitida ; valves subaequales flosculis paido longiores v. aequilonga?, 2-3 lin. longae, acuminata?, 
uervo medio tenui, dorso subdenticulato ; inferior uninervis v. rarissime basi nervia duobus lateralibus brevissimis ; 
■superior trinervis, nervis lateralibus medium vix attingentibus, inconspicuis, viridlbus. Floscidus inferior subses- 
silis, intermedins tenninalisque pedicellati. Flosculi laterales. — Palea inferior ovato-oblonga, superne subtrun- 
cata, cmarginata v. bifida, dorso aristata, quinquenervis, v. inaequilateralis et sexnervis, ad nervos angnlata, inferne 
ciliato-subbarbata, superne pubescens v. pilosa, dorso brevissime ad maxginesque longe sericeo-cihata, ciliis margi- 
uum rectis v. paulo eurvatis ; arista erecta, infra apicem inserta, gluma breviore, scabrida : Palea superior inferiore 
paulo brevior, lineari-oblonga, bifida, bicarinata, carinis extus ciliatis. Stamina 3 ; filamentis breviusculis ; antlieris 
elongatis, stramineis. Floscuiajs terminalis v. intermedius lateralibus i minor. Palea inferior ut in flosculis 
lateralibus sed plerumque glaberrima, apice tautum puberula et dorso versus apicem ciliata ; arista brevi, infra 
apicem inserta, hispida. Palea superior lineari-oblonga, concava, apice truncata, medio uninervis, v. rarius nervis 
duobus, apiee extus nervoque dorso pubescentibus. Squamula 2, ovato-lanceolata?, acuminata?.. Stamina 2 ; fila- 
mentis brevibus ; antlieris parvis. Ovarium oblongo-lanccolatiun, utriuque attenuatum. Styli basi coutigm, palea 
bis longiores. Caryopm parva, cylindracea. 

The above described plant is very nearly allied both to the Hierocldoe antarctica, Br., and to the II. Magellaniea, 
Pal. de Beauv., if indeed these three be truly distinct. When describing the first of them, Mr. Brown remarks, 
" huic quam maxime affinis est Holcus redolens, Forst :" and he draws the chief distinction from the inner glume 
of the latter being three-nerved and the cilia? on the margin of its lower florets being curved. In the Tasmanian 
specimens of H. antarctica, which I have examined, I find that the upper glume is often furnished with two short 
lateral nerves at the base, and in the New Zealand species (H. redolens) the cilia? alluded to are as often straight as 
curved. Perhaps a more constant character between the plants of these two countries exists in the surface of the 
leaves of the //. antarctica being decidedly scabrid, not only to the touch but under a moderate magnifying power, 
its florets also are not so abruptly truncated ; I have not been able to detect any other points of difference. The South 

Campbell's Islands] FLOEA ANTAECTICA. 93 

American plant again, which is the Rolens redolem, Vahl, (not of Forster), is considered by A. Brongniart as a variety 
(redolens) of the Hierochloe antarctiea, Br. (Voy. de la Coquille, Bot. Phan. p. 144. t. 23.), and he quotes Raspail 
(Ann. Sc. Obs. vol. ii. p. 83.) in confirmation of his views ; it certainly differs but slightly from the plant of the Old 
World, and chiefly in the longer cilise at the back of the lower florets, in having the glumes three-nerved, the panicle 
more contracted, and rather larger glumes. The leaves are generally quite smooth and glossy, the under surface 
only obscurely scabrid. 

Besides the above mentioned species there are four more very distinct ones in the Southern Hemisphere, (as well as 
three natives of the Cape of Good Hope); one, the H. ifr««o«i,s, mihi (vid. infra), from Lord Auckland's group ; another, 
the H. utriculata, Kunth, a native of Chili ; and two hitherto undescribed species. The first of these is from Australia, 
H. rariflora, mini*, and was discovered by Mr. Baxter in King George's Sound ; it may readily be distinguished by 
its slender culms, branching upwards, and its narrow scabrid leaves, loose few-flowered panicle and small locustae. 
The other, //. Fraseri, MS., will be described in the Flora of Tasmania ; it is the smallest of any of the southern 
species, and has a more coarctate panicle of small locustae, resembling that of H. australis, E. and S. ; the florets 
themselves are marked with purple as in H. paucifiora, Br., the glumes are large, broad and three-nerved, the lower 
palea silky, acute, with a short awn, the leaves are mnch shorter than the culm. 

Mr. Brown's remarks upon the structure of the florets of this genus, in the ' Plantae rariores Javanicre' are very 
important (vid. fasc. 1. p. 8. sub genere Ataxia), especially regarding the nature of the upper palea of the middle 
flower. I have described that organ as sometimes two-nerved in H. redolens, which is a strong argument in favour 
of that author's assumption that " the median nerve is here formed of two confluent cords," and hence that the real 
nature of the upper palea is the same as in other genera of grasses. Where I observed two nerves to exist, both 
were rather faint, but distinctly scabrid on the back. The frequently emarginate or bifid apex of this palea in the 
other species of the genus, where I have not seen a double nerve, is also worthy of remark. 

The Hierochloe redolens is a scarce plant in Campbell's Island and of stunted growth; it was not observed in 
Lord Auckland's group. 

2. Hierochloe Brunonis, Hook, fil. ; pellicula ovata subeffusa nutante, glumarum valvis sequalibus 
flosculis longioribus lanceolatis acuminatis basi trinerviis nervis laterabbus brevibus, flosculis masculis 5-nerviis 
pubescentibus basi pilosis superne bifidis inter segnienta acuta aristatis dorso scabridis margiuibus breviter 
ciliatis, herniaphrodito apicem versus integrum breviter aristatum piloso, foliis involutis glaberrimis, ligulis 
late ovatis scariosis. (Tab. LII.) 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island ; in the former islands growing towards the tops 
of the mountains, alt. 1000-1-400 ft. ; abundant near the sea in the latter. 

Gramen pulchrum, suaviter odoruin, 1-ly pedale. Radix fibrosa, fibris tenuibus, elongatis, fibrillosis. Culmi 
parce caespitosi, basi inelinati, lignosi, crassitie pennse corvina?, reliquiis pallidis fibrosis foliomm vetustorum obsiti, 
ad collum ssepe bis terve divisi et surculos nodosos ad nodos radicantes emittentes, superne erecti, gracdes, curvati, 
foliosi, striati, una cum vaginis foliorum \ unc. diametr., remote nodosi, nodis constrictis, flavo-fuscis. Folia subdi- 
stiche inserta, suberecta, stricta v. paido eurvata, |—1 ped. longa, longe lineari-subvdata, gradatim attenuata, imo 
apice acuta, involuta, subcoriacea, extus laevia v. obscure striata, glaberrima, nitida, straminea, intus profrmde striata, 
opaca, sub lente scabenda, pallide viiidia. Vagina erects, subcompressse, culmo appressa\ latiuscvdee, usque ad 

* Hierochloe rariflora, Hook. fil. ; panicula laxa effusa paucifiora, glumarum valvis insequalibus fioscidis | bre- 
vioribus, palea inferiore obtusa, arista nulla, flosculi intermedii palea superiore apice bifida ciliata, foliis anguste 
linearibus scabridis, cukuis elongatis basi ramosis Miosis. 

Hab. Australia. King George's Sound, Baxter. 


94 FLORA ANTARCTICA. [Auckland and 

basin fissae, foliorum inferiorum 1-1| una longte, coriacea;, sulcata?, politse, nitida?, pallide straminese ; folionun 
superioruni elongatse, teretes, profunde striata;, ad colliun subincrassata; j Vujula scariosa, late ovata, obtusa, fimbriato- 
lacera. Panicula nutans, ramosa, 4-5 una longa, ovato-lanceolata, 1-J- unc. lata, multiflora ; raclii gracili, curvato, 
tereti, la?vi ; rands liic illic subverticillatis, gracillimis, flexuosis, inferioribus uncialibus, suberectis. Spicules obo- 
vnto-oblongae, i una longa;, pedicellate;, pedicello sparse piloso. Gluma bivalvis ; valvae sequales, scarioso-mem- 
branaceae, floseulis A longiores, lanceolatse, longe acuminata;, dorso convexse, glaberrima;, micantes, marginibus versus 
apices saepe laceris, nervo medio tenui, vix scaberulo, duobus lateralibus infra medium evanidis, viridibus. Flosculi 
straminei, fusco-purpureo picti, breviter pedicellati, pedicello nudo v. obscure eiliato. Florcm masculortjm palea 
inferior late ovato-oblonga, concava, quinquenervis, subsericea, apicem versus pilosa, superne bifida, inter segmenta 
acuta aristata, dorso sub arista ciliata, basin versus fere nuda, ad marginem pilis subcurvatis breviuscuHs ciliata ; 
arista scabrida, recta v. subtorta, ultra glumas vix producta : palea superior inferiori subaequilonga, oblonga, apice 
bifida, binervis, bicariuata, carinis ciliatis. Stamina 3 ; filamentis elongatis ; antheris exsertis, stramineis. Flosculi 
hermaphroditi palea inferior ut in fl. masc. sed glabrior, superne tantummodo pilosa, ad apicem subacuta, in 
aristam brevem setiformem producta, dorso superne ciliata, marginibus nudis : palea superior lineari-oblonga, concava, 
infra apicem emarginatum subpubescens, nervo medio tenui extus scaberulo. Squamnla 2, ovata;, acuminata;. 
Stamina 2 ; antheris minoribus quam in fl. masc. Ovarium ellipticum, utrinque attenuatum. Styli 2, basi approxi- 
mati ; stigmatibus plumosis. Caryopsis non visa. 

This is a handsome and veiy distinct plant, with more the habit of growth of the European species than of the 
larger and more leafy H. redolens or antarctica. It is very abundant in some parts of the islands now under consi- 
deration, always growing in exposed situations, where its graceful habit and nodding panicles are a great ornament to 
the dreary regions it inhabits. 

Plate LII. Fig. 1, spikelet ;fi(j. 2, florets removed from the same ; fig. 3, a male floret ;fig. 4, a hermaphrodite 
floret ; fig. 5, upper palea from the same ;fig. 6, squamula ; fig. 7, ovarium, styles and stigmata from the same : — 
all magnified. 

Tribe AGKOSTLDE^E, Kuntli. 

§. I. Moris swperwris rudimenta nidla. 

1. Agrostis leptostachi/s, Hook. fil. ; panicula gracillima effusa pauciflora, ramis elongatis versus apices 
floriferis, glumarum valvis sequilongis lineari-lanceolatis marginibus superue carinisque ciliatis flosculum 
sessile longe superantibus, palea inferiore late ovata basi nuda apice truncata quadrifida clorso pilosa infra 
medium aristata, arista glumas superante, palea superiore nulla (an minima?), setula nulla. 

Hab. Campbell's Island ; growing amougst tufts of other plants near the sea, scarce. 

Radix fibrosa. Culmi graciles, erecti, foliosi, 6-8 una longi. Folia longe vaginantia, erecto-patentia, 5-7 unc. 
longa, planiuscida, demum involuta, anguste Hnearia, 1-2 lin. lata, striata, sub lente scabriuscula, luride viridia, 
opaca. Vagina 2-3 unc. longee, cylindracese, diametr. pennse corvina;, usque ad basin fissa;, profunde striata;, 
scabriuscula;, pallide virides v. strarninese, ore contracto ; ligula elongato-oblonga, truncata, scariosa, lacera. Pani- 
cula effusa, sub 3 unc. longa, parce ramosa ; rachi ramisque capillaribus, sub lente scabridis. Spiculce pedicellata;, 
pedicello gluma sub \ breviore, superne incrassato, sidcato. Glumarum valvae -i una longa;, flosculum inclusion 
subduplo longiores et ultra, lineari-lanceolatae, dorso acute carinatae, carina argute ciliato-denticulata, viridi. Flos- 
culus brevissime pedicellatus, pedicello glaberrimo. Palea late ovato-oblonga, sparse pilosa, apice truncata, 4-den- 
tata, quinquenervis nervo medio infra medium in aristam desiiiente ; arista glumani subosquante, gracili, scabrida, 
basi curvata v. geniculate. 

Campbell's Islands.] FLORA ANTARCTICA. 95 

Of this grass I have only seen immature specimens, with the panicle, however, fully formed ; it is very distinct 
from any species with which I am acquainted, certainly wanting the' rudimentary setula of the second flower, and, 
as far as I can observe, the upper palea also. Its habit and general appearance are decidedly those of A. Bittardieri, 
Br. and A. cemula, Br., plants which have been removed not only from this genus, but into a separate division of 
the Natural Order (Arundinacete) as it is now divided. These, with several other Australian and New Zealand species 
appear to form a very natural group, though they vary in the presence or absence of the upper palea, of the setula, 
of the awn, and of a bearded pedicel to the flower; neither the genus Lacltnagrostis (founded by Trinius) as defined 
by Nees (Act. Acad. Cees. Leop., &c, vol. xix. Suppl. p. 146), nor Deyeuxia, Clar., as adopted by Kunth (Agrost., 
p. 239.), will include these species. Under whatever genus they may rank, their affinity appears to me to be near 
Agrostis, L. and not with Calamagrostk, Adans. and Arundo, L. 

2. Agrostis multicaulk, Hook, fil.; panicula contracts lineari-oblonga, glumarmn valvis sequilongis 
obscure pilosis dorso denticulatis flosculo sessili glaberrinio bis longioribus, palea inferiore late ovata apice 
truncata quadrifida quinquenervi nervo dorsali ad meaium in aristarn elongatam products, superiore i bre- 
viore ovata obtusa, setula nulla, foliis substrictis lineari-subulatis, cubnis basi pluries divisis. 

Hab. Campbell's Island ; on the sloping faces of the hills in the most exposed parts of the island, 
not common. 

Radix fibrosa. Cidmi fascicidati, 5-7 unc. longi, validi, basi horizontales v. subrepentes, nodosi, ad nodos 
fibrosi, same genicidati, crassitie penna; auatinae, ramosi, supeme erecti, simplices, remote nodosi, foliosi. Folia 
plurima, longius vaginantia, 2-3 unc. longa, lineari-lanceolata v. subulata, concava, supeme involuta, striata, utrinque 
scabrida, luride viridia, opaca. Vagina elongatse, 1-2 unc. longae, ad basin fissse, utrinque contractae, foKomm 
supremorum medio turgidae, sulcata?, pallide virides, ore contracto ; Vujula ovato-oblonga, scariosa, apice truncata, 
laeera. Pauicida coarctata, sub 1-1- imc. longa, lineari-oblonga ; rachi ramisque validis, scabridis. Spicules pedicel- 
latse ; pedicello breviusculo, infra florem incrassato. Glumarum valva 2 lin. longa?, lanceolata?, acuminata?, obscure 
scabriuscidse, dorso cihato-dentata?, marginibus superne subdenticulatis. Flosculus sessilis, basi nudus. Palea 
inferior gluma \ brevior, glaberrima, late ovata, concava, superne truncata, quadridentata, dentibus erosis, quinque- 
nervis, nervo dorsaH ad medium in aristarn tenuem scabridam glumas superantem producta ; palea superior inferiore 
■| brevior, oblonga v. ovato-oblonga, apice rotundata. Stamina 3 ; filamentis brevibus ; anlheris late oblongis, stra- 
mineis. Caryopsis lineari-oblonga, utrinque attenuata. 

This is not an uncommon grass at the bases of precipices and on the exposed slopes of the island. It is re- 
markable for being nearly allied to a species brought by Dr. Jameson from the extreme verge of vegetation on 
Pichincha in Colombia, the A.foliata *, mihi ; that species is, however, more leafy and its whole culm is enclosed in 
the sheathing vagina?. 

3. Agrostis subulata, Hook, fil.; parva, csespitosa, panicula erecta paucifiora, glumarum valvis ovato- 
lanceolatis parce pilosis, dorso margmibusque supra medium scabrido-ciliatis flosculo glaberrimo subsessili 

* Agrostis foliata, Hook. fil. ; panicula contracta compressa oblonga obtusa densiflora, glumarum valvis 
eequilongis glaberrimis viridi-purpureis dorso cihatis, flosculo sessili, palea inferiore glaberrima apice 4-dentata 5-nervi, 
nervo medio in aristarn validam elongatam glumas superantem producta, superiore minima hyalina, foliis longe 
vagjnantibus lanceolatis planis utrinque scaberulis, vaginis compressis lamina bis longioribus tm'gidis sulcatis gla- 
berrimis, eulmis valde foUosis basi compressis validis. 

Hab. Colombia; on Pichincha at the limits of perpetual snow, alt. 15,676 ft. — Prof. W. Jameson. 

96 FLOEA ANTARCTICA. {Auckland and 

duplo longioribus, palea inferiore late obovato-oblonga superue truncata 4-5-dentata quinquenervi nervo 
medio apicem attingente v. supra medium in aristam mutieam producto, inferiore minima squamseformi (an 
nulla?), foliis plurimis glabemmis sctaceo-filiformibus eulmo brevioribus. (Tab. LIII.) 

Hab. Campbell's Island ; on elevated and exposed rocks at the highest summits of the mountains. 

Radix fibrosa. Cidmi csespitosi, basi interdum inclinati, stricti v. curvati, saepius divisi, 1-2 unc. longi, bis 
terve nodosi, copiose foliosi, una cum foliis 3 liu. lati, supcrne nudi, stricti, foha ~ superantes, teretes, laeves, nitidi, 
nodis incrassatis. Folia plurima, basi vaginantia, stricta, curvata v. superne subrecurva, lineari-setacea, iiivoluta, 
rigida, profunde striata, vix 1— 1-J uiiciaba, sub lente setis minimis ascendentibus scaberula, laete viridia. Vagina 
latiusculae, aperta?, lamina; aequilongae, his latiores, basi submembranaceae, sulcata;, ad orem gradatim angustatae ; 
ligula scariosa, late ovata, obtusa, apice saspius lacera. Panicida sub \ unc. longa, contracts, 2 hn. lata, pauci-sub 
13-flora; rachi ramisque erectis, scabridis. Spicula rnajusculae, brevissime pedicellatae ; pedicebo valido, scaberulo. 
Glumarum valva inaequales, superior major, \\ lin. longa, utraeque lanceolatae, acutae, marginibus superne eUiatis, 
carina scabrido-dentata. Palea inferior menibranacea, glaberrima, late oblonga, superne abrupte truncata, irregula- 
riter erosa v. subquadridentata, nervo medio interdum ad medium in aristam tenuem desinente, mmc ad apicem 
producto v. infra apicem evanido : palea superior minima, hyalina, enervis, apice truncata v. rotundata, fioscidis 
honnullis milii non visa. Squamida late cultrifomies. Stamina 3;filamentis brevibus ; ant/ieris late oblongis, stranuneis. 
Ooarium late elliptico-ovatum ; stylis breviusculis ; stigmatibus pliuuosis. Caryopsis perianthio inclusus sed eo non 
adhaerens, ovato-oblonga, teres, palea; aequilonga. 

A small tufted grass, nestHng in the crevices of rocks in the most elevated places, highly characteristic of the 
rigorous climate it inhabits. In general appearance it resembles one or two of the Antarctic American species, 
but is quite distinct from them and from any other with which I am acquainted. The upper palea, if ever really 
present, is extremely small, what I have taken for it may have been a portion of the lacerated base of the lower ; in 
parts of such extreme minuteness and of so 'membranous and hyaline a texture, it is very difficult to ascertain clearly 
the true position and form of this organ and of the squamulae. 

Plate LIII. Fig. 1, a spikelet ;fig, 2, front, mi fig. 3, back view of floret ; fig. 4, squamida, stamens and ovarium ; 
fig. 5, ripe caryopsis : — all magnified. 

§. II. Palea superiore basi setula aucta. 

4. Agrostis AucMandica, Hook. fil. ; panieula contracta, glumarum valvis subasquilongis dorso ciliatis 
flosculo breviter pedicellato duplo longioribus, palea inferiore subsericea basi barbata apice bifida quinque- 
nervi, nervo medio in aristam validam geniculatam producto, palea superiore paulo breviore apice bifida 
bicarinata carinis ciliatis basi setula longe plumoso-ciliata aucta, fobis radicabbus erecto-patentibus strictis. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; rocky places on the very tops of the hills, scarce. 

Culmi csespitosi, breviusculi, 3-4 unc. longi, validi, erecti, basi foliosi, simpbces v. parce ramosi, superne folio 
unico foliisve duobus vaginati. Folia breria, sub pollicaria, stricta, erecto-patentia, hneari-subulata, v. subsetacea, 
involuta, striata, glaberrima. Vagina laminam subajquantes et paido latiores, fobonun superiorum elongata?, 
profunde striatas, utrinque attenuatae, metbo tui-gidse, ore contracto ; ligula ovata, scariosa. Panicida J mic. longa, 
paucifiora ; rachi ramisque scabridis. Gluma sub 1£ Hn. longa ; valvce lanceolatae, acuminata;, concavae, uninerves, 
acute carinatae, carina cihata, floscido incluso bis longiores, superior paido brevior. Flosadus brerissime petbcel- 
latus. Palea inferior ima basi sericeo-barbata, concava, apice bifida, inter segmenta subacuta aristata, subsericea, 
qiunquenervis, marginibus dorsoque ciliatis ; arista valida geniculato-curvata, scabrida, imo apice obtusa. Palea 
superior inferiore panun brevior v. aequilonga, lineari-oblonga, apice bifida, binerris, bicarinata, carinis argute cihato- 

Campbell's Island*. J FLORA ANTARCTICA. 97 

denticulatis. Setula palea inferiore A brevior, longissime plurnoso-barbata ; pilis strictis, sericeis, flosculo sequilongis. 
Squamula 2, oblique ovato-lanceolatae, acuminatae. Stamina 3 ; flamentis breviusculis ; antkeris subexsertis, lineari- 
oblongis, strarnineis. Ovarium late ovatmn ; stylis basi approsimatis ; siigmatibus exsertis, phimosis. 

Of this plant I have but very imperfect specimens, nor could I anywhere detect more of it than one or two 
culms which grew in the highest parts of the island, from whence the snow had but recently disappeared. 

Tribe AVENACE.E, Kwdh. 
3. TKISETUM, Kunth. 

1. Tiusetuji suhspicatum, Beauv. Agrost. p. 88. Brown in Parry's First Voyage, App. p. 292. 
Richardson's App. to FrauMin's 1st Voy. p. 3, and in Franklin's Journal, p. 731. Hooker, App. to Parry's 
2nd Toy. p. 409. App. to 2>rd Voy. p. 129. Flor. Bor. Am. v. 2. p. 244. T. phleoides, Kunth Gram., 
vol. i. p. 101. Agrost. p. 295, (non Trinius). Avena phleoides, I/Urv. Fl. Ins. Mai. in Trans. Soc. Linn. 
Par. vol. iv. p. 001. Brongniart in Buperrey, Voy. Bot. Phan. p. 29. 

Hab. Campbell's Island ; on ledges of rocks at the very summits of the mountains, abundant. 

I have very closely compared numerous specimens of this plant with most copious suites of authentically named 
forms of the T. suhspicatum from the northern hemisphere, without being able to detect any specific difference. In 
Europe and Northern America the plant varies much in size, in being of a slender or robust habit and hi the form 
of its panicle ; similar discrepancies are not observed in Campbell's Island, where its habitat is very limited ; but in 
the Falkland Islands and in Tierra del Fuego it assumes various forms, whence it has been described by Admiral 
D'Urville as a different species, which was adopted by Brongniart with much doubt. The T. molle, Kunth and 
Trinius, {Avena mollis, Mich.), is decidedly only a variety of larger growth and may be added to the other synonyms 
already included by Kunth under this species. Few grasses have so wide a range as this, nor am I acquainted 
with any other Arctic species which is equally an inhabitant of the opposite polar regions. In Europe it is found 
at a very great elevation on the Alps and on the Pyrenees, as also in Lapland. In Asia it frequents the Altai range, 
the northern parts of Siberia and Kamtschatka, from whence it crosses to Kotzebue's Sound, and is apparently more 
generally distributed through Arctic America (than in the Old World), from the utmost limi ts of Polar vegetation 
in Melville Island, throughout Greenland and the Arctic Islands, the Arctic sea-coast, Labrador, Canada, and the 
Pocky Mountains. We have specimens in no way different from some of the European states, which were gathered 
on the Andes of Peru by Mr. McLean, and it is a particularly common grass on the sea-coast and upland regions 
of the Falkland Islands, forming a considerable portion of the pasturage. In Fuegia and South Chili it is probably 
no less abundant. 

Tribe FESTUCACE.E, Kmth. 

4. BKOMUS, L. 

1. BaoMUS antarctieus, Hook., fil. ; glaberrimus, panicula inclinata subcoarctata, ramis rnultifloris, 
spiculis ovato-oblongis 6-8-floris, flosculis pedicellatis basi sericeo-barbatis, arista valida palea longiore, foliis 
involutis culmuin elaturn superautibus. (Tab. LIY.) 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island ; a common grass upon the lulls, forming large 
tussacks, particularly at an elevation of between 800 and 1200 feet. 

Gramen elaturn, 3-4 pedale, ceespites supra terrain 2-3 ped. diametr. formans. Culmi ascendentes, validi, 
fascicidati ; pars infima prostrata, subrepens, crassa, lignosa, 3-4 unc. longa, diametro digiti minoris, uudique 
fibras crassas tortas intertextas emittens, reliquiis rigidis foliormn ernortuorum obtecta, simplex v. divisa ; culmi 


98 FLORA ANTARCTICA. {Auckland and 

deiiide ascendentes, foliis plurimis per totani longitudinem vaginati, una cum foliis 1 unc. diametr., graciles, nodosi ; 
internodiis sub 2-uncialibus ; nodis constrictis, briumeis. Folia longissinia, 3^ pedalia, basi longe vaginantia, 
lineari-elongata, in apiceni subfilifoiinem gradatim desinentia, panicidam longe superantia, per totani longitudinem 
involuta, glaberrima, coriacea, profunde striata, lsevia, polita, viridi-straminea, supra pallide virescentia ; marginibus 
laevissimis, prope ligidam parce pilosis. Vagina elongate, interdum pedales, ad basin fissae, compressse, iuferiores 
paulo curvatae, suleatae, coriaceae, ad margines seariosas, inferne indurates, subbgnosae, pallide flavas ; ligula tenuissima, 
sericeo-barbata. Panicula subcoarctata, ovata v. ovato-oblonga, compressa, 4-6 unc. longa, multiflora, ramosa ; 
rachi glaberrima, angulata; ramis gracillimis divisis, ad axillos pilosis v. barbatis. Spicules pedicellatae ; |— 1 unc. 
longae, ovato- v. lineari-oblongse, i unc. lata?, multi-8-ll-flores, pallide flavae, nitidae. Glumes coriaceas, flosculis 
•| breviores, valvar lanceolate, concavae, ecarinatae, glabemmae, obscure quinquenerves, nervis tribus interioribus inter- 
dum supra medium in uniun coabtis ; valva superior major, nervis magis distinctis, marginibus inferne sericeo-ciliatis. 
Mosculi pedicellati, basi remotiuseuli ; pedicellis dense villoso-barbatis. Palea 2, coriaceae, subsequales, inferior 
concava, ad margines dorsoque basi sericea, superne bifida, inter segmenta laneeolato-subulata longe aristata, 5-7 
nenis, nervis extus costatis ; arista erecta v. patula, valida, palea bis longiore, scabriuscula, stramiuea. Pedea supe- 
rior lineari-oblonga, apice bidentata, lougitudinaliter plicata, bicarinata ; carinis dorso ciliatis, basi extus sericeis. 
Squawida 2, ovatse, acuminatae, iutegrae. Stamina 3, inclusa; antheris fid\is. Ovarium obovatum, compressum, 
sub-longe stipitatum ; stglis basi remotis ; stigmatibus parce plumosis. 

This is a fine species and quite distinct from any other ; it grows throughout the islands in great abundance, 
especially on the upland regions, where it forms much the greater proportion of the herbage, appearing in large, often 
isolated tussacks, one or two feet in diameter. Amongst them the Albatrosses are wont to raise their curious nests, 
which they construct of dirt and the straw of this grass, moidded into the form of a very large low Stilton cheese, with 
a shallow hollow at top : in these they lay a solitary egg weighing 16-20 oz. So strong is their attachment to their 
progeny that in no instance can an Albatross be removed from its charge without actual force ; they vigorously 
defend their nests, striking boldly at the aggressor with their bills, so that it is sometimes difficult to obtain pos- 
session of the egg at all without cruelty to these beautiful and snow-white birds, whose confidence in man leads 
them to suspect no evil until actually attacked, and whose self-denying devotion to their young deserves a different 
treatment. The great size and beauty of the egg, coupled with its rarity in European collections, are attractions 
too strong to be resisted ; and even had it not these reasons for being prized, it possesses in the excellence of its con- 
tents for culinary purposes a great recommendation to the members of a mess long restricted to salt provisions. 

The tufts of Bromus antarcticus are of a very rigid, hard and wiry consistence, and after a few hours sunshine 
become so dry, that on being ignited a rapidly devouring flame quickly spreads from one hummock to another, 
until many acres are blazing in a most alarming manner. A fire incautiously kindled on one occasion by a small 
party of officers, soon covered many miles of ground ; after consuming all the Bromus in its neighbourhood, it com- 
municated with the brushwood which borders the woods, and thence to the low dense forest itself, for many hours 
threatening the destruction of the observatories and our little temporary village ashore ; the progress of the fire 
was happily checked for a time by a small stream, until a severe storm of sleet, which the falling barometer and 
unusual (for these latitudes) fineness of the weather had predicted, finally put an end to the conflagration. From 
the ships in the harbour the sight was very grand, especially at night, the flames seeming to leap from spot to spot 
wherever this grass prevailed. 

Plate LIT. Fig. 1, a spikelet ; jig. 2, a floret removed from the spikelet ; fg. 3, squamulae, stamina and ova- 
rium, &c. ; fig. 4, two forms of the squaniulas : — all magnified. 


1. Festuca scoparia, Hook. fil. ; panicula pauciflora subcoarctata, spiculis compressis majusculis 4-5- 
floris, glumarum valvis subsequalibus trinerviis flosculis brevioribus, palea iuferiore scaberula basi longe 

Campbell's Islands.] FLORA ANTARCTICA. 99 

villoso-barbata apice subacuta, foliis arete involutis plerumque longissime lnieari-filiformibus rigidis gradatim 
attenuatis, c.nlmis erectis fasciculatis superne gracilibus nudis. 

Far. /3, minor, foliis culmo subsequilongis. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island; abundant, especially in rocky places near the 
sea : £. Campbell's Island, on ledges of rock, alt. 1000 feet. 

G-ramen elatum, 2-3 pedale, suberectum, ca?spites magnos densos pra?sertim inter rupes efficiens. Radix fibrosa, 
fibris intertextis, crassis, diametr. penna? corvinee, elongatis, 1-2 uncialibus, tortis, ramosis, suberosis v. spongiosis, 
pallide fuscis, fibrillosis v. interdum subtomentosis. C'ulmi plurimi, dense fascicidati, copiose foliosi, basi una cum 
vaginis foliorum 4r unc. diametri, ima basi divisi, e parte infinia prostata, ramosa, lignosa, aseendentes, gracdes, 1-2 
pedales, glabenimi, vix striati, bis terve nodosi ; internodiis 2-3 uncialibus ; nodis eonstrietis, flavo-fuscis. Folia 
longissima, anguste lineari-filifonnia, gradatim attenuata, subflexuosa, cubmun bis terve superantia, basi longe va- 
ginantia, per totam longitudinem arete involuta, glaberrima, striata, subrigide coriacea, vaginis angustiora, in var. /3, 
folia stricta, rigida, culmo breviora. Vagina? bneares, elongata?, 8-10 imc. longa?, ad basin latiorem fissa?, superne 
hiantes, pallide straminea?, Ireves, nitida? ; ad orem utrinque in auriculas breves sursum productae ; ligula horizon- 
tali, angusta, inconspicua. Panicula 3-5 unc. longa, suberecta v. paulo inclinata, parce ramosa, pauciflora ; rachi 
gracili, scabrida; ramis alternis, angulatis, scabridis, 3-5-floris. Spicule pedicellata?, valde compressa?, ovato-ob- 
longa?, sub 4 lin. longa?, 1-flora?. Glumaruni valvce coriacea?, suba?cpiales, flosculis breviores, lanceolata?, acuta?,' 
concava?, dorso nervisque scabriebs, inferiore paido minore. FloscitU dissiti, inferior subsessilis, reliqui pecbcellati, 
pedicello nisi ad basin flosculi nudo. Paha inferior lineari-oblonga, subacuta, dorso convexa, basi longe villoso- 
barbata, extus parce pilosa, quinquencrvis, nervis prominentibus, extus scabridis. Palm superior i brevior, apice 
bifida, bicarinata, carinis scabrido-ciliatis. Squamults obovato-oblonga?, ad medium bipartita?; segmentis ina?qua- 
bbus, ovato-subulatis, acuminatis. Stamina 3 ; flamentis breviusculis ; antheris paulo exsertis, stramineis. Ovarium 
minutum, late obovatum ; stylis basi discretis. Caryopsis glabra, palea \ brevior, obovata, apice gibbosa, latere unico 
excavata, stylis lateralibus. 

This plant is most nearly aUied to Festitca ? littoralis, Br. (Prodi - ., p. 178), from which it differs, according to 
our specimens from various parts of New Holland, Tasmania, and New Zealand, in the longer leaves, fewer flowered 
panicle, narrower florets, in the entire absence of any toothing at the apex of the lower palea, and in the long villous 
beard at its base. That plant also has turgid distichous approximated florets, resembbng those of a Uniola. I have 
referred this species to Festitca, as Mr. Brown has the F. littoralis, though with a mark of doubt ; they are mani- 
festly congeneric, but in this I see no approach to the character of Danthonia ; they further bear a good deal of re- 
semblance to the F. spadicea, L., a South of Eiuope plant. 

Of M. Labillardiere's F. littoralis we have an authentically named specimen, gathered by that voyager himself, 
and received from our liberal correspondent Mr. Webb of Paris ; it entfrely resembles the figure given in ' Planta? 
Nov. Holl.' (t. 27), especially in the branching and elongated lower portion of the culm, but the pedicels of the 
florets are decidedly hairy and the lower palea truncated, characters not portrayed in the plate alluded to, but which 
Mr. Brown has observed in bis plant. This species Nees v. Esenbeck notices in his ' Gramma Nova? Hollandiae,' 
(vid. Lond. Journ. of Bot., vol. ii. p. 119), as " Schcdonorus Billardierianus, N. ab E., Poa littoralis, Lab. nee 
P. Br.," and further quotes Mr. Gunn's specimens, which agree with Labillardiere's own and with Mr. Brown's 
description. Kunth (Agrost., p. 409), unites these two plants, retaining them under a section of Festitca, which 
includes his " species anomala?, minus cognita? et dubia?." Sprengel refers it to Triodia, and Trinius in his beau- 
tiful work places it in Arimdo ! (A. triodioides, Trim Species Gramin. vol. iii.) 

2. ~FESTUCAfoliosa, Hook. fil. ; panicula inclinata majuscula coarctata ramosa multiflora, ramis erectis 
compositis, spiculis sub 4-floris late ovatis, glumaruni valvis lauceolatis v. acuminatis sequalibus, flosculis 

100 TLOKA ANTARCTICA. [Auckland and 

brevitcr pecliccllatis brevioribus, palea inferiore subsericea acuta quinquenervi basi barbata dorso scabrida, 
superiore breviore bifida, squamulis basi counatis, foliis subdistiche insertis longissimis latis planis carinatis 
glaberriniis, culmis caespitosis compressis. (Tab. LV.) 

Var. /3, minor, spiculis minoribus subtrifloris. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island ; on banks and in rocky places, chiefly near the 
sea, very abundant. /3. more common hi Campbell's Island ; growing amongst rocks. McQuarrie's Island, 
{Herb. Hook.) 

FMzomata prostata, crassa, lignosa, 3-4 line, longa, crassitie digiti minoris et infra, ereberriine nodosa, radices 
plurimas fibrosas ubique emittentia, reliquiis fibrosis foliormn vetustorum obtecta, caespites densos magnos scabellum 
simulantes effieientia, versus apices culmos plurimos emittentia ; fibris 3-4 unc. longis, filiformibus, subrigidis, liic 
illic tortis, simpKcibus v. fibrillosis. Culmi validi, erecti, 2-3 ped. longi, \-\ unc. lati, basi compressi et foliis ab- 
breviate vaginati ; in var. 0, 6 unc. ad pedaleni et graciliores. Folia plurima, plantis junioribus praesertiin distiche 
inserta, longissime Hnearia, flexuosa, culmum longe superantia, 3—1 ped. longa, gradatiai attenuate, latiuseula, |~ J 
unc. latitudine, plana, per totaui longitudinem carinata, glaberrima, striata, utrinque opaca, herbacea, laete viridia, 
subtus glaucescentia. Vagina latse, 3-4 unc. longae, compressae, striates, opacae, ad basin fissae, folionun vetustorum 
1 unc. latae, emarcidse fibrosas ; ore paulo contraeto, ssepe fusco-brunneo ; ligula conica, longituduie varia, scariosa, 
acuta v. obtusa, Integra v. lacera. Panieula lineari-oblonga, eontracta, valde compressa, decomposita, nutans v. in- 
clinata, 5-8 unc. longa, 1-3 lata, raclii valida, tereti, glaberrima; ramis suberectis, compositis, 1-1—2 unc. longis, 
glaberrimis, pohtis, mvdtifloris. Spicules pedicellatas, 2-1-- 3 lin. longae, pedicello graeili, curvato. Glumarum valvm 
eequales, kmceolatae, acuminata?, flosculis breviores, concavae, sub-carinatae, basi trinerves ; nervis tenuibus, iutermedio 
dorso vix scaberido, lateralibus medium vix attingentibus. Mosauli 3-5, plerumque 4, inferior sessUis, rebqui bre- 
viter pedicellate pedicello glabro. Palea inferior subberbacea, acuminata, apice subincurva, dorso cibata, basi 
breviter villoso-barbata, subsericea, quinquenervis. Palea superior paulo brevior, oblonga, bifida, bicarinata, carinis 
cihatis. Squaniula basi earaosfe et connatae, subquadratas, obbque bifidse ; segmentis acute, erosis ; in var 0, obo- 
vatae, bipartitse, segmentis aeiuninatis. Stamina 3 ; jilamentis elongatis ; ant/wris exserte, stamineis. Ovarium 
minimum, ovatimi ; stylia basi approximate, elongatis ; stigmatibm parce phimosis. 

A grass of large growth and very leafy, affording a rich and nutritious food for animals ; in some cases it forms 
large mounds or tussacks, not unbke those of the Dactylis caspitosa of the Falkland Islands (the Tussack grass), but 
smaller ; with, however, a similarly luxuriant habit. In size it varies extremely, froni several feet to a few inches in 
height, and from a robust to rather a slender habit ; it is only indeed when growing in large masses that it assumes 
a characteristic appearance, in this respect further resembling the celebrated grass above mentioned. The small 
specimen from McQuarrie's Island especially, I should have been inclined to regard as another species, had the plant 
not appeared in a similarly starved state in Campbell's Island. In the large cidms the ample sheaths of the old 
leaves conceal the compressed form and distichous insertion of the leaves, which are very marked in the younger 
ones, and in certain states as conspicuous as in small states of the Tussack grass itself. 

It is with much hesitation that I refer this to Festuca, for I know no species of that genus with a similarly leafy 
and soft habit, or with cgmpressed culms and distichous leaves, the only one indeed which appears to bear any 
resemblance to it is the jP. Bonax, Lowe, a Madeira plant, and that merely in being of a large size and having a 
somewhat similar large and branched panicle. The want of the arista alone at the apex of the lower palea restrains 
me from placing it with what is certainly its nearest ally, the true Tussack Grass. 

Plate LV. Fig. 1, spikelet ; flg. 2, a floret ; Jig. 3, connate squanmlae ; fig. 4, one squamula of var. /3 ; fig. 5, 
ovarium, style and stigmata : — all magnified. 

Campbell's Islands] FLORA ANTARCTICA. 101 

6. POA, L. 

1. Poa annua, Linn., 99. et auctorum. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group; abundant on the tomb of a French sailor, growing with SteUaria 
media, With.; both undoubtedly introduced. 

This is the common European form of the plant ; it has not as yet spread far from the above locality. 

2. Poa ramoshsima, Hook, fil.; glaberrima, panicula contractu ovato-lanceolata, ramis strictis sub- 
erectis alternis bis terve divisis, spiralis ovatis 3— 1-floris, glumis acutis, flosculis basi remotis, palea inferiore 
acuta quinquenervi, foliis planis pauiculam superautibus vaginisque laevibus, ligula late ovata apice truncata 
lacera, cuhnis laxe cajspitosis basi longe muhs et prostratis supeme fasciculatini ramosissimis, ramis brevibus 
omnibus floriferis. 

Yar. /3, palea exteriore basi extus longe villoso-barbata. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group; very common on the rocks overhanging the sea, trailing over banks, &c. 
£. Campbell's Island ; plentiful on the faces of liills sloping to the south ; rare in Lord Auckland's group. 

Gramen gregarium, late supra terrain diffusum, pascuum copiosimi efficiens, pedale et ultra. Oulmi elongati, 
longe prostrati, pars prostata nuda, simplex, pedalis, crassitie pennee corvinae, rigida, fusca, vaginis emarcidis et 
fibrosis foliorum vetustorum vestita, nodosa ; internodiis teretibus, glaberriniis ; nodis incrassatis. Rami plurimi, 
ab apice partis prostrati erecti v. ascendentes, fascieulati, pluries divisi, 3-4 unc. longi, foliosi, omnes floriferi, gra- 
ciles, basi pare nodosi, foliis emarcidis subcriniti. Folia erecta, pauiculam superantia, 3— i unc. longa, auguste 
lineari-subidata, vix -| lin. lata, planiuscula, glaberrima, obsolete striata, utrinque opaca. Vagina; laminam longitud. 
subasquantes, teretes, laeves, striata;, ad basin fissse, marginibus subscariosis, collo interdum castaneo ; Vujula scariosa, 
late ovata, superne abrupte truncata, lacera. Panicula erecta, lineari-oblonga v. ovato-lanceolata, 1— 1-i unc. longa, 
\ imc. lata, compressa, ramosa ; rachi gracili, angulata, laevi ; ramis alternis, erectis, \ unc. longis, spicidas pedicel- 
latas 3— 1 gerentibus. Spieults herbaceae, ovato-laneeolatse, 2 lin. longa;, 3-5-florse. Glumarum valvte subaequales, 
concavae, acutoe, glaberrima 3 , flosculis breviores ; superior latior, trinervis ; inferior acuminata, uninervis. Flosculi 
dissiti, longius pedicellati, infimo sessili ; pedicello glaberrinio v. infra paleam barbato. Palea inferior late ovata, 
acuta, qmnquenervis, ncrvis lateralibus obscuris, glaben - ima, var. p excepta ubi palea basi villoso-barbata evadit. 
Palea superior lineari-oblonga, inferiore brevior, apice bifida, bicarinata, carinis glabris. Stamina 3 ; filamentis 
brevibus ; antkeris straniineis, inclusis. 

This is a very abundant grass in both groups of islands and of a most singular habit of growth. The culmts are 
invariably prostrate and quite simple for a foot or so, when they suddenly ascend and divide into many short, leafy 
branches, each bearing a panicle of flowers. It forms a copious, soft, green herbage, especially on the banks near 
the sea, always throwing its long culms over the edges of the cliffs, which are thus fringed with a delicate festoon 
of green. 

The almost constant presence of a villous tuft at the base of the lower palea, in the Campbell's Island specimens, 
is a singular circumstance ; but as I have detected no further distinction between these two varieties, and in some 
specimens observed intermediate grades, it cannot be considered as a character of specific importance. 

3. Poa brerighunis, Hook, fil.; glaberrima, panicula laxa erecta pauciflora, rachi gracili, ramis sub- 
erectis oppositis v. subverticillatis divisis versus apices floriferis, spiculis obovato-oblongis 4-floris, glumarum 
valvis ineequalibus inferiore minima, superiore flosculis \ breviore apice bifida v. emarginata, flosculis pedi- 


102 FLORA ANTARCTICA. [Auckland and 

cellatis basi nudis, palea inferiore glaberrima ovato-lanceolata obtusa concava trinervi nervis sub lente 
scabridis, fobis planis liiieari-setaceis cubno brevioribus, culmis basi rarnosis inclinatis v. ascendeutibus. 

Hab. Campbell's Island; open grassy places near the sea, not uncommon. 

RMzomata teniiia, breviuscula, ramosa, radices fibrosas plurimas emittentia ; fibris tortis, filiforniibus, fibril- 
losis, fuscis. Culmi basi pluries divisi et inclinati, deinde ascendentes, graciles, 6 unc. ad pedalem, crassitie pennae 
passerina?, nodosi, ad nodos plerumque geniculati ; internodiis imcialibus, glaberrimis, striatis, kevibus, nitidis ; 
nodis subincrassatis, fuscis. Folia panca, 1-j— 3 unc. longa, cubno breviora, suberecta v. patentia, anguste lineari- 
subidata, sub 1-1-j lin. lata, gradatim attenuata, planiuscula, striata, glaberrima, utrinque opaca, kete viridia. 
Vagina lamina breviores, profimde striata?, marginibus scariosis, ore paido contracto ; ligula late ovata, apice rotun- 
data, scariosa. Panicida erecta, laxa, gracilis, 3-5 unc. longa, parce ramosa, pauciflora, raebi tereti, gracili, stricta, 
striata, lsevi, nitida ; ramis remotis, plerumque verticillatis v. oppositis, gracillimis, divisis, suberectis patentibusve, 
inferioribus elongatis, 1-1- unciaUbus, versus apices floriferis. Spicula sub \\ lin. longa?, obovato-oblonga?, com- 
pressa?, 4-flora?, pedicellata? ; pedicello spicula? subaequilongo, striate, scaberulo. Glumarum valves parvse, glaberrima?, 
valde inaequales, inferior minuta, ovata, obtusa, concava, uninervis ; superior duplo triplove major, flosculi dimidii 
longitudine, ovato-oblouga, apice truncata, emarginata v. bidentata, concava, trinervis, nervo medio scabendo. 
Flosculi basi dissiti, glaberrimi, infimus sessilis, reliqui pedicellati, terminalis cum arista brevi alterius incompleti 
sa?pe auctus ; pediceUis glaberrimis. Palea inferior oblongo-lanceolata, obtusa, concava, trinervis, nervis prominen- 
tibus sub lente scaberulis. Palea superior paido brevior, lineavi-oblonga, apice bifida, bicarinata, carinis minute 
cuiatis. Squamula late obovato-quadrata?, obbque bifida?, segmentis acutis, valde iusequalibus. Stamina 3 ; fila- 
mentis elongatis ; antheris exsertis, brevibus, late oblongis. Ovarium obovato-oblongiun ; stylis basi discretis, 
lateraliter insertis ; stigmatibus longe phimosis, exsertis. 

In several respects this species approaches the following genus Catahrosa, especially in the small glumes, the 
upper one of which is erose or toothed at the apex, and in the remote bases of the styles, but the palea? are not 
truncated, though obtuse, and the florets are always four in number. 

In the very short glumes and indeed in the entire structure of the spikelets, florets and their squamula? and 
ovarium, it resembles the Sphenopus divaricatus, Reich., with which it further agrees in the branching of the pa- 
nicle, its few flowers being placed towards the apices of the branchlets ; but it has not the general habit of that 
curious little grass, nor the peculiarly thickened pedicels to the spikelets. M. Kunth (Agrost., p. 392), has reduced 
the genus Sphenopus (Trinius) to Festuca ; but Theodore Nees, in his beautiful genera of German plants, has retained 
that generic name and published an excellent analysis of it ; I quite agree with him in considering it as more 
closely allied to Poa, in which genus its original describer, Gouan, placed it, than to Festuca. 

7. CATABEOSA, Palis. 

1. Catabrosa antarctica, Hook, fil.; panicula laxa pauciflora, glumarum valvis infequabbus inferiore 
lineari-oblonga subacuta superiore oblongo-lanceolata apice breviter bifida v. bidentata, palea inferiore apice 
truncata basi pilosa 3-5 nervi nervis obscuris inter medio in aristam brevissimam setiformem products, 
antheris brevibus late oblongis, fobis anguste bnearibus involutis paniculam superantibus, culmis gracibbus 
erectis basi divisis. (Tab. LVL) 

Hab. Campbell's Island; on moist rocky ledges, rare, only found at an elevation of 1000 feet. 

Bremen gracile, 6-8 unciale, magnitudine sat varians. RMzomata laxe caespitosa, elongata, 1-2 unc. longa, cur- 
vata, crassa, diametro pemia? corvina? vel minora, lignosa, fusca, nodosa, ad nodos fibrosa, versus apices divisa v. sub- 
ramosa; fibris elongatis, tortis, fuscis, fibrillosis. Culmi fasciculati, erecti, graciles, foliosi, 2-5 unc. longi, remote 
nodosi ; internodiis teretibus, striatis, sub ± uncialibus, glaberrimis ; nodis coustrictis, brunneis. Folia erecta, 

Campbell's Islands.] FLOKA ANTAECTICA. 103 

elongata, culniuni superantia, superne flexuosa, basi longe vaginantia, longe et anguste linearia, involuta, glaberrima, 
striata, laevia, lsete viridia. Vagina folii \ longitudine, angusta?, ad margines subscariosa?, profunde striata? ; ligula 
elongata, lineari, acuminata, membranacea, ad apicem fimbriata. Panicula 3-5 unc. longa, erecta, gracilhina, parce 
raniosa, pauciflora ; rachi gracili, tereti, la?vi, flexuosa ; rarnis alternis vel plemrnque subverticillatis, filiformibus, 
divisis, suberectis v. modiee patentibus, pra?sertini apicem versus floriferis. Spicula parva?, \\ lin. longa?, remotee, 
micautes, glaberrima?, 2-rarius 3-flores, flore terminali tabescente, pedicellata ; pedicello sub lente glaberrimo. 
Glunue bivalves; valvar insequales, floscidis inferioribus breviores, herbaceo-coriacea?, inferior oblongo-lanceolata, 
acuta, marginibus minute ciliatis, uninervis, nervo dorso scabemlo ; superior \ longior, oblongo-lanceolata, apice 
bifida truucata v. emarginata, concava, dorso carinata, trinervis, nervis prominentibus, lateralibus ad medium evanes- 
centibus, carina dorso ciliata, marginibus superne tenuiter ciliatis. Flosctdi remoti, superior pedicellatus ; pedicello 
infra florem incrassato, et pubescente. Pidea inferior late ovato-oblonga, concava, abrupte truncata, superne plus 
minusve distincte 4-5-deutata, dente medio interdum in aristam brevissirnam producto, membranacea, obsolete 3-5 
nervis, basi pilosa : palea superior suba?quilonga, apice bifida, bicarinata, carinis ciliatis. Squamulce ovata?, acumi- 
nata?, subcaruosa?, integra?. Stamina 3, filamentis gracilibus ; antheris late oblongis, prope basin fixis, loculis 
apicem versus divaricatis, flavo-stramineis. Ovarium, late obovatum, basi subattenuatum ; stylis basi distinctis, latere 
vmico insertis ; stigmatibus valde plmnosis. Caryopsis ovato-oblonga, paleis -g-brevior. 

My specimens of this grass, though not in so good a state as is desirable, are, I think, sufficient to prove it a 
most distinct species of an European genus, which reaches in Great Britain the parallel of 59°, the 67th degree in 
Lapland and Iceland, and the 57th in North America. 

The present species differs considerably from the type of the genus, in its slender habit and narrow leaves, and 
more particularly in the larger glumes being less truncated and narrower, in the more unequal palea? and obscure 
nerves of the lower one, and in the very short anthers. 

Plate LVI. Fig. 1, a spikelet ; fig. 2, glumes; fig. 3, a floret; fig. 4, a squamula; fig. 5, a stamen; fig. 6, 
ovarium, styles and stigmata ; fig. 7, caryopsis : — all magnified. 



1. Hyjiexophylltjm minimum, A. Rich. ; pusillum, casspitosiun, glaberrirniim, frondibus late-ovatis 
falcato-reeurvis pinnatifidis v. basi pinnatis, segmentis integris bifidis rariusve bipartitis linearibus obtusis 
rnarginibus eiliato-dentatis per totam longitudinern concavis subrigidis siccitate rufo-fuscis, involucris termi- 
nalibus o m m'no exsertis subpedicellatis obovato-cuueatis valvis dorso spinuloso-ciliatis, ore breviter bilobo 
argute dentato, rachi stipiteque crassiusculis rigidis. H. minimum, A. Richard, Flor. Nov. Zel. p. 93. 1. 14. 
f. 2. F. Cum/. Prodr. Flor. Nov. Zel. in Hook. Comp. Bot. Mag. vol. ii. p. 3(39. Presl, Hymenoplii/ll. p. 32. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; on trunks of trees in the woods; rare. 

Caudex repens, radicans, rigidus, filifonnis, seta equina crassior, ater. Frondes plerumque plus minusve falcato- 
recurva? v. demissa?, rarius suberecta?, \- A imc. longa?, rigida?, firmae, pinnatifida? v. segmentis inferioribus dis- 
sitis, basi pinnata? ; pinnis seu segmentis superioribus integris, inferioribus bifidis v. bipartitis, infimis interdum 
pinnatifidis, omnibus linearibus, obtusis, argute ciliato-dentatis, per totam longitucbnem concavis, fusco-brmmeis, 
siccitate riifis ; costa rachique vabdis, glaberrimis. Involucrum ad apicem frondis terminale, sobtarium, majuscu- 
lum, breviter pedicellatuni, ovato-cuneatiun, basi attenuatum, durum, siccitate atiiun ; valvis dorso spinulis mollibus 
basi latiusculis obsitis ; ore breviter bilabiato, latiusculo, labiis rotundatis, argute spinuloso-dentatis, dentibus erectis, 
sinubus rotundatis ; receptaculo valido, rarius elongato, exserto. 


104 FLORA ANTAECTICA. [Auckland and 

During the examination of the materials from which the genus Hymenophyllum was described in the second 
part of the " Species Filicum," I had but cursorily investigated the Auckland Island species, and considered the H. 
minimum of Richard to be a small variety of II. Tunbridgenae, with terminal involucres. This state is not uncommon in 
the vicinity of the Bay of Islands, and this I laid before my father ; whence the H. minimum was by him included as 
a synonym of that widely diffused species. Amongst my specimens of H. multifidum I now find others of tliis very 
minute and most distinct plant, which have enabled me to correct that error. In the rigid consistence of the frond, its 
decurved habit and lurid colour, it is more nearly allied to H. multifidum than to any other species, but the curiously 
spimdose valves of the involucre afford an excellent specific character, as do the small size, simple frond and singu- 
larly concave segments, which appear bke the half of a tube, that is, hollow throughout their length and open at the 
end. Between this plant and the Trichomanes ccezpitosum of the Falkland Islands and Cape Horn, much analogy 
exists, especially in size, locality and habit ; in each the fronds are generally once divided, with the segments con- 
cave and obtuse ; both have the indusia free or nearly so, spimdose at the back of the valves, and though often lateral 
in the latter plant, the fructifications are, especially on small specimens, very generally terminal, and may prove to 
be truly lateral in II. minimum, shoidd that plant be found in a more luxuriant state than M. Richard's or my spe- 
cimens exhibit. In the ' Flora Novas Zelandiae ' M. Richard does not mention the original discoverer of the species ; 
the figure in the ' Voy. de la Coquille ' is not characteristic of the curious involucres. 

2. Hymenophyllum multifidum, Sw. Syn. Fil. p. 149 and 378. Hook, and Grev. Ic. Fil. t. 165. 
Presl, Hj/menop/iyll. p. 32. Hook. Sp. Fil. vol. i. p. 98. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island ; in all situations, from the level of the sea to the 
tops of the mountains, growing on the ground, on trunks of trees and on rocks. 

A very common New Zealand fern, from the latitude of the Bay of Islands to that of Campbell's Island ; repre- 
senting in this region the H. tortuosum of Antarctic America and the H. Tunbridgense of the Northern Hemisphere. 
It is very variable in size, but the fronds are always remarkably bent downwards, their apices often touching the 

3. Hymenophyllum demissum, Sw. Sgn. Fil. p. 147 and 374. ScMuhr Fil. 1. 135. c. F. Rich. Fl. 
Nov. Zel. p. 92. Hook. Sp. Fil. vol. i. p. 109. Sphaerocioniuni deinissvun, Presl, Ilymenophi/ll. p. 35. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; in dense woods near the sea, often covering the ground with large 
patches of a lurid green colour. 

The specimens of this beautiful species are smaller than those collected in the northern island of New Zealand, 
but do not otherwise differ, 

Mr. Presl's genus Sphrerocionium is apparently founded only upon the form of the receptacle, in its being 
" shorter than the indusium, naked and cylindrical below, and thickened and globose at the apex, which alone bears 
the capsides ; " such characters can hardly be applied to this species, where the receptacle, though short, produces 
capsules for at least two-thirds of its length, the lowest portion or thud part only being naked and cylindrical, gra- 
dually thickening upwards into an elongated club-shaped body. 

The structure of the receptacle in most species of the genus Hymenophyllum, in its more extended sense, ap- 
pears to me very uniform ; in length it varies extremely, but there is generally a short cylindrical body, which may 
be considered a pedicellus to the elongated capsuliferous portion or true receptaeulum ; upon the comparative length 
of this latter portion the genus of Presl rests. In some New Zealand specimens of this fern the pedicel is so 
short as to be almost obliterated, the receptacle appearing like a stout column covered throughout its length with 
capsules ; in others the whole organ is reduced to an elevated tubercle in the bottom of the involucre. Of the 
other plants included by Mr. Presl under tliis genus I have examined several ; of these, S. infortunatwn, the only 

Campbell's Islands.] FLORA ANTARCTICA. 105 

St. Helena species of this genus, and originally noticed in Pritchard's list of the plants of that island as Hym. capillare, 
has the receptacle more nearly as described, though I shoidd rather have called it clavate than " apice globoso-in- 
crassatum " ; the capsides are not confined to its apex, but extend half way down the receptacle. S. ricc'upfoHum I 
have not seen in fruit; it appears, however, identical with H.polyantltos, Sw. (v. Sp. Fil. p. 107.). Whether the 
H. polyantlios, Hook, and Grev., be that of Swartz, or, as Presl supposed, another species, is difficult to decide, 
without authentic specimens of Swartz's plant ; it is, however, an excessively common West Indian form, nor does its 
receptacle differ in any particular from that of several species of Spharocionium ; as from S. sanyuinolention, Presl, 
(certainly a variety of polyant/ws, Hook, and Grev., if not of Swartz), from some states of demissum and others. 
S. caiidicidatum : in most of the specimens in Hook. Herb, the short pedicellus is surmounted by a very large depressed 
sphere covered with capsides, in some indusia this character is very striking, but in others, from the same specimen, 
it becomes considerably smaller, and in what is manifestly the same plant from other localities the receptacle is simply 
clavate but very broad. S. dilatation : this very common New Zealand plant is properly retained in the immediate 
vicinity of demissum ; in no case, however, do I find its receptacle to be globose and incrassated at the apex, it is very 
like, and varies similarly with, that of the last-named plant. S. crispatum : the receptacle of Indian specimens quite 
agrees with Presl's character, in some Van Diemen's Land ones that organ is narrower at the summit. <S'. badium, 
gracile, axillare, and abietinum have the receptacles very short and clavate, or more or less capitate. It is not 
to be w-ondered at that an organ so variable in the above-mentioned species shoidd afford too frail characters 
upon which to found a genus ; and a similar examination of some of the plants included in Presl's Hymenophylhon 
will show that it exists of all lengths, between the long exserted stout column so often seen in H. multifidwm and 
secundum and the short sessile receptacle of demissum and dilatation ; transition stages, connecting the two genera, 
are found in both. The limits of Hymenophyllum, as established in the ' Species Filicum,' have been defined after a 
study of several thousand specimens ; a re-examination of many of which has convinced me that neither can most 
of the new genera formed out of it remain, nor such sections as that author has proposed under the names of Evo- 
luta and Dimidiata. 

Having occasion to describe several species of this genus during the course of publishing the results of the 
Antarctic Expedition, some apology seems necessary for not adopting Presl's views of the Order Hymenophyl- 
lacece. I am fully sensible of the great value of that author's labours and of the accuracy and precision with 
which he has described what he has examined, as also of his intimate acquaintance with the whole order of Ferns : 
and whilst I cannot but place some reliance upon the residts of my own observation of far more extensive suites of 
specimens, in many cases gathered by myself, than Presl has probably had access to, I would further remark, 
that whilst examining, in the Hookerian herbarium, almost all the species mentioned by Presl, and authentically 
named specimens of many, I have constantly met wdth abundant evidence of that writer's accuracy in his descriptions 
of individual species, together with full proof that he has considered some of their peculiarities as of too much im- 
portance in Systematic Botany. 

4. Hymenophyllum flabellatum, Lab.; Fl. Nov. Hott. v. 2. p. 101. t. 250. f. 1. Hook. Sp. Fil. v. 1. 
p. 111. Presl, Hymenqph. p. 32. H. nitens, Brown Prodr. p. 159. Hook, et Grev. Ic. Fil. 1. 197. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; not uncommon on the old and decaying trunks of trees and upon rocks 
both near the sea and on the lulls. 

Of a paler but brighter and more glistening green than the former. A very abundant New Zealand and Tas- 
manian species, varying a good deal in size and somewhat in the form of the frond. 

5. Hymenophyllum rarwm, Br. ; Prodr. p. 159. Hook. Sp. Fil. v. 1. p. 101. H. semibivalve, Hook. 
et Grev. Ic. Fil. t, 83. Presl, Hymenoph. p. 32. 

Far. fi. Hook. Sp. Fil. p. 101. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; in woods near the sea, rare. 



106 FLORA ANTARCTICA. [Auckland and 

A very variable species, which also inhabits the extreme south of the American continent, as well as other and 
warmer parts of the globe. Presl, retaining the name of H. semibivalve, arranges this in his section " Cycloglossum" 
removing it from that of " Euhymenophyllum," in which the II. asplenioides, fumarioides and nitens, Br., are placed; 
but in the structure of the involucre and receptacle I have been unable to detect even a specific difference between 
those species and the H. rarum or semibivalve. The H. fumarioides, on the authority of Drege's specimens, which 
are so named and agree in the main with Bory's description, has been included in the " Species Tilicum " under H. 
rarum, of which plant I have examined numerous and very varying Cape forms from Messrs. Harvey, Forbes, Mund 
and Capt. Carmichael, and have also gathered it upon Table Mountain. In both Tasmanian and New Zealand spe- 
cimens I have seen the receptacle to be either included or exserted, and in one from the former country the form of 
the indusia varies from being short, almost wholly sunk in the frond, much broader than long, with scarcely promi- 
nent lips, to an elliptical ovate form, with the lips protruded and nearly twice the length of the sunk portion. The 
H. asplenioides and abruptum are both very nearly allied to H. rarum, the latter especially ; the former has a much 
stouter caudex and stipes. 

2. ASPEDIUM, Sic. 

1. Aspidium (Polystichum) renustum, Honibr. et Jacq.; frondibus elongatis lineari-oblongis acumi- 
natis bipinnatis, pinnis linearibus acurriinatis, pirmulis breviter petiolatis oblique ovatis acutis basi superne 
productis grosse crenato-dentatis coriaceis concavis glaberrimis venosis, segrnentis inferioribus obtusis supe- 
rioribus acutis acurninatisve, radii stipiteque superne villoso-hirtis, subtus paleis majuseulis dense vestitis. 
A. venustum, Hombr. et Jacq. in Toy. an Pole Sud, Bot. Monocot. Cryptog. t. 5. sine descript. A. Waik- 
arense, Colenso, MSS. in Herb. Hook. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island ; very abundant from the level of the sea to an 
altitude of 1200-1400 feet. 

Filiv, in sylvis maritimis caulescens. Caudex 2-4 pedalis, erectus, stipitibus frondiuni vetustorum fibrisque nigro- 
fuscis ubique vestitus, \ ped. diametr. et infra, versus apicem frondibus undique patentibus coronatus. Frondes 
3-5 pedales, exemplaribus sylvicolis horizontaliter patentes, alpicolis suberectae, i— |- ped. latas, lineari-oblongae, 
gradatim acuminata? ; pinnis plurimis, 4-6 unciahbus, j unc. latis, linearibus, acmninatis, coriaceis, glaberrimis, 
pinnatis, pinnis ultimis in caudam profunde et argute serratam confluentibus, pirmulis distantibus v. subimbricatis, 
divaricatis, breviter sed manifeste petiolatis, infimis supra rachin plus minusve productis, omnibus oblique ovatis, 
acutis, convexis, rigide coriaceis, grosse crenato-serratis, basi cuneata superne oblique producta, margine inferiore 
costs parallelo, segmento infimo majore, obtuso, intermediis obtusis acutisve, supremo acuto, pungente, rarissime 
omnibus obtusis acutisve, superne lineis depressis notatis, venis furcatis pluriesve divisis, subtus prominentibus, gla- 
berrimis, rarius exemplaribus valde coriaceis evanidis. Sori parvi v. minimi, plermnque 4-7 quavis pinnula, costse 
propius quam margini ; receptaculum elevatum ; indusimn minimum, stipitatiun, peltatim affixum, orbicidare. Costa 
rachisque rigidse, valida?, superne tomento molli rufo subvillosa;, subtus hie illic tubercidatse, hirtse, squamis pale- 
isque undique et tota obsitae ; palea plurimae, majusculae, seariosse, subsquarrosae, cm-vatse, ovato-oblongae, in acumen 
elongatum attenuatae, rufo-brunnese, nitidaj, margine pallide fulvo. 

The above description has been drawn up after the examination of many states of a plant, which will very likely 
give as much trouble to a botanist in the antipodes as the states of its representatives, A. aculeatum and angular e, have 
caused to those of Europe. It was first discovered by Sir Joseph Banks and Dr. Solander in New Zealand, to small 
specimens gathered by whom the MS. name oiAsp. coriaeeum, /3. is attached in the Banksian Herbarium. I consider 
myself fortunate in having met with it in Lord Auckland's group, where it varies considerably, inhabiting various 
situations from the level of the sea to an altitude of 1200 to 1400 feet ; in the former locality appearing as a most 
elegant subarborescent species, for the stipites do really become consolidated into a ligneous caudex, and in the 

Campbell's Islands.] FLOEA ANTARCTICA. 107 

upper regions forming small tufts of the ordinary mode of growth in ferns. Besides these variations in size and 
luxuriance, depending wholly upon climate, I find that the pinna? and pinnules are more or less remote, with longer 
or shorter apices, and the segments of the latter are either decidedly rounded and blunt, or all acuminated and 
pungent ; in general, however, the lower segments are obtuse and the upper acute. As a species it is abundantly 
distinct from A. proliferum, Br., in the presence of the large palese. In New Zealand it is probably even a more 
sportive plant than iu the islands now under consideration, for I am inclined to refer to it Mr. Colenso's A. TFaikar- 
eme, A. sylvaticiim, and A. pulcherrimum. 

The islands of New Zealand have long been known to produce a very large proportion of Ferns compared to their 
phaenogamic plants ; a circumstance which must strike the most casual observer. Being an attractive branch of Botany, 
it might be supposed that the excess of this Natural Order was rather apparent than real, and only due to its species 
being more generally collected and transmitted to England : but this is not wholly the case, the exertions of 
recent collectors having increased this proportion, to what is probably the maximum; for being more widely 
distributed than the higher orders, the hitherto partially explored middle island may be expected to produce new 
forms of flowering plants, accompanied with a large number of Ferns it is true, but those of species already 
detected elsewhere. The species of widely spread natural orders, being very frequently themselves distributed 
over large areas, it follows that the relative amount which such bear to the remainder of the vegetable kingdom, 
in a country so large as New Zealand, cannot be ascertained from an examination of the productions of one half 
of its area only. Mr. Brown has stated (Expedition to Congo, App. p. 462) the conditions which appear most 
requisite for the abundant production of Ferns, and these are to a great extent amply fulfilled in the position and 
climate of New Zealand ; for not only the number of species is great, but the mode of growth of many is indicative of 
a lower latitude than they inhabit, no less than six assuming the arborescent form, one of which attains the 47 th 
degree of south latitude : besides this, other species, whose stipites spring from the root at once, become caules- 
cent, having their fronds disposed on the apex of the caudex, as those of the true tree-ferns are, giving a totally 
different, as well as far more beautiful habit to the plant. Of this there are a few examples in New Zealand, as 
the Aspidium pennigeriim and several species of Lomaria, and a more striking one in the Asp. venustum, which 
presents this unexpected appearance in the high latitude (for these regions) of the 53rd degree, and is wholly due 
to the shade, moisture, and equable climate of the sea-level in Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island ; 
for on ascending the hills, or even leaving the woods, this fern assumes the ordinary appearance of other Aspidia. 

Although the most abundant production of Ferns is found under the physical features of shade, moisture, and 
a certain amount of heat, these are not on the one hand always present where the Ferns do preponderate to a great 
degree, nor on the other do the latter always appear where these conditions are the most evident. 

The small island of St. Helena has its Flora composed of nearly equal portions of Pluenogamic plants, 
Ferns, and other Cryptogamiae, the Ferns forming about a third part of the whole, and nearly equalling the flowering 
plants ; this is only to be expected from St. Helena fulfilling the above conditions in a most eminent degree. The 
little island of Ascension, on the other hand, about 500 miles distant, is proverbially called a cinder, with hardly 
water sufficient to supply a garrison composed of a mere handful of men, and absolutely but one small drip, rather 
than spring, in the whole island, supplied by the percolation of condensed sea-vapours on the narrow top of a 
hill, 2818 feet high; no shade exists any where, and the soil is porous volcanic scoria?, that scorches the feet after 
being heated by a tropical sun ; under all these circumstances it produces likewise as many Ferns as native flower- 
ing plants. It is true that they are confined to the top of Green Mountain, whose slopes in many places are 
completely covered by them, but they enjoy no shade, the only native woody plant not attaining two feet in 
height ; and what is more remarkable, out of nine species of Ferns existing under these circumstances, only two 
are common to Ascension Island and St. Helena ; several are peculiar to their isolated position, and one is a 
species of Mara/da, a genus I believe to be in general particularly impatient of exposure. I kuow no parallel 
instance to this amongst the Atlantic islands ; a far larger proportion of the ferns, both of St. Helena and of 
Tristan d'Acunha, is common to both these spots, and to other parts of the globe, than are those of Ascension ; 

108 FLORA ANTAECTICA. [Auckland and 

and in the little island of Trinidad, in lat. 20° S., where we effected a landing with considerable difficult}', in a rocky 
cove which was cut off by precipices from all other parts of the island, I found the Ferns at the level of the sea in 
the proportion of 2-3 to the phsenogamic plants, and the species were the most common Brazilian ones. This 
remarkable disparity between the vegetable productions of two islands so contiguous as St. Helena and Ascension, 
and both so remote fi-om any other land whatever, has some analogy to what obtains in the islands of another 
isolated group, also situated within the Tropics, though in another ocean — the Galapagos. From the examination 
of an excellent herbarium formed by Mr. Darwin in three of these islands, and of some of the plants from a fourth 
island, as well as of those collected by Mr. Douglas, Dr. Scouler, Mr. Macrae, and Mr. Cuming, in the localities 
also visited by Mr. Darwin, it would appear not only that the plants of that little archipelago differ widely from 
those of the main land of S. America, but that its several islets possess in some cases different genera, and more often 
representative species. The Ferns there bear but a small proportion to the whole Flora, though a more considerable 
one to that of the two islands in which they are most abundant, and they are rather the common forms of the West 
Indies than of the neighbouring coasts of Columbia, Peru, or of Mexico. 

The Aspidium venustum, as it grows in the low woods of Lord Auckland's group, is, for its size, among the most 
ornamental of Ferns, the larger tree-ferns alone excepted. In one respect it even excels those of more majestic 
growth, for its feathery fronds are spread out below the level of the eye, so that the beautiful symmetry of the crown, 
with its rich velvetty crosier-formed young leaves in the centre, is thus fully displayed. 


1. Asplenium obtusatum, Forst. Prodr. n. 430. Lab. Fl. Nov. Holl. v. 2. p. 93. t. 242. f. 2. Brown, 
Prodr. p. 150. Sehhuhr, Ml. v. 1. p. 6. t. 68. Hombr. et Jacq. in Toy. aw Pole Sud, Bot. Monocot. Crypt. 
1. 1. A. (sine descripf.). 

Tar. IS. obliquum; — A. obliquum, Forst. Prodr. v. 429. Labillard. I.e. t. 242. f. 1. Sclikulir, 1. c. 
t. 71. A. cliondropliyUiun, Bertero in Herb. Hook. A. apicidentatum*, Hombr. et Jacq. 1. c. t. 1. A. 
(sine descripf.). 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island ; very common on the rocks near the sea and at 
the margins of the woods. 

All the various stages between the A. obliquum, Forst., and A. obtusatum, Forst., exist in Lord Auckland's 
group, and probably in other islands of which this plant is an inhabitant ; one of the specimens indeed, is inter- 
mediate between the excellent delineations of the two given by Schkuhr. MM. Hombron and Jacquinot have 
also figured both the states (from Lord Auckland's group), retaining them under the name of "obtusatum," and 
added to the plate a representation of another, under the name of A. apicidentatum, which is equally abundant with 
the others, and I have been unable to distinguish it even as a variety ; the production of the apex of the pinna 
into a tooth, not affording a constant character. I have not quoted the Flora of Mr. Cunningham, or of M. A. 
Richard, the former not having gathered this species at the time of the publication of his Prodromus, and the 
latter author, considering it identical with A. htcidum, Forst., leaves it doubtful whether he knew both species. 
Besides the greater size, different texture, and shining surface of the A. htcidum, its involucres are always very 
much narrower and longer in proportion to the breadth of the frond. Both are common to many parts of the 
southern hemisphere, and are particularly frequent in the Pacific Islands. 

I have retained the name of obtusatum for this species, that variety being the more frequent of the two de- 
scribed by Forster. 

* A. apicidentatum, Homb. and Jacq.; this name probably applies to the pinnaj being terminated by a tooth ; but 
all the pinna? being serrated throughout their whole margin, I presume the term is not used in its ordinary acceptation. 

Campbell's Islands] FLORA ANTARCTICA, 109 

2. Asplenium scleroprium, Hombr. et Jacq. in Toy. an Pole Sud, Pot. Monocot. Crypt. t. 1. D. sine 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group. (J/J/. Hombron et Jacqiiiiwf.) 

On this plant I can give no information, the plate of MM. Hombron and Jacquinot being unaccompanied by 
any description. Some of my specimens of A. obtusatum approach the figure quoted above, and entirely agree with 
it in the fonn of the son : they differ in the pinna; being less strongly crenato-serrate. The name probably alludes 
to the texture of the plant, which like that of many of the southern species is remarkably thick and coriaceous. 

3. Asplenium flaccidin//, Yorst.; Prod): n. 426. Presl, Pferid.'p.lQQ. Caenopteris «! Darea auctoriuu. 

Var. fi. AucUandicum, Hook, fil.; erectum, frondibus lineari- v. oblongo-lanceolatis crassis pinnatis, 
pinnis lineari-laiiceolatis inciso-serratis, involucris a costa remotis interdiun supra seginenta productis. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; frequent on the margins of woods near the sea. 

Yarietas erecta, bi-tripedalis, crassa et coriacea, laete-virens, sublucida, inter Asplenium verum Ceenopteridemque 
quasi media. Frondes 1-1-j- ped. longae, \- J lata;, apice in laminam attenuatam basi profunde laciniatam products', 
pinnatae. Pinna reinotse, sublonge petiolatfe, lineari-elongata: v. lanceolatae, crassa;, 3-5 unc. longae, \ unc. lata;, basi 
suboblique attenuatae, superne in apicem linearem obtusam sinuatam subcaudatam producta?, per totam longitudinem 
regulariter profunde iuciso-serratae ; laciniis linearibus, obtusis, sub \ unc. longis, infimis rarissime bifidis, costa 
crassa, latiuscula ; venis simplicibus, obsciuis, ad apices laciniarum percurrentibus. Sori latiusculi, a costa remoti, 
parte superiore saepe ultra pinnam supra lacinias producto, iisque marginale. Rachis latiuscula, subalata, supra 
medio costata, subtus canaliculata, plerumque glaberrima. Stipes validus, crassitie pennae anserinae, basi civrvatus 
et ascendens, angulatus, hinc illinc paleis rarissimis membranaceis sparsis. 

Tliis is a very handsome Fem, and, as it appears in Lord Auckland's group, very different frorn A. obtusatum, 
but is so closely allied to the A.flaccidum, a very common plant in the New Zealand Islands, that I have retained 
it as a variety of that plant. The pinnae are attenuate and narrow, produced at the apex into a long caudate 
obtuse lacinia, they are remarkably uuiform throughout the frond, but in my largest specimen the base of one 'of 
the lowest pinnae is trapezoid, much broader than the rest, more deeply divided, with the veins sometimes forked. 
This, together with the remoteness of the short sori from the costa, and their frequent extension along the inner 
edge of the lacinia;, is what obtains in the more entire varieties of the A.flaccidum. The tendency to produce the 
sori at a distance from the costa appears to remove this species from A. obtusatum, Forst. and its allies, to which 
its regularly pinnated frond bears much resemblance, connecting it on the other hand with A. bulbiferum, Torst., 
and its inconstant ally A. laxum, Br., some of whose states again are very near to varieties of this. With refer- 
ence to the very variable nature of some genera of Ferns, and especially of those in the islands of the Southern 
Hemisphere, I may here transcribe a remark made by a very acute observer of plants, Mr. James Backhouse, dming 
his visit to Norfolk Island:* "On the rocks of the S. coast Asplenium difforme grows, a Fern resembling the A. 
marinum of England. At a short distance from the shore its leaves become more divided, and in the woods, in the 
interior of the island, they are separated into such narrow segments, that the lines of fructification are thrown upon 
their margins. It then becomes Canopteris Odontites. But every possible gradation is to be met with between 
this state, and that in which it grows on rocks washed by the sea." Having no Norfolk Island specimens of these 
plants, I am unable to offer any further comment except that some specimens of A. difforme in Mr. J. Smith's Herba- 
rium seem to confirm this view, and that Mr. Backhouse's well known accuracy entitles any observation of his to 
much consideration. The A. marinum itself has a wide geographical range, varying considerably in its several 
localities, and more in some places than in others ; some of these I have alluded to in describing the plants of the 
Galapago Islands. (MS. ined.) 

* Narrative of a Visit to the Austraban Colonies, by James Backhouse. 


110 FLORA ANTARCTICA. [Auckland and 

4. PTERIS, L. 

1. Pteris vespertilionis, Lab.; Fl. Nov. Roll. vol. ii. p. 96. t. 245. Brown, Prodi: p. 154. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island ; very common on rocks near the sea. 

These specimens, which are small, accord with others gathered in Tasmania. The veins are generally free, but 
in the broader pinnules the upper primary one often unites with that of the segment below it. The P. Brunoniana 
of New Zealand (A. Cunn. Prodr. Fl. Nov. Zel. in Comp. Bot. Mag. vol. ii. p. 365.), has the veins much more anas- 
tomosing, in which respect it differs from the plant of New Holland. This is also the case in specimens of a very 
similar plant from Brazil, the Mauritius, Juan Fernandez, and the Philippine Islands. The more simple veined 
species is apparently an inhabitant of New Holland, Tristan d'Acunha, and the Cape of Good Hope. 

The Lord Auckland's group specimens, growing in the immediate neighbourhood of the sea, have a very suc- 
culent habit. 

5. LOMAEIA, WUld. 

1. Lomakia procera, Spreng. Syst. Teg. vol. iv. p. 65. A. Cunn. Prodr. Flor. Nov. Zel. in Comp. Bot. 
Mag. vol. ii. p. 363. L. procera var. teginentosa, Hombr. et Jacq. in Voy. au Pole Slid, Bot. Monocot. Crypt. 
t. 2. E. sine descript. Stegania procera, Brown, Prodr. p. 153. A. Rich. Flor. Nov. Zel. p. 86. 1. 13, 
fertile frond only. Bleehnum, Siv., Lab. Flor. Nov. Holl. vol. ii. p. 97. t. 247. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island ; abundant, especially by the banks of streams 
and in watery places, ascending to the tops of the lulls where it is very stunted. 

This is the ordinary New Holland and Tasmanian form. M. A. Richard, in the Flor. Nov. Zel., gives an ex- 
cellent figure of the sterile frond along with the ban-en state of another, probably the following, species. 

2. Lomaria lanceolata, Spreng. et A. Cunn. locis citatis. Stegania, Brown et A. Rick. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island; in woods close to the sea abundant. 

' J 


1. Polypodioi viscidum, Spreng. Sp. PI. vol. iv. p. 61. Cheilanthes viscosa, Carm. in Linn. Soc. Trans. 
vol. xii. p. 511. non Link. C. fragilis, Carm. in Herb. Hook. " Polypodhun villoso-viscidiun, Auhert dii Pet. 
Thonars, Flore de Trist. d'Acunha, in Mel. de Bot. p. 44." Carm. 1. c. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island ; moist places on the hills, especially under the 
shelter of bushes. 

My specimens entirely accord with Capt. Carmichael's in Herb. Hook. Very similar plants inhabit other islands 
of the Southern Hemisphere, which have been placed in Polypodium or Cheilanthes, according to the views enter- 
tained by the authors of the several species as to the nature of the recurved apices of the lobules, which, especially in a 
young state, cover the sori. The species most nearly allied to this are the Pohjpodiuni viscosum of Pritchard's ' Catalogue 
of St. Helena plants,' the J', viscidum of Colenso MSS., a native of New Zealand alluded to in a catalogue of those col- 
lected by Mr. Stephenson (vid. Hook. Lond. Bot. Journ. vol. iii. p. 413.), and a Juan Fernandez species in Herb. 
Hook., bearing the name of P. spectal/ile, Kaulf. ?, in Mi-. Bertero's hand-writing ; all these have the sori invariably 
placed close to the margm of the segments, in whose concave apices they are somewhat sunk. The P. rugosulum 
(Lab.Fl. Nov. Holl. vol. ii. p. 92. t. 241.), another closely albed plant, is retained in this genus by Mr. Brown (Prodr. 

Campbell's Islands.] FLORA ANTAECTICA. Ill 

p. 147.), and to it the Cheilaiitlies ambigua, A. Rich. (Flor. Nov. Zel. p. 84.), seems very nearly related. M. Richard 
accurately describes his plant, of which I have gathered specimens near the Bay of Islands, and shoidd be inclined 
to place them near to the P. ru/josulu/i/, Lab.; though in habit and most of the characters it approaches a true 
species of Cheilanthes or Eypolepis, from the interior of New Zealand, which is hitherto undescribed. Mr. Colenso's 
P. viscidum, a mountain plant, is, I believe, identical with this from Lord Auckland's group. 

2. Polypodium Grammitidis; Brown, Prodr. p. 107 et auctorum. Grammitis heterophylla, Lai. Flor. 
Nov. Holl. v. 2. p. 90. t, 239. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; on the trunks of trees, rare. 

This plant appears intermediate between the genera Polypodium and Grammitis ; I have followed Mr. Brown 
in retaining it in the former of these. The Auckland Island specimens do not differ from those of New Zealand 
and Tasmania. 

7. PHYMATODES, Presl, 

1. Phymatodes Billardieri, Presl, Pterid. rj. 196. Polypodium Billardieri, Brown, Prodr. p. 147, et 
auctorum. P. scandens, Lab. Nov. Holl. vol. ii. p. 91. t. 240. P. phymatodes, A. Bid/. Fl. Nov. Zel. p. 66. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island ; common on trunks of trees and rocks in the 
woods near the sea. 

The Auckland group specimens are equally variable with those of New Zealand and Tasmania. 


1. Grammitis australis, Brown, Prodr. p. 146. A. Cunn. Flor. Nor. Zel. I.e. p. 362. Hombr. et 
■fact], in Voy. an Pole Sud, Bot. Monocot. Crypt, t. 2. G. G. Billardieri, Wittd. Sp. PI. vol. v. p. 139. Presl, 
Pterid. p. 209. G. rigida et G. humilis, Hombr. and Jacq. 1. c., t. 2. fig. P. and H. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island ; very common in all situations, from the level of 
the sea to the tops of the mountains. 

A copious suite of specimens, collected at different levels, from the sea to an altitude of 1400ft., prove all the 
three species figured by MM. Hombron and Jacquinot to belong to states of one plant. The same varieties are 
found on ascending Mount Wellington in Tasmania, where also they pass insensibly into one another. I have 
retained Mr. Brown's name for this species, the name G. Billardieri having been already applied to another of the 
genus, and I am not aware whether the ' Prodromus Flora? Novae Hollandiae ' or "VYilldenow's ' Species Plantariun ' 
appeared first in the year 1810. 

9. SCHIZ.EA, But. 

1. ScmzjiA australis, Gaud. Flor. Ins. 31,//. in Ami. Sc. Nat. Maie. 1825, p. 98 et in Freyc. Toy. Bot. 
p. 296. S. palmata, Hombr. et Jacq. in Voy. nu Pole Sud, Bot. Monocot. Crypt, t. 4. Z. sine descript. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; upland places, very common on the hard soil, which is often bare of 
any vegetation but Lichens. 

These specimens entirely accord with the description of M. Gaudichaud's S. australis, quoted above : the 
figure of Mil. Hombron and Jacqidnot not affording any character to distinguish their .S'. palmata specifically from 
this, and no letter-press having accompanied their plates, I feel obliged to set aside the name they have adopted. 



112 FLORA ANTAECTICA. [Auckland and 


1. Lycopodium scariosum, Forst. Prodr. n. 484. Spr. Syst. Veg. vol. iv. p. 18. Hook, and Grev. in Bot. 
Misc. vol. ii. p. 388. L. Jussieui, Desv. Eucycl. Bot. Suppl. vol. iii. p. 534. Willd. el auctorum. L. reptans, 
Banks and Sol. MSS. in Blbl. Banks. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; in woods, I). Lyall, Esq. 

Sir J. Banks and Dr. Solander it would appear were amongst the original discoverers of this species, though 
it is of so general occurrence throughout many parts of the tropics, as very probably to exist in some of the older 
Herbaria. Forster's name seems to have been entirely overlooked by botanists; it is attached to a specimen, pre- 
served in the British Museum, of the plant now well known under the name of L. Jussieui Desv., a very widely diffused 
species, especially throughout the S. American continent. Mr. Colenso has collected it in the mountainous interior of 
the northern island of New Zealand, and Sir J. Banks and Dr. Solander in Admiralty Sound. There exist, in Herb. 
Hook., South American specimens from as far south as Valdivia, and also froin Peru, New Grenada, and Jamaica, 
where it appears to be abundant, varying slightly in habit, being sometimes suberect or ascending, but more generally 
having a long trailing caudex, which sends up erect branching stems. 

The L. scariosum belongs to a small section of the genus, whose natural position is between the two great 
groups, namely, that with the leaves imbricated all round the stem, and that in which they are stipulate, distichous, 
and more or less of a membranous texture. The spikes of this section are generally pedunculate and often branched, 
as in this species and L. complanatum, L. ; but sometimes sessile, which is the case with L. decurrens, Br. ; in the 
former character, as in the coriaceous fobage, often indistinct stipules and arctic, alpine or temperate habitats, this 
section differs from the tropical distichous-leaved division to which the form of foliage approximates it. Like most 
natural groups, the limits of this cannot be very strictly defined ; Mr. Brown's L. decurrens has the sessile spikes of 
the tropical species of Selaginella and some states of L. complanatum ; approaching forms of L. Alpiwum, D., pass into 
the imbricated ones. The allies of L. scariosum are few ; I am acquainted with the following ; 1. L. decurrens, Br., 
only known as an inhabitant of the Alps of Van Diemen's Land ; 2. L. complanatum, L., this is a very widely diffused 
plant throughout the temperate and arctic regions of Europe, Asia, and America; we possess specimens of a very similar, 
if not the same species, from upper India and the Peninsula of Hiudostan, as also from Jamaica, from Mexico, Columbia. 
Peru, Caraccas and Brazil, it is the L. thuyoides, H. B. K. ; 3. L. volubile, Forst., a very common New Zealand species 
this and the two following have compound panicles of spikes, with elongated and spreading branches ; 4. L.flicaule,* 
(vid. infra) ; 5. L.\ comans, (vid. infra) ; 6. L. V'iyhtianum, Wall., some states of this have the leaves towards the 

* L.jilicaule, Hook. fil. ; vage ramosmn, caule gracillimo nudo tcreti valde ramoso, raniis divaricatis paten- 
tibus filifonuibus compressis foliosis utrinque stipulatis, foliis altemis oppositisve linearibus longe decurrentibus parte 
superiore solum libero curvato subulate apice pilifero, stipulis parvis raris piliferis, pdis diaphanis, spicis plurimis 
pedicellatis paniculatis inclinatis v. pendulis, squamis late ovatis aciuninatis. 

Hab. Upper India. Moflong fir forest Khaisya Hills, Mr. Griffiths. A very fine species ; the branches are of 
a dusky red color when dry ; the ultimate ones, with the leaves, 1 bne across. The panicles of spikes are lateral, 
3-4 inches long and spreading ; the spikes themselves, \-\ inch long, generally curving. 

f L. eomam, Hook. fil. ; pendulum, caule dichotome ramoso tereti hinc dlinc cicatricato nudo v. foliis diaphanis 
sparsis, raniis longissimis pendulis gracilibus flaccidis pluries divisis valde compressis utrinque stipulatis foliosis, foliis 
distichis suboppositis alteniisve longe linearibus per totam fere longitudinem decurrentibus coadunatis apicibus solum 
liberis aeutis, stipulis scariosis raris, spicarum paniculis lateralibus valde ramosis, ramis pedicellisque teretibus foliis 
sparsis lanceolatis scariosis obsitis, spicis longe pedicellatis arcuatis, squamis ovatis in laminam erosam seariosam 
diaphanam productis. 

Campbell's Islands.] FLORA ANTARCTICA. 113 

apices of the branches quadrifarious, in others they are so almost throughout the branches, it is probably not dif- 
ferent from, — 6. L.alpinum, in which they are sometimes distichous, when the more sessile spikes alone distinguish 
it from L. complanatum. The quadrifarious disposition arises from the stipules becoming leaves. Of other species, 
referred to this section in the Botanical Miscellany (1. a), there are no specimens in Herb. Hook. L. alpinum I have 
mentioned as perhaps a doubtful species of this section, its leaves being sometimes imbricated even in more than four 
series ; in some Norway specimens the spike-bearing branches are elongated and become rather bare of leaves, which 
are also more appressed, thus exhibiting a manifest approach towards some species with pedicellate fructification. It 
may further be remarked that L, complanaturn is not a British, and L. alpinum hardly an American plant. 

The leaves of L. de/idroideum, Mich., a species apparently confined to North America, are sometimes partially 
distichous ; they are not, however, coadunate with the branches, as in this group. 

2. Lycopoditjm clavatum, L., rar — L. magellanicum, Swart: Syn. Fil. p. 180. Wdld. Sp. PL vol. v. 
p. 15. Gaud. Fl. Ins. Mai. in Ann. Sc. Nat. vol. v. p. 98, and in Freycinet, Toy. Bot. pp. 130 and 282. 
I/Urv. Fl. Ins. Mai. in Mem. Soc. Linn. Paris, vol. iv. p. 597. 

Has. Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island ; on the hills, not uncommon, but only found at 
a considerable elevation. 

These specimens differ in no respect from others which I have gathered in the Falkland Islands and on Mount 
Wellington, Tasmania, and have considered to be the L. fastigiatwm, Brown, (Prodr., p. 165). The Falkland 
Island plant, which is also common in Antarctic America, varies from one to many inches in height. The caudcx 
is ascending or creeping, often one to two feet long, naked or clothed with leaves ; the branches are erect and divide 
in a panicled form, and are copiously leafy ; the leaves are subacute or acuminated, always more or less curved, 
but are at some times much more numerous than at others. In starved alpine specimens the spikes are solitary 
and often sessile : as the plant inhabits lower levels and more favourable situations its peduncles elongate, fork or 
branch, and bear two or more spikes : the spikes themselves vary from \ to 2 inches long, with the scales ovato- 
lanceolate, acuminate, rather variable in length, and more or less recurved. 

The species of Lycopodium are liable to great variation, as a copious suite of any one will readily show ; many 
of them have been examined and characterized with reference to the country they inhabit and their congeners 
in that country, and have not been compared with the whole genus. As our collections increase, specimens are 
constantly presenting themselves, which tend to unite the species of two distant localities ; partly because they par- 
take of the characters of both, and also because, coming as many do, from intermediate stations, they strengthen 
the supposition that such are mere forms of one widely diffused plant. It is seldom that a collector has the time, 
and few have the inclination, to preserve such a series of specimens from one locality, as will give any idea of the 
amount of variation a species may be liable to, in a limited area : on the other hand, the extreme varieties are col- 
lected as two different species, and a future author is often obliged to describe as a third an unrecorded state of what 
actually exists in both situations. TheX. magella/nicum, Sw., presents a case in point. In the Falkland Islands, states 
of it are not unfrequently met within all respects resembbng the L. clavatum, excepting that the leaves are not 

Hab. Philippine Islands ; Cuming, no. 2346. 

A very fine species. Branches 1-2 feet long, about a Hue broad, lurid red. Leaves 2 lines long, wholly con- 
solidated with the branch, except their apices, which are sometimes free and acute, or more rarely with a diaphanous 
point. The stipules are often irregularly placed, generally with long diaphanous acuminated apices, appressed to 
the branch. The pedicels of the spikes and branches of the panicle have leaves similar to the stipules. Panicles 
3-4 inches long, then pedicels about an inch ; the spikes curved, about f inch, their scales with long suberect or 
patent diaphanous apices. 


114 FLORA ANTARCTICA. {Auckland and 

piliferous at the apex ; so close indeed is the resemblance in habit that M. D'Urville has remarked, " Je possede 
un echantillon de Gandichaud, double de taille, et voisin de notre L. clavatum" Such being the case, should L. 
clavatum be seen to vary in this respect, and especially if it is found to inhabit all intermediate latitudes between 
its northern habitats and Fuegia, we shall be obliged to conclude either that the plants are the same, or that L. ma- 
gellanicum may be so sportive as to assume a form undistinguishable from the European plant. The former of these 
conclusions is generally admitted in such cases. The limits within which a species varies are acknowledged to be 
wider in one locality than in another, and two closely allied individuals may be modified almost infinitely without 
running into one another, as it is called ; but, since the knowledge of specific difference is limited to the powers of 
observation, which are only attainable by the microscope, we are forced to acknowledge it possible that two totally 
different plants, inhabiting widely separated countries, may present to our senses a precisely similar appearance and 
remain undistinguishable ; a conclusion which, if acted upon without caution, would lead to the subversion of all our 
confidence in what are universally confessed to be well established species. 

The acute-leaved Lycopodia, which are not piliferous at the apex and otherwise closely allied to the L. magd- 
lanicum, are L.fasligiatum, Br., and L. Pic/iincJiense, Hook. (Ic. PL t. 85), the latter certainly is, and probably the 
former also, a state of or identical with this ; both of them, though inhabiting a lower latitude, are only found at a 
great height. From Owyhee we have L, Jieterophyllum, Hook. (Ic. Fil. t. 113), in which the leaves are some of 
them simply acute as in the more southern form, but others piliferous and ciliated or erose at the margin, the former 
a very constant character in the L. clavatum, and the latter sufficiently obvious in some states only of that plant ; 
in other respects this is not to be distinguished from the above or from a very common Chilian species, whose leaves 
have long acuminated points, and which seems identical with the L. dendromorp/ium, Kunze ; of this, however, I 
have only seen barren specimens, evidently passing into the L. arhtatum of the tropics, a very widely diffused and 
generally acknowledged variety of L. clavatum. Many states of X. clavatum are enumerated by Mr. Spring, in his 
account of the Brazilian Lycopodia, (vid. Regensburg Flora, 1838). 

The last named author seems to have described from copious suites of specimens, and to have arrived, in most 
points, at the same conclusions with myself; thus, he has found it necessary to combine the L. alopecuroides, L. and 
L.longipes, Hook, and Grev., with L. inundation, L., to which must be added L. Mathewdi, Hook. (Ic. PI. t. 26), 
and perhaps L. contextual, Mart. (Fl. Bras. Crypt, vol. i. p. 38, t. 23, f. 1.), these species I had considered as merely 
forms of one, before Mr. Spring's paper was pointed out to me. The L. caroliuianiim, L., accompanies the last men- 
tioned species throughout the temperate and warm parts of the American continent, and has also a very wide range 
through other countries, having been found in Tropical and South Africa, the East Indies, Madagascar, Tasmania, and 
New Zealand ; these two constitute part of a natural section allied to the Clavatum group in the spiked, more or less 
pedunculate fructifications, and ascending direction of the leaves on the prostrate stems, and to the Complanatum 
division in the tendency of the leaves of L. carolinianum to become distichous and decurrent, the other species of it 
are L. selaginoides, L. and L. pygmaum, Kaulf. A third group of species, which, like the former, have cylindrical 
spikes, contains — 1. the L. annotinum, L., a species spread over all temperate and Northern Europe, Asia, and 
especially America, where it is found as far south as the Alleghany and White Mountains. There are what ap- 
pear barren specimens of this in Hook. Herb, from Dr. Wallich, under the MS. name of L. Heyneanum. In South 
America L. annotinum is represented by a more slender but very nearly allied plant, whose spikes are sometimes 
bifid and spuriously pedunculate; it is Hartweg's 1474 and 1479 from Colombia, where it has also been gathered 
by Professor Jameson. — 2. L. diaplianum, Sw., this is a Tristan d'Acunha species, very distinct in the form of the 
scales of the spikes and long piliferous apices of the leaves. — 3. L. sericeum, Mst., this is the L. scariosum, Hook. 
(Ic. PL t. 87, note), from Peru, one of the most beautiful species of the genus. I know of no others very closely allied 
to these, they rank near the Clavatum group, from which indeed they only differ in the truly sessile spikes, and also 
approach that containing L. complanatum, through L. alpinum, whose spikes are sessile. 

The L. ceruuum, L., may be considered as the type of another natural section, it is perhaps the most abundant 

Campbell's Islands.'] FLOEA ANTARCTIC A. 115 

species of the genus, throughout the tropics especially, probably covering more space than any two others. There 
are specimens from no less than fifty different stations and seventy collectors, preserved in the Hookerian Herbarium ; 
its northern limit seems to be lat. 39°, where it is found in the Azores Islands, and its southern the Cape Colony ; 
this, like several other very widely diffused species, does not inhabit the Australian continent, so far as I am aware. 
The following species should rank with it, — 2. L. pendulinum, Hook. (Ie. PI. t. 90). — 3. L.tortum, Sieber. — 4. L. 
densim, Lab. — 5.? L. dendroideum, Mich., this species is of rather dubious affinity and should perhaps be more pro- 
perly placed in the Complauatum group, the branches being spread out in a flabellate manner, the whole frond very 
compressed or plane, and the leaves having a tendency to become bifarious ; the latter are described as "being 4-6 
fariously disposed, with those of the under surface smaller than the rest," (vid. Bot. Misc., vol. ii. p. 386), this is 
always the case, but at the same time those both on the upper and lower surface of the branches are appressed 
whilst the lateral spread, and the lower are often so small as to partake of the nature of stipules. All the species 
of the Cernuum group are robust in habit, erect, generally tall, copiously branched with their branches spreading on 
all sides ; the spikes are sessile and very numerous, their mode of growth suffices to distinguish them from those of 
the Annotinum section. 

The four groups above enumerated contain most of the imbricate-leaved species with uniform capsules 
arranged in terete spikes ; they are I believe strictly natural, though all are not founded upon characters of equal 
value. One species, more nearly allied to some of the above than to any of the other great divisions of the genus, 
stands very much by itself, the L. iaterale, Br. (Mr. Brown's L. diffusion being possibly a variety of it), in which 
the spikes are placed upon such very short branches as to appear truly lateral ; in this respect, as in their obscurely 
angular form, it approaches some of the distichous-leaved group, but the habit is totally dissimilar and the foliage 
like that of L. inundatum, var. Alopecuroides. 

3. Lycopodium varlum, Brown, Prodr. p. 165 et auctorum. L. pachystachyon, Desv. Encycl. Meth. 
Sujijil. vol. iii. p. 5-44. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island ; very common in the woods. 

Under the former species I enumerated the different groups into which those of tins genus with leaves imbri- 
cated round the stem and terete spikes arranged themselves ; they forai, together, one of the large primary divisions 
of Lycopodium ; they are inhabitants of the cold as well as of the tropical parts of the globe, generally assuming, as 
they approach the. equator, a larger growth and more robust habit, both the individual species peculiar to the low 
latitudes, and the varieties of those which equally inhabit the polar regions, being more fully developed within or 
near the tropics. There they are not replaced by the distichous-leaved group, but under most conditions are equally 
abundant with them. Throughout all changes of temperature and varieties of exposure, the scales of the spike never 
exhibit any tendency to become foliaceous, nor do they possess capsules in the axils of the leaves. 

There are, however, other Lycopodia whose fructifications are as manifestly spicate as the last, and which 
accompany them through all climates, but whose spikes are angular and the scales not materially different from 
the cauline leaves ; these, in passing from a temperate to a warmer parallel, gradually lose their spicate character, 
the capsides appear equally in the axils of the upper leaves and in the spikes, the latter become gradually re- 
duced and at length obliterated, when the fructifications are wholly axillary : under excessive heat and moisture, 
the same effect is produced by the prolongation of the axis beyond the apex of the spike, into a leafy branch, 
similar to the lower parts of the stem, and at the same time the conversion of the scales into ordinary leaves. 
A third modification is presented in those whose spikes divide or branch. Here there is a blending of the two 
divisions Selago and Phlegmaria, through L. varitim and its allies, which together, I consider to form one natural 
group ; and it is further to be remarked, with regard to them all, that these modifications of the inflorescence are 
not only the effects of latitude and cbmate, but that one species seems to assume all these appearances in a single 
locality, which in other parts of the globe is invariable through a considerable area ; and that the causes of the change 

116 FLORA ANTARCTICA. [Auckland and 

are at one time quite latent and at another conformable to our ideas of the effects of temperature and local circum- 
stances. It is not only in the inflorescence that this group is liable to vary, but one form passes into others by 
the modifications of many of its organs at once, and this to so great an extent as to render it extremely difficult to 
define any one species between the two extremely dissimilar forms of L, Selago and L. Phlegmasia. Want of space 
obliges me here to confine my attention to the phases under which L. varium occurs ; these are so remarkable and 
were so wholly unexpected, that if we agree to consider such plants to be the same species as only offer forms undis- 
tinguishable to our senses, it will follow that the most of these supposed species must merge into one, and that 
Lijeopodium Selago is perhaps the most variable plant in the world. 

L. varium, in Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island, is one of the finest of the genus ; it grows nearly 
erect on the bare ground, to a height of 1-2 feet, branching upwards, copiously leafy, with large spreading leaves, 
bearing at the apices of the branches numerous pendulous or drooping tetragonous spikes 2— 1 inches long. The 
stems of this species are often nearly the thickness of a swan's quill with spreading leaves as broad as the middle 
finger ; I have no where seen handsomer specimens of it than this island presents, and more constant ones, for it is 
confined to the woods, and does not ascend the hills, neither varying in the narrow belt it inhabits nor seeking other 
localities where it woidd be exposed to the influence of exciting causes. The case is very different in Tasmania, 
where it also grows very commonly in the subalpine woods, and from whence I have specimens of Lycopodia pre- 
senting all intermediate stages between this and L. Selago, the connecting links being similar to what have been 
considered different species in other parts of the globe. Form and habit alone have not induced me to unite such 
dissimilar plants, for I have in vain sought with the microscope for diagnostic characters. The smallest Tasinanian 
specimens have been published as L. Selago (Hook, and Grev. in Bot. Misc., vol. iii. p. 101), they are about five 
inches high, simple at the base, branching upwards, in all respects similar to the American and European plant ; 
they are likewise copiously supplied with gemma;, giving a squarrose appearance, these were first observed on the 
North-west American specimens of L. Selago, but are now known to be common on this species even in Scotland, 
where a variety occurs with small very acuminated leaves, those of the gemmEe being sometimes much altered, broadly 
obovate-oblong, acute, and keeled on the back. In the next stage of the Tasinanian plant, the stem ascends from a 
curving prostrate base, is about 5-G inches long, the lower leaves are linear, acute or acuminate, patent or subsquar- 
rose, subserrulate towards their arjices, obscurely nerved in the middle, the upper leaves are generally appressed for 
nearly the whole length of the stem, lanceolate or ovato-lanceolate, acuminate, acute or subacute, obscurely nerved, 
the margins cartilaginous with obsolete serratures : this form is quite identical with others of L. Selago from Cumber- 
land, as well as with many from North Em-ope, Asia, and America. The two first described states inhabit exposed 
places, the following (the third), which grows on rocky places on the margins of woods, has the stems a foot or 
more high, branching, much curved and ascending at the base, sparingly branched above ; the leaves, except towards 
their apices, are patent or subsquarrose, larger and more loosely placed than in the former, with the nerve more 
thickened, those at the summits of the branches are similar to the leaves of the second state but more distinctly 
serrated. L. Selago of Tasmania resembles L. -sul/erecfum, Lowe, of Madeira and other wanner parts of the northern 
hemisphere, in which the leaves are generally all squarrose, nearly entire or strongly ciliate at the margins ; this is 
such a fonn as a species, in passing from a colder to a more genial temperature, might be supposed to assume. 
In the fomth stage of the Tasinanian plant the leaves become larger, more patent or subreflexed, coriaceous and 
shining, still they are more or less acute, and the capsxdes are wholly axillary, sometimes confined to the middle of 
the branch, at others to the upper portion, which looks rather different from the lower and indicates the transition 
to L. varium. This state is nearly allied to some Indian forms of the genus, as also to L. hicidulum, Mich., which 
varies in the serratures of its leaves and in other particulars approaches very near, if it does not absolutely merge 
into American forms of L. Selago. Nor is it to be distinguished from Ceylon and Tristan d'Acuuha specimens 
of L. insulare, Carm., which further passes into L. crassum, Hook, and Grev., and through it into some other South 
American species. 

The remaining Tasinanian states of L. Selago may be considered as belonging to L. varium ; in the fifth of these 

Campbell's Islands.] FLORA ANTARCTICA. 117 

(from the small one with which I commenced), the stout stem becomes naked below, sparingly leafy upward, with 
long, linear, coriaceous, acute or obtuse leaves, the capsules are both axillary and spicate, but the spike is interrupted, 
the scales being at one time small, and at another foliaceous. This approaches the L. taxifolium, Sw., and L. lini- 
folium, L., natives of various parts of the world, also L. gnidioides, L., Cape specimens of which differ from the normal 
state of var'ium only in having axillary capsules, wliilst in other localities it becomes pendulous and spicate ; and so 
with regard to the L. Flagellaria, Bory, of New Zealand, wluch I cannot distinguish, except by its mode of growth, 
from L. varium. To dwell at length upon all the varieties of this species would be out of place here, and occupy 
many pages ; the transitions from it to PMegmaria are not obscure, the variations of that plant being excessive. 

The importance of the question, " whether two perfectly similar plants, from remote quarters of the globe, are 
to be considered as belonging to one species," has induced me to canvass very fully the claims of many supposed 
forms of Lycopodium to the title of distinct species. In all such cases, my first object has been to determine 
whether the plant inhabits various intermediate countries. When, as is the case with Callitriche verna (p. 11.), 
Montia fontanel (p. 13.), Gentiana prostrata (p. 56, in note), Myosotk fulva (p. 57, note), and Trisetwm xubspicatum 
(p. 97.), they are found to do so, there need be little hesitation in referring them, after due examination, to one plant ; 
in such instances, the supposition of a double creation of the same species, or of one of them being a variety of some 
other really distinct plant, which plant wholly resembles another from other countries, would be confessedly a gratui- 
tous assumption. Where however no intermediate stations can be detected, these suppositious become more plau- 
sible ; the only alternatives to such conclusions being, 1st, the possibility of the species being destroyed in the inter- 
vening positions which it may formerly have inhabited ; 2nd, the great improbability that the seed has been carried 
at once from one polar region to the other ; or, lastly, what I have endeavoured to establish with regard to Lycopo- 
dium varium and Selago, that the species does exist in all intermediate latitudes, but in a hitherto unrecognised form ; 
a circumstance the less to be wondered at on many accounts, and the following in particular. Our daily increasing 
knowledge of Ferns proves that the species are infinitely more widely distributed than has been supposed. The several 
species being variable in limited areas, it is to be expected that the amount of variation should increase proportionally 
with the space they cover; because the individual species of many widely distributed genera, as Lycopodium, have 
often themselves wide ranges ; because the lower we descend in the scale, according to which all known vegetable 
productions are now arranged, the more universally we find the species scattered over the surface of the globe ; and 
lastly, the minute size and abundance of the sporules of Lycopodium are favourable to their extended dispersion. 


(By W. Wilson*, Esq. and J. D. Hookek.) 

1. AXDBE-EA, Ehrh. 

Theca quadrifida, rarius octofida ; valvulis apice operculo persistente comiexis. Calyptra mitraeformis. Vaginula 
apophysiformis, setam brevissimam occultaus, denmni stipitata. 

The peduncle, which elevates the mature capsule in this genus, is nothing more than an elongated receptacle 
(pseudopodium, Brid.) of a white colour ; such as is also found in Sphagnum. In an early stage, this receptacle scarcely 
differs in appearance from that of other mosses ; by its subsequent elongation the theca is elevated, generally above 

* I here most gratefully acknowledge the invaluable assistance afforded me in the more complete determination, 
and in the diagnoses and descriptions, of the mosses, by our old and valued friend William Wilson, Esq., of 
Warrington ; whose accuracy in botanical, and especially in microscopical investigation, and knowledge of this 
tribe of plants, are beyond praise. — J. D. H. 


118 FLOEA ANTAECTICA. [Auckland and 

the perichartial leaves, whilst the true pedicel or seta remains wholly included in the vaginula. The calyptra hence 
continues attached to the vaginula for a much longer period than in other genera, and its rupture is occasioned by 
the distension of the theca ; and not by an elongation of the seta. If a very young capside be longitudinally divided, 
the seminal sac will be seen lining its interior, and also extending over the surface of the columella, the apex of the 
latter being attached to the summit of the operculum. The sporules, in a very early stage, are aggregated in fours, 
and long before the bursting of the calyptra attain a deep brown colour. 

The inflorescence is usually, and perhaps invariably, monoecious, the male fructification being on separate branches ; 
though A. mutabilis (nobis) appears really dicecious. Both kinds of flowers are, at first, truly terminal, though, owing 
to the rapid growth of innovations, especially on the male surculi, they soon become, to all appearance, lateral and 
even axillary. The male flowers, from their small size, are, in general, concealed by the cauline leaves. The anthe- 
ridia vary in number, from one or two to seven, intermixed with paraphyses, which, however, have not been seen in 
A. mutabilis (nobis), and which that species probably wants. In the female flower the archegonia are generally four, 
never more, and are not accompanied with any paraphyses. 

1 . Andre^a nitida, Hook. fil. et Wils. ; caulibus suberectis laxe ctespitosis parce ramosis, foliis 
erecto-patentibus ovato-oblongis obtuse apiculatis concavis enerviis nitidis marginibus reflexis, perichaetia- 
libus paulo longioribus erectis. (Tab. I/VII. fig. III.) 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group; on rocks near tlie tops of tbe bills, at an altitude of 1200 feet; 
very rare. 

Caules semi-unciales et ultra, erassiusculi, sub A una lati, lnc illic divisi. Folia suberecta, conferta, imbricata, 
subliugulata, obtusa, siunmo apice apicidata, dorso convexa, subcarinata, margine superne apiceque subreflexa, puniceo- 
atra, luce obversa rufo-brunnea, siccitate erecta, vis crispata ; perichatialia subsirnilia, sed longiora, tenera, rnarginibus 
plains, areolis minimis subrotundatis. Injlorescentia terminalis, dioica ? Flores masculi gemmiformes, ovati, acuti, 
denique laterales, foliis caulinis dimidio breviores, foliis valde concavis ovato-rotundatis acutis ocelusi ; antheridia 
6 aut plura, paraphysibus paucis filiformibus immixta. Flores fceminei : Archegonia quatuor, paraphysibus nullis. 
Fedicellus (seu pseudopodium) ^ unc. longus, perichaetii dimidio longior, v. rarius eo inclusus, apice (ad vaginulam 
propriam) incrassatus. Tlieca sessilis, parva, elliptica, nigro-fusca, 4-valvis, siccitate dilatata, \ lin. longa. 

A highly remarkable species, and quite unlike any hitherto described. 

Plate LVII. Fit/. III. — 1, a tuft, of the natural size ; 2, branch and theca ; 3 and 4, leaves ; 5, a moist theca ; 
6, an archegonium : — magnified. 

2. Axdre^ea acutifolia, Hook. fil. et \Yils. ; caulibus fastigiatim ramosis, ramis apice ramulosis, 
foliis erecto-patentibus incurvis rigidis lanceolato-subulatis acutis v. ovatis longe acuminatis concaviusculis 
enerviis basi inaequalibus siccitate erectis, perichsetialibus elongatis lanceolatis convolutis, tlieca subexserta. 

Hab. Campbell's Island ; on rocks, barren. 

Caules erecti, conferti, ramosissimi, \ una longi et ultra, siccitate rigidi. Folia undique inserta, patentia, deinde 
incurva, ovata, acmninata, basi gibbosa, enervia, infra medium deuticulata, siccitate subappressa, opaca, rufo-bmnnea, 
juniora flavo-viridia v. rufescentia, areolis pellucido-punctatis moniliformibus ; perichcetialia submajora, lanceolata, 
erecta. Flores masculi gemnn'fonnes, foliis ovatis concavis inclusi. Antheridia 4-7, paraj)hysihus filiformibus \ 
breviora. Fedicellus perichsetimn vix supcrans. Theca parva, nigra, paido exserta. Sporce majusculre, femigineae. 

This species may be distinguished from A. alpina by its narrower and much more acuminated leaves, which are 
of a paler hue, never shining, gibbous at the base ; those of the perichsetimn do not differ materially from the cauline 
ones. The specific character and description are drawn up in part from Hermite Island (Cape Horn) specimens ; 

Campbell's Islands.] FLORA ANTARCTICA. 119 

those now before us, from Campbell's Island, are smaller, less branched and various in colour, sometimes for min g 
small dense tufts, hardly ^ inch in height, but not different in other respects. 

3. Andimlea mufabilis, Hook. fil. et \Vils.; cauhbus csespitosis elongatis ramosis gracillhnis, foliis 
confertis laxisve erecto-patentibus rarius falcato-secuudis lanceolatis ovato-lanceolatisve subconcavis enerviis 
siccitate appressis. 

Far. /3, microjofa/Ma ; foliis minimis ovato-lanceolatis. (Tab. LVII. fig. II.) 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group; on rocks, at an elevation of 1200 feet; rare, (with female fructifica- 
tion). Campbell's Island; on the hills, in rocky places, from 800-1000 feet of elevation, with male 
inflorescence only. 

Museus polymorphus, ea?spitosus. Canles semi- ad bi-unciales, inferne nudi, supeme ramosi. Folia basi macula 
flava uotata, dorso vix papulosa, areolis granvdoso-punctatis. Injlorescentia dioica ; folia perigonii ovato-rotundata, 
acuta, concava. Antheridia 3 v. plura, elliptica, majora longiusque pedicellata quam in affinibus. Paraphyses nulla 1 . 
Folia perichsetiaha caulinis longiora, elliptico-lanceolata, convoluta. 

Tliis species, of which we have no examples in good fruit, differs from A. rupestris in the more erect and 
narrower leaves. The specific character has been drawn up from an examination of Falkland Island specimens, as 
well as of those from the Islands now under consideration. The other varieties are enumerated in the London 
Journal of Botany (vol. 3. p. 536.). 

Plate LVII. Fig. II. — 1, a tuft of the natural size ; 2, a branch ; 3 and 4, leaves : — magnified. 

4. Andre;EA sululata, Harvey; caule subramoso, foliis falcato-secundis subulatis attenuates basi clila- 
tatis crassinerviis, perichsetiahbus convolutis. A. subulata, Harvey in llooh. Ic. Plant, vol. hi. t. 201. 

far. y, pericluetialis ; theca foliis perichsetiahbus rninoribus immersa. (Tab. LVII. fig. I.) 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island; upon rocks, at a considerable elevation on 
the hills. 

The cauline leaves of this variety are longer and more strict than in the other states of the plant enumerated in 
the ' London Journ. of Botany' (1. c), and the theca and perichsetium very inconspicuous ; we cannot however venture 
to separate it as a species. It differs from A.Rothii, its nearest ally, in the leaves being longer and the nerve thicker, 
the latter occupying the whole breadth of the leaf, except at the base, so as to have been overlooked, and the leaves 
consequently described as nerveless. 

Plate LVII. Fig. I. — 1, specimens of the natural size ; 2, a branch ; 3 and -i, cauline leaves ; 5, section of 
ditto ; 6 and 7, perichsetial leaves ; 8, a theca : — magnified. 

2. SPHAGNUM, Bill. 

Theca globosa, stomate nudo exannulato. Columella apice libera, abbreviata. Calyptramedio rupta, basi persis- 
tente. Vaginula apophysiformis, pedicelliun brevissimum occultans, demum stipitata. Ferichcetium laterale. 

Bridel, supposing this genus to be destitute of a vaginula, constituted it a separate order ; in which he was 
followed by Bruch and Sclumper. 

The female flower, at first sessile, in every respect like that of other pleurocarpous mosses, occupies the place of 
a ramulus, or is inserted in the axis of two or more branches. As the fructification advances, the receptacle elongates, 
and the pericheetial leaves, becoming separated from one another, it presents the appearance of a lateral branch. The 
antheridia arc found in the fertile plant at the clavate and often discoloured extremities of short deflexed ramuli. 

120 FLORA ANTARCTICA. [Auckland and 

They are roundish, on pedicels as long or longer than themselves, generally solitary in the axils of the perigonial 
leaves, which are somewhat ventricose at the base, but not otherwise different from those of the stems. 

The anatomy of the theca of Sphagnum is very peculiar. What appears the columella does not extend, as in other 
genera, to the summit of the theca, but is a continuation of the seminal sac, ascending from the bottom of the theca, 
and forms a portion of the same membrane which also lines the under surface of the operculum, passing completely 
across the stoma, as shewn in Plate INTL. fig. VI., where the central figure is drawn from a sketch and section pre- 
pared by Mr. Wilson. 

This curious structure of the seminal sac is quite different from what obtains in most genera of mosses, and 
appears to have been misunderstood by Arnott and Greville, in whose excellent essays upon the ' Genera of Mosses,' 
the columella is described as sinking, along with its opercular membrane, so low, as to assume the appearance of a 
tympanum, stretched across the interior of the theca, a little below its base (Weru. Trans, vol. iv. p. 181.); then figure 
however does not represent the columella bearing any residua of the opercular membrane, but merely having the base 
of the seminal sac drawn up into the axis of the theca in the form of a cone, which is its true origin. The more 
striking peculiarities of the sporular sac of Sphagnum are these ; 1st. its forming a bag or cyst without any orifice : 
2nd, in the drawing up of the base of this bag into the axis of the theca, but not so far as to reach the level of the 
stoma, nor consequently the upper surface, or that opposite the base, which remains entire and stretched across the 
stoma. If the columella were earned up to the same height as in other mosses, an obliteration of the upper part of 
the sporular membrane woidd be caused by the perforation of the latter, (if we regard the metula as a portion of the 
columella), or else there would ensue a mutual cohesion of the membranes of columella and sac. 

Sphagnum may be considered to possess the simplest form of sporular sac, the dehiscence of which is probably 
caused by a removal of the upper portion in the same plane as the stoma and parallel to the operculum. The next 
stage of development of this organ is, perhaps, presented in some astomatous mosses ; Voitia *, for instance, a per- 
pendicular section of the theca in which genus exhibits the seminal sac in the form of a vertically elongated ring, 
supported in the axis of the theca by the corculum of the columella. The latter passes uninterruptedly from the 
apex of the seta to the top of the persistent operculum, thus apparently perforating the sac, by whose inflected walls 
it is lined for the greater part of its length. In this case, dehiscence and the escape of the sporules may be supposed 

* In the young state of Voitia hyperborea, of which (through the kindness of Sir James Ross), I have exa- 
mined many thecas, there is a communication between the seminal sac and the lining of the walls of the theca (thecal 
membrane), by means of conferva-like filaments such as are seen in most other mosses. Tracing the different 
membranes upwards, from the apex of the theca, I was led to believe that the same tissue formed the thecal mem- 
brane, the conferva-like filaments, and the corculum of the columella ; and further, the immediate communication 
between all the surfaces of the seminal sac and the walls of the theca afforded room for a conjecture, that the latter 
were immediately concerned in the development of the sporules, especially as before the separation of the spores 
both the thecal membranes and filaments were full of a grunious fluid, which afterwards disappears. If such a view 
be correct, the internal structure of the theca of Voitia is very simple, and consists, 1st, of stout cells forming the 
external walls ; 2nd, of a fine tissue, not only lining the former and sending filaments to the opposite walls of the 
seminal sac, but, becoming more condensed at the base and apex of the cavity of the theca, it ascends in its axis and 
meets the descending portion in the hollow of the columella, over whose surfaces they both ramify ; and 3rd, of a 
vertically elongated ring (the seminal sac) through whose centre this second membrane passes. Mr. Wilson (to 
whom I am indebted for my knowledge of the structure of both theca and cellular tissue of Sphagnum), has not been 
able, from the want of specimens, to confirm this view of the structure of Voitia ; he, however, informs me, that 
" the existence of such a connecting tissue is only analogous to what is found in Gymuosttomum pyriforme, whose 
sporular sac is connected with the base of the theca by a bundle of filaments;" he also adds, that " in many Poly- 
tricha there is a distinct, almost woody, central axis to the columella, with filaments intervening betwixt it and the 
winged folds of the sporular sac which forms the outer part of the columella." — J. D. II. 

Campbell's Islands] FLORA ANTARCTICA. 121 

to take place through the decay of the theca, when, as frequently happens, the theca and seta are together detached 
from the plant, and possibly, if persistent, the operation may be aided by the development of a fungus which we 
have seen in the walls of the capside of V. hyperborea. 

The more complicated structure of these parts, which most peristomed mosses possess, may eventually prove 
mere modifications of, or deviations from the simpler organization of Voitia and Sphagnum. Gymnostomum pyriforme 
tends to confirm such a theory ; in it the columella (what is considered as such being the inflected portion of the 
sac), ascends from the bottom of the theca to the level of the stoma, and then, expanding outwards, like the 
mouth of a funnel, reunites with the seminal sac around the rim of the stoma (vid. Grev. and Am. 1. c. vol. p. — ). 
After a time, the edge of the funnel breaks away from that of the sac and with the columella shrivels up, thus giving 
egress to the sporules. 

Mr. Valentine, in his ' Genera of Mosses,' has accurately described the cellular tissue of Sphagnum, which is, 
in several respects, exceedingly curious. The cells themselves are bounded by very thick lines, formed of slender 
tubes, running between the contiguous cells, but on one side of the leaf only ; a transverse section of a small por- 
tion of a leaf, exhibiting both the cells and the interjected tubes, is shown at fig. 46. Valentine considers that the 
latter are derived from the elongated tubes of the stem. 

The cells themselves are furnished, in some forms of the genus, with one or more spiral filaments, closely ad- 
hering to their walls, sometimes these are entire throughout the length of the cell, at others broken or both broken 
and branched. We are inclined to believe that the spiral filament is terete and adheres by a small portion only of 
its surface to the tissue of the leaf; the extreme minuteness and transparency of the parts, however, increase the 
difficulty of determining such a point with the accuracy that is desirable. No function has, hitherto, that we are 
aware of, been assigned to these filaments ; they may act powerfully in enabling so delicate a tissue to withstand the 
pressure of the water. 

The pores, by means of which a communication between the cavity of the cells and their surrounding medium 
is preserved, are, in most cases, numerous and large, in others less so ; they appear more frequent on the upper sur- 
face of the leaf, but are by no means confined to it, for sometimes they are placed opposite to one another, when the 
leaf itself is perforated. They exist both in cells provided with spiral filaments and without ; in some instances, 
where the. spires are broken and branched, the pores are bordered with a thick ring given off from the filament, 
whence probably arises the supposition that what appeared to be pores were supplementary coils. They vaiy 
greatly in size, occasionally extending completely across the cell. Valentine describes them as resembling a minute 
truncated cone ; to us they appear on the same plane with the walls of the cells, except where their edges are thick- 
ened, as described above. In S. niacropliyllum the cells are devoid of any filaments, are very narrow, much elongated, 
and each perforated by from 8 to 14 large pores, which sometimes nearly divide the cell on one side ; they are 
by far most numerous on the upper surface of the leaf. The uses of these pores are hitherto unknown, they may 
be due to the nature of the situations in which the species are found. We have not proved them to reside in the 
intercellular tubes, though their existence in their walls is possible also. On the other hand, the latter alone may 
continue reservoirs for water during diy seasons, when, from the porous nature of the former, they readily part with 
their moisture. 

Until the dehiscence of the operculum, no rupture of the calyptra takes place in Sphagnum. We have not ob- 
served the desilient property of the operculum, noticed by some authors. The sporules in all the species are clustered 
together in fours, of which three only are generally visible at first sight, as represented at Fig. VI. In most of the 
species the surface of the theca is studded over with stomatiform pores ; these are however very inconspicuous, if 
not wholly absent, in S. cymbifolium. The true pedicel is included within the vaginula and is singularly dilated be- 
low the orifice of the latter. 

Plate LVII. Fig. VI. — 1, Longitudinal section of theca of S. cymbifoliwm ; 2, section of cellular substance 
from centre of the same ; 3, spores in a very young state ; 4, cellular tissue of leaf showing spiral vessels and pores ; 


122 FLORA ANTAECTICA. [Auckland and 

5, cell of 8. maerophyllwm with no spiral filament and many large pores ; 6, transverse section of the cells of a leaf 
of S. ctpribifolium : — all higlily magnified. 

1. Sphagnum compaetvm, Brid., caule crecto rarnoso, ramis dense confertis, foliis iinbricatis concavis 
ovato-oblongis obtusis apice denticulatis, theca ovato-rotundata, pseudopodio brevi. S. compactum, Brid. 
Bryol. Univ. vol. i. p. 16. 

Tar. /3, rig'ulum ; foliis subrigidis convolutis superue attenuatis apice patulis, pseudopodio gracili sub- 
elongato. Nees et Hornsch. Bryol. Germ. vol. i. p. 14. t. 2. f. 5*. 

Tar. y, ovatum ; foliis patentibus ovatis subacutis. 

Hab. Campbell's Island ; in bogs near the sea, both the varieties grooving together. 

The variety y. ovatum may possibly be a distinct species, though we have not ventured to separate it speci- 
fically ; it differs from the usual state of the plant in the ovate, not oblong, leaves, which are more acute at the 
apex, with somewhat cartilaginous margins. Dr. Lyall's specimens, though fragments, evidently belong to a much 
larger moss than S. cymbifolium, Dill., with more tiunid branches. Of this species Bridel remarks, " a S. cymbi- 
folio, foliis semper apice denticulatis, i.e. praemorsis, ut et toto habitu distinctissimum." The oblong leaves of var. /3 
and the absence of the spiral fibres in the outer cells of the ramuli also appear constant peculiarities. 

In this, as in some other species, it is not uncommon to observe the spiral fibres of the lower cells of the leaf 
disposed in a double or triple helix. The interposed circular discs are readily seen to he pores, from their strong 
similarity to the distinct apertures found on the cells of the ramulus. The outer cells of the branches seem analo- 
gous to the ordinary cellular tissue of the leaves, and the inner to their intercellular tubes ; whence the true position 
of the latter on the upper surface of the leaf may be inferred : whilst, on the other hand, the concavity of the foliage 
would lead to the supposition of their occupying the opposite one. 


Peristomium simplex e thecse membrana interiore ortum, annulare, suberectum, indivisurn v. rarius subdentieula- 
tum. Calyptra glabra, dirnidiata. Theca sequalis v. rarius gibbosa, oblonga, in apophysin spuriam obconicam attenuata. 

1. Leptostomum gracile, Br. ; caule csespitoso subramoso, foliis oblongis subacutis piliferis inferioribus 
ovato-lanceolatis, theca pendula oblongo-cylindracea, operculo hemispherico. L. gracile, Brown in Trans. 
Linn. Soc. vol. x. p. 321. Schwa eg. Suppl. vol. ii. pt. 1. p. 12. 1. 104. Gymnostomum gracile, Hook. Muse. 
Exot. t. 22. 

Hab. Campbell's Island; on exposed rocks, altitude 1200 feet, barren. 

It is not yet proved whether the L. gracile and L. inclinans be really distinct. Our specimens agree with the 
former, in having a strong excurrent nerve ; they differ from it in the stems being densely matted with radicles, and 
from L. inclinans in the leaves not being contorted when dry and then - margins not revolute. There is a new and 
very well marked species in the Hookerian Herbarium, L. Bridgesii, Wils., MS., from Conception and Colchagua in 
Chili, in which the leaves are piliferous, with the nerve evanescent below the apex, the seta short, and the theca, 
instead of being pyriform, is widest at the base. 


Peristomium simplex. Denies sedecim, per paria coadunati v. approximate longitudinaliter exarati, tandem 
rerlexi et plerumque theca? extus apprcssi. Calyptra campanulata, basi subintegra v. fissa, theca brevior. Theca 
sequalis, apophysata, exannulata. 

Campbell's Islands.] FLOEA ANTAECTICA. 123 

It is With much reluctance that we refuse to adopt the views of Bruch and Schimper, who, in their beautiful 
' Bryologia Europaea,' subdivide Splaclinum into three or four genera. The several characters which the two species 
here enumerated possess and which are not conformable with those of any of the subgenera alluded to, would, were 
these adopted, oblige us to construct a fifth for their reception. S. octoblepkarum and S.purpurascens are so nearly 
allied to the S. mnioides, that we doubt the propriety of even retaining two genera which might be founded on the 
very dissimilar structure of the calyptra, but on that character alone, unaccompanied with any ditference of habit. 
In one of Bruch and Schimper's divisions, Tetraptodon, the calyptra is truly dimidiate and neither indexed nor ap- 
pendiculate at the base ; in the other, we always find it, previous to its separation from the vaginula, indexed at the 
base, but when the seta elongates and carries up the calyptra, this inflexed portion is drawn out and remains as a lace- 
rated and somewhat incurved membrane or appendage. A similar structure is observable in Sc/ilotJieimia, under 
which genus the development of S. quadrifida is illustrated. 

In all the species which we have had an opportunity of examining in a recent state, and especially in S. splie- 
ricum, ampullaceum and mnioides, there is a very peculiar arrangement of the sporules, in lines radiating from the 
columella. Each of these lines is composed of eight or more sporules, contained either in separate cells or in mem- 
branous tubes, of a nature evidently analogous to the asci of some Fungi. This structure is probably common to 
all the species and may be traced obscurely in the dried state of some ; it has, however, escaped the observation of 
Bruch and Schimper, who perhaps did not examine specimens in a sufficiently young state. 

The southern species, those at least from the higher latitudes, inhabit decayed vegetable matter. 

1. SpLAcmajM purpurascens, Hook. fil. et "Wils. ; caule elongato, foliis patulis obovatis acurninatis in- 
tegerrinris vmdulatis evauidinerviis apicibus recurvis, theca elliptico-oblonga microstoma, apophysi obconica 
angusta, operculo conico. (Tab. LVII. Fig. V. 1.) 

Far. ft minor. (Tab. LVII. Fig. Y. 8.) 

Hab. Campbell's Island; in moist bogs, amongst grass; altitude 1000 feet. 

Caides laxe caespitosi, vix ramosi, semiunciales et idtra. Folia patula, subremota, planiuscula v. undulata, sic- 
citate crispa, laxe reticulata, inferiora luride purpuraseentia. Infiorescentia monoica; flores masculi gemmaceo- 
capitulifomies ad baseos foliorum sessiles v. in ramulis propriis terminales. Seta uncialis, valida, rubra, nitida, sensim 
in apophysin theca brevioreni incrassata. Peristoma denies oeto, conniventes, luteoli, integri v. medio rima longi- 
tudinali ad apicem non producta fissi, siccitate fusci et reflexi. Columella apice dilatata, plerumque breviter exserta. 
Operculum paivum, anguste conicum, subrostellatum, rarius hemisphericum, flavescens v. rufo-brunneum. Calyptra 
non visa. 

Nearly allied to S. octohlepharum, but larger, the leaves wider, more distant, less produced at the apex and 
more crisped when dry. Capsule narrow and more attenuated below, with a smaller mouth. In the var. /3, both 
the two lateral of the longitudinal and the transverse lines on the teeth are very faint ; in no instance do the teeth 
in this species appear to be really formed of four, the lateral lines always ceasing below the apex ; the lower part of 
each double tooth is formed by four cells in a line, but their summits of only two. 

Plate LVII. Fig. V. — 1, 8. purpurascens, of the natural $i;e; 2, a leaf; 3 and 4, capsides ; 5, teeth closely 
approximated in pairs ; 6, the same, of var. ; 7, the same of var. a, with a longitudinal fissure and some spo- 
rules : — magnified. 8, a small tuft of var. /3, of the natural si:e. 

2. Splachntjm octoblepliarum, Hook. ; subramosum, foliis obovatis longe acivminatis subpiliferis inte- 
germnis, theca una cum apophysi clavata, peristomii dentibus octo solitariis. S. octoblepliarum, Rook. Muse. 
Exot. t. 167. Schwaeg. Suppl. II. pt. 1. p. 105. t. 129. (omitted in B ridel. Bryol. Univ.) 

Var. /3, pyr /forme; foliis magis erectis confertis, apophysi angustiore. (Tab. LVII. Fig. TV. 1.) 

124 FLORA ANTARCTICA. {Auckland and 

Var. y, major ; foliis majoribus latioribus luride viridibus, dentibus 8 gerninatis. (Tab. LVil. Fig.LV. 6.) 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group; vars. a and /3, in spongy bogs and in boles of trees in the woods, 
frequent. Campbell's Island ; var. a, not uncommon ; and var. /3, in the wet and wooded valleys, on the 

From its northern ally, 8. mnioides, this species differs, both in the structure of the peristome and in the shorter 
calyptra, which is mitraeform and inflexed at the base ; also in the carinate leaves. The inflorescence appears truly 
monoicous, once only we found a hermaphrodite flower. In the varieties a and 0, the theca varies greatly in form, 
and the columella is either included or exserted. In var. y, the leaves are often very large, and the teeth connive 
so closely as to appear but 8, which are separable into 16 ; they are pale yellow, each with a faint middle line : when 
dry they are erect, recurved or reflexed, and generally of a purple brown colour. 

Plate LVJLL. Fig. IT. — 1, a small tuft of var. /3, of the natural size ; 2, a leaf ; 3, a capsule; 4, teeth; 5, a 
calyptra ; — magnified : 6, a plant of var. y, of the natural sice ; 7, a leaf; 8, a capsule ; and 9, teeth of the same : — 

5. DBYPTODON, Br id. 

Peristomium simplex. Dentes sedecim, inaequaliter bifidi, v. apice lacero-fissi. Calyptra mitrreformis, basi 
lacera. Theca aequalis, annulata. Brid. Bryol. Univ., vol. i. p. 191. 

This genus is perhaps not distinct from Grimmia, 

1. Dryptodon" cmpidus, Hook. fil. et V\"ils. ; caule fastigiatim rarnoso, foliis ovato-oblongis acuminatis 
v. e basi ovata gradatini subulato-acivminatis carinatis nervo percurrente, seta perbrevi, theca elliptica, oper- 
culo rostrato. (Tab. LVIL Fig. IX.) 

Hab. Campbell's Island; on alpine rocks. 

Caules laxe caespitosi, superne fastigiatim ramosi, subrigidi, Folia erecto-patentia, subrecurva, margine basi 
reflexa, fcrma sat varia, superiora longiora, apice subdiaphana, vix pilifera, nervo valido continuo instructa, flavo- 
viridia, siccitate crispatula erecta ; pericluetialia breviora, elliptico-oblonga, obtusa v. acuta. Seta vix lineam longa, 
foliis immersa, pallida, tandem lateralis. Theca erecta v. incliuata, elliptico-oblonga, fusco-lutea. Peristoma dentes vix 
ad medium fissi, rufi, coimiventes, siccitate reflexi. Operculum conico-rostratiun, rectum, theca -| brevius. Calyptra 
conico-mitrasformis, subpkcata, costata, fusca, basi lacera et inflexa, opercido paido longior. Annulus parvus. 

The foliage of this moss bears a considerable resemblance to that of Eacomitrium fasciculare, from which it 
differs in the very short seta, pale elliptical theca, and in the peristome being truly that of a Dryptodon. 

Plate LVIL Fig. IX. — 1, a specimen of the natural size; 2, a cauline leaf; 3 and 4, pericluetial leaves; 
5, theca; 6, operculum ; 7, teeth; 8, calyptra: — magnified. 


Peristomium simplex. Dentes sedecim ad basin usque bi-tri-quadripartiti, cruribus nliformibus conjuncti. 
Calyptra mitrKformis v. campanulata et subulata, theca brevior, basi lacera. Theca aequalis exanuulata. 

1. KACOiirntiuii lanuginosum, Bridel, Bryol. Univ. vol. i. p. 215. Triehostomum, Iledtr. Muse. Frond. 
vol. iii. p. 3. t. 2. Hook, et Tayl. Muse. Brit. p. 105. t. 19. 

Hab. Campbell's Island ; amongst tufts of grass at the foot of precipices, rare and barren. 

This does not appear to differ from European specimens. 

Campbell's Islands.] FLORA ANTARCTICA. 125 


Peristomium simplex v. duplex, rarius nullum ; exterius dentes triginta duo, geminatim v. bigeminatim coadu- 
nati, (liinc quasi octo v. sedecim apparent) ; interim ciliae octo, aequales, v. sedecim, alternis brevioribus, ereetis v. 
horizontaliter patentibus. Calyptra campamdata, costata, basi lacera v. crenata, plerumque pilosa. Theca erecta, 
sequalis, exanuulata, tandem sulcata, in setam superne incrassatam gradatim attenuata. 

1. Oethotrichuji cramfolium, Hook. fil. et Wils. ; caule brevi subrarnoso, foliis erecto-patentibus 
lanceolato-subulatis obtusis carnosis nervo crasso subcontinuo, theca breviter exserta ppiforrni leevi, peris- 
tomii dentibus sedecim, ciliis nullis, calyptra glabra. (Tab. LVIL Fig. YIII.) 

Tar. /3 ; foliis longioribus, theca breviore foliis immersa. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island; on rocks and stones immediately above high- 
water mark. Var. /3, Campbell's Island, with the following species. 

Caides pulvinati, 2-4 Hn. longi. Folia suberecta, erassa, coriacea, supra plana, apice subobtusa, marginibus 
basi inflexis, nervo crasso infra apicem evanido, siccitate paulo incurva, olivacea v. fusco-lutea, demum nigricantia, 
suprema Hnearia, basi latiora, Infloresceutia dioica? Fl.masc. gemmifonnis, terminalis. Seta sub liueam longa, 
valida ; vaginula oblonga. Theca erecta, pyrifonnis, v. subturbinata, fusco-lutea, collo brevi, siccitate subeybndracea. 
Peristoma dentes liberi, siccitate erecti v. reflexi, lutei. Spora majuscula?, subrotunda?, rufo-olivaeeae. Operculum 
convexum, rostello recto, thecae \ longitud. Calyptra plicata, glabra, rufo-brunnea, basi octofida. 

Perliaps allied to the 0. psychrophilum, Montague (Ann. So. Nat., vol. ix. p. 52); but the leaves are more erect 
with their margins not refiexed, the capsule even, of a thicker texture, and there is no inner peristome. It bears 
some resemblance to the 0. Magellanicum, Mont., from which the same characters will also distinguish it. The dry 
foliage is of an almost horny consistence. 

Plate LVIL Fig. VIII. — 1, a specimen of the natural she ; 2, a portion of stem and theca ; 3 and 4, leaves ; 
5, transverse section of ditto; 6, teeth; 7, sporules ; 8, calyptra : — magnified. 

2. OitTHOTKiCHUJi aiigustifoUum, Hook. fil. et Wils.j caule brevi subramoso, foliis ereetis anguste 
lineari-subulatis acutiusculis carnosis nervo contmuo, theca subsessili immersa elliptica, operculo rostellato, 
peristomii simplicis dentibus sedecim. (Tab. LVIL Fig. VII.) 

Hab. Campbell's Island; on rocks at an elevation of 1200-1100 feet. 

Caules pulvinati, 2-3 lin. longi, luridi, rigidi, ramis subterminalibus abbreviates. Folia suberecta, conferta, 
elongata, stricta, opaea, subcarnosa, supra plana, nervo crasso continuo, siccitate subinciirva, atro-viridia ; pericJia- 
tialia longiora, lanceolata, acuminata, superne attenuata, subsecunda. Seta brevissima. Theca elliptico-ovata, parva, 
pallide fusea, ore majusculo. Dentes couniventes, pallide ferruginei, siccitate reflexi. Spora majusculaj. Operculum 
basi convexum, rostello brevi recto. Calyptra non visa. 

Allied to the former species, but with larger, much narrower and amiost setaceous leaves ; the capsule also is 
smaller and hidden amongst the foliage. 

Plate LVIL Fig. VII. — 1, a tuft of the natural size; 2, branch; 3 and 4, leaves; 5, theca and seta: — 


Peristomium simplex v. duplex ; exterius dentes sedecim, lanccolati, plus minusve geminatim connexi ; interius 
membrana apice lacera, multiiida. Calyptra conica, glabra v. pilosa, basi in lacinias plurimas sequilongas fissa. 
Theca sequalis, exannulata. 


126 FLOKA ANTARCTICA. {Auckland and 

In an early state the difference between the calyptra of this genus and of Orthotrichum is very considerable, 
being, in the present case, linear and subulate ; but in the latter genus campanulate. We consider Bridel's defini- 
tion of this as drawn from more natural characters than that of Schwaegrichen. 

1. Macro jiitrium longirostre, Schwaegr. ; caule repente, ramis erectis, foliis confertis erecto-patentibus 
lineari-lanceolatis lineis duabus notatis sohclinerviis siccitate tortilibus, theca ovali sulcata, calyptra glabra. 
M. longirostre, Scliwaeg. Suppd. vol. ii. j)t. 2. p. 131. 1. 112. Brid. Bryol. Univ. vol. i. p. 310. Orthotri- 
chum, Hook. Muse. Exot. t. 25. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island ; abundant on the trunks of trees near the sea. 

This species varies considerably in colour and in habit ; the leaves are, sometimes, narrower and more spreading 
than in these specimens ; when dry they are always twisted round the stem. 

2. Mackomithium aeutifolium, Bricl. ; caule repente ramosissimo, foliis lanceolatis valde acurninatis 
tortis nervo subexcurrente, theca ovata striata, operculi rostro aciculari, calyptra glabra. M. acuti- 
fohiun, Bricl. Bryol. Univ. vol. i. p. 736. Orthotrichuni, Hook, and Grev. in Edinb. Journ. of Science, vol. i. 
p. US. t, 5. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; on rocks at the top of the hill above Kendezvous Harbour, barren and 
very scarce. 


Peristomium duplex ; exterius dentes sedecim, per paria approxirnati, siccitate spiraliter revoluti ; interim meru- 
brana conica, in lacinias sedecim pluresve dentiformes inaequaliter fissa. Calyptra comco-mitrsformis, glabra, basi 
appendiculata, demum lacera. TJwca sequalis, exannulata. 

Some sjiecies of Macromitrium, possessing a double peristome, have been confounded with this genus : from 
our own experience we are inclined to consider the appendicnlate cylindrical calyptra as the most decisive character 
of Schlotheimia ; the structure of the peristome apparently affording marks of minor importance only. In an early 
stage, a fold of the calyptra is produced downwards below the point of insertion of that organ into the vaginula, as 
in some Splachna, E/iealypta, and possibly in other genera of Mosses. This inverted portion, after the lengthening 
of the seta has detached the calyptra, splits into four or more segments; rid. Plate LVIII. Fig. I. — 11 and 12. 

1. Schlotheimia qnadrifda, Bricl. ; foliis oblongo-lanceolatis cuspidatis tortis, theca oblongo-pyriformi 
laevi, calyptra glabra. S. quadrifida, Brid. Suppl. Muse. vol. ii. p. 18. Schwaeg. Suppl. vol. i. pt. 2. p. 41. 
and vol. ii. pt, 2. p. 147. t. 57. Brid. Bryol. Univ. vol. i. p. 321. (Tab. LVIII. Fig. I.) 

Unr. /3 ; caule robusto, foliis magis confertis inferioribus nigricantibus hrevius cuspidatis. 

Hab. Campbell's Island ; on rocks and dead bushes, frequent. Yar. /3, on rocks at an elevation of 
1200-1400 feet. 

This species approaches the S. Bromiii, Schwaeg. (Suppl. vol. ii. pt. 2. p. 52. t. 167), from which it differs in 
the shorter and less excurrent nerve, and from S. nitida in the leaves being straight and not recurved. The leaves 
of var. are of a darker colour, more closely and regularly twisted round the stem, and do not readily recover 
in water. 

It is singular to remark how far these tropical forms extend into the southern regions, whence we infer that an 
equable climate is the chief condition they require. In Tasmania, where the climate is more excessive than in New 
Zealand under the same parallel, the Schlotheimia and Macromitria are almost unknown, though in the latter loca- 

Campbell's Islands] FLORA ANTARCTICA. 127 

lity, and indeed throughout the three islands of New Zealand, they abound. Wherever they grow they invariably 
affect shade and shelter. The European genus Orthotrichim, on the other hand, of which there are several Tasma- 
nian examples, is very rare in New Zealand ; and in Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island, as in the Falk- 
land and other Antarctic Islands, the species court exposure, growing on black and exposed rocks, enduring the fidl 
power of such solar heat as those regions afford during the day, and of the frost, wind, and nocturnal radiation at 
other times. Under these circumstances, their foliage is of a peculiarly hard and almost horny consistence, espe- 
cially when dry. 

Plate LVIII. Fig. I. — 1 and 2, tufts of the natural size; 3, cauline leaf; 4, upper leaf from near the peri- 
chaetium; 5, theca; 6, peristome; 7, a tooth; 8, calyptra; 9, calyptra, in a very young state, adherent with the 
vaginula, split open, exposing the enclosed seta, which is erroneously represented as bulbous; 10, the same, entire, 
surrounded by pistilla ; 11 and 12, calyptra, showing the base inflexed and attached to the summit of the vaginula : — 

10. VvEISSIA, Eedw. 

Peristomium simplex, dentibus sedeeim, suberectis, angustis, imperforatis. Calyptra cuculliformis. Tlieca 
sequalis, exapophysata, annulata v. exaimulata. 

1. Weissla crispula, Ludw. ; caule erecto diviso, foliis imbricatis seeundis lanceolatis acuminatis ca- 
naliculatis siccitate crispulis, tlieca erecta oblonga, operculo oblique rostrato. W. crispula, Hedw. Sj). Muse. 
p. 68. t. 12. Brid. Bryol. Univ. vol. i. p. 346. 

Var. ft, ambigua ; foliis brevioribus subsecundis siccitate vix crispatis, perichsetialibus acuminatis nervo 
excurrente, seta breviore, dentibus interdum per paria approximatis. (Tab. LVIII. Fig. II.) 

Hab. Campbell's Island; on exposed rocks from 600-1200 feet above the level of the sea, abundant. 

After a very careful comparison of the Campbell's Island plant with specimens of W. crispula froin Snowdon, 
we are at length satisfied of the specific identity of the two. It is still uncertain whether the W. crispula of Hooker 
and Taylor be the same as that of Hedwig. The characters of the latter and of W. cirrata, as given by Schwaegrichen 
( 1. p. 75.), differ very slightly. Of W. cirrata bothlledwig and Bridel remark," folia marginibus reflexis 
aut innexis," the former we find constantly to be the case, in which respect the plant differs essentially from crispula. 
It is more than probable that the Moss from Snowdon, figured by Dillenius (Hist. Muse. t. 47. f. 38.), and quoted 
by Bridel as a synonym of his Dicranurn interruptiuu, is the W. crispula of Hooker and Taylor, which may well be 
considered by Bridel, a Bicrauum, having the habit of that genus, and the peristome being unknown to him. 

Plate LVIII. Tig. II. — 1, tuft of the natural sbe; 2, a branch and theca ; 3. a leaf; 4, a theca; 5, teeth ; 
6, calyptra : — magnified. 

2. Weissia contecta, Hook. fil. et VTils. ; caule fastigiatim ramoso, foliis erectis strictis lanceolatis 
superne setaceis integerrimis solidinerviis, setaperbrevi, tlieca ovata, operculo rostrato. (Tab. LVIII. Fig. III.) 

Hab. Campbell's Island; on alpine rocks. 

Caules sesquiunciales, dense casspitosi, subrigidi, fragiles. Folia conferta, erecta, vix secimda, 3 lin. longa, in 
apicem rigidum linearem e nervo crasso excurrente formatmn producta, integerrima, canalioulata, marginibus basi 
inflexis, inferiora fusco-atra, superiora flavo-vhidia ; perielialialia majora, conformia. Infiorescentia monoica. Ft. masc. 
ad basin fceminei, gemmiformes ; anlhcridia paraphysibus phmniis immixta. Seta vix lineam longa, crassiuscula, 
innovationibus mox lateralis. Theca badia, ore patente. Annulus o. Denies pyramidati, ineurvi, transverse sidcati, 
ferrugineo-lutei, integri v. apice fissi, siccitate reflexi. Sporce minutse. Operculum basi hemisphericum, rostro obliquo, 
capsida parum breviore. Calgptra coriacea, subulata, parva, fusca. 

128 FLORA ANTARCTICA. [Auckland and 

This agrees with no other species of the genus in habit. It is allied to Dicranum filiforme, Schwaeg., but has 
entile teeth. The calyptra and operculum we have only seen detached amongst the leaves. There is a very 
similar plant in the Hookerian Herbarium, received from Mr. Dickson ; it has however a much longer seta, the 
perichaetial leaves are smaller and shorter, the cauline subsecund, more crisped when dry, and furnished with a 
thinner nerve. 

Plate LVIII. Fig. III. — 1, a specimen of the natural size ; 2 and 3, leaves ; 4, periehatial leaf, seta, theea, 
&c. ; 5, teeth ; 6, calyptra : — magnified. 

11. SPRUCEA* Brid. 

Peristomium simplex. Denies sedecim, bifidi. Calyptra ampla, glabcrrima, latere fissa, basi integerrima. — 
Holomitrium, Bridel. Endl. et Bras. p. 17. 

The generic name was founded on a mistaken view of the nature of the calyptra, described by Bridel as " elongato- 
conica, basi coarctata latereque integerrima ; " it is entire, in a very young state only, before the theca is developed. 
Hornschuch first modified the description of that organ, which is tridy dimidiate in all the species, though not as the 
last named author describes it, " campanulata." Except in greater size, it does not differ from that of TTeissia. The 
essential difference between a dimidiate and mitriforni calyptra arises simply from the former being too narrow to 
contain the mature theca, whilst the other is of sufficient capacity for that purpose. In habit this genus appears to us 
far less intimately allied to Racomitrium than to Bidymodon, with which it coincides in the dilated bases of the leaves ; 
the chief peculiarities are the shorter teeth and longer operculum, characteristics which, if taken in conjunction with 
the large perichaetial leaves, may serve to keep the present distinct. 

1. Speucea perichcetialis, Brid. ; caule erecto rainoso, foliis inibricatis erecto-patentibus lanceolatis 
acuminatis inargine planis, nervo continuo, periclisetialibus vaginantibus, theca oblonga, operciilo aciculari. 
Holomitrium perichartiale, Brid. Bri/ol. Univ. vol. i. p. 227. Trichostomum, Hook. Muse. Exot. t. 73. 

Hab. Campbell's Island ; not uncommon on the stems of shrubs. 

In this species the teeth are split near the summit only, perforated below, and of a similar structure with those 
of a Bryplodon, Brid. 

12. DICRANUM, Hedw. 

Peristomium simplex ; dentibus sedecim, bifidis. Calyptra cuciuliforniis. 

1 . Dicranum Memiesii, Tayl. ; caule ascendente subrarnoso, foliis secundis setaceis basi lanceolatis 
subrigidis apice sub lente scrrulatis siccitate strictis nervo latiusculo valido subexcurrente, seta brevi, theca 
elliptico-oblonga basi substrumosa semiimmersa, operculo longirostro. D. Menziesii, Taj/lor in Phytologist, 
vol. ii. p. 1094. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; on trunks of trees sparingly, barren. 

Caules semiunciales. Folia suberecta, conferta, 3-5 lin. longa, valde angusta, supra canaliculata, flavescentia, 
marginibus basi inflexis ; perichatialia vaginantia \-\ breviora, basi dilatata. Seta 3 lin. longa, pallida, vix tortilis. 

* Though very averse to the system of changing names, we should not feel ourselves justified in allowing that 
of Holomitrium, founded, as the name is, upon incorrect characters drawn from imperfect specimens, to remain. In 
proposing that of Sprueea for this fine genus, we commemorate the services rendered to British Botany, and espe- 
cially to Muscology, by our acute friend, Mr. Richard Spruce, of York. 

CampbeUs Islands] FLORA ANTARCTICA. 129 

Theca suberecta, curvata, brunnea, siccitate infra orem contracta, denmni obscure striata. Bentes suberecti, inciirvi, 
rubri. Operculum capsulani sequans, rostro gi'acili, curvato. 

The above description has been drawn up from original specimens, gathered by Mr. Mcnzies (during Vancouver's 
Voyage) in Dusky Bay, New Zealand. This plant differs from B.fasciatum, Hedw. (Sp. Muse. p. 127. t. 28.), in the 
longer, more setaceous, nerved leaves, solitary seta, and oblong theca. Two closely allied forms occur in Herb. Hook., 
one having longer stems and more rigid, lurid green leaves, suddenly dilated at the base ; the other with lax spreading 

Plate LVIII. Fig. IV. — 1, plant of the natural size; 2, part of branch with theca; 3, leaf; 4, lower part of 
ditto ; 5, theca : — magnified. 

2. Diceanum pungens, Hook. fil. et Wils. ; caule elongate subramoso, foliis secundis patentibus lineari- 
lanceolatis attenuatis convolutis apice carinatis serrulatis tenuinerviis, perichsetialibus elongatis convolutis, 
seta mediocri torta, tlieca inelinata oblonga curvula, operculo longirostro. (Tab. LIX. Fig. I.) 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island ; barren in the latter locality. 

Caules 3-4-unciales, robusti, erecti v. curvati, parcc ramosi. Folia 4-5 lin. longa, conferta, patentia, subrigida, 
inferiora subscpiarrosa, superiors dense congesta, supra carinata, marginibus apices versus dorsoque serratis, ple- 
rumque arete convolutis, nervo tenui, luteo-vii'idia, nitida, siccitate supra medium torta ; periclia/ialia intima 8 lin. 
longa, enervia, convoluta, integerrima. Seta interduni binse, 8-9 lin. longse, graciles, subflexuosa?, rubra?, siccitate 
tortae. Tlieca parvula, elliptico-oblonga, subcurvata, basi vix strumosa, rufo-bruimea, siccitate infra orem contracta. 
Denies pro genere parvi, conniventes, demum supra medium fissi, ferruginei. Operculum (delapsum) theca longius, 
curvirostrum. Calyptra straminea. 

This very handsome species resembles the B. Blumii, Schwaeg. (Suppl., vol. ii. pt. 2. p. 116. 1. 185), inaccu- 
rately described as nerveless, but differs essentially in the form of the theca. B. Billardieri has shorter and broader 
leaves, and larger theca?. In B. setosum, nobis, a nearer ally, the leaves are more setaceous and fragile, the nerve 
broader, and occupying the whole breadth towards the apex, the capsule is longer and more curved, the peristome 
larger and of a red colour, and the seta not twisted when dry. 

Plate LIX. Fig. I — 1, a specimen of the natural size ; 2, front, and 3, back view of a leaf; 4, young theca ; 
5, martvre ditto ; 6, teeth : — magnified. 

3. Dicraxoi Billardieri, Schwaeg. ; caule elongato dichotome ramoso, foliis subsecundis basi lanceo- 
latis longe acuminatis denticulatis, theca strumosa, operculo longirostro. D. Billardieri, Schwaeg. Suppl. 
vol. ii. pt. 1. p. 70. t. 121. 

Var. 0, dwriuseulum ; caule humili fastigiatim ramoso, foliis magis rigiclis attenuatis, nervo latiore, seta 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; on the ground and dead trunks of trees in woods, both varieties. 

The habit of the var. ft which also grows on the more exposed uplands, is rather peculiar ; still we can find no 
specific distinction between them. The B. Nova Hollander, Hornsch., does not appear different from this species. 

4. Dicrantjm setosum, Hook. til. et Wils. ; caule fragili subramoso, foliis strictis fragihbus suberectis 
longissime lanceolato-setaceis apice serrulatis nervo latiusculo subexcurrente, seta longiuscula, theca oblonga 
curvata, operculo longirostro. (Tab. LVIII. Pig. V.) 

Var. p, attenuatum ; caule flexOi elongato ramoso. (Tab. LVIII. Eg. V. 2.) 

2 A 

130 FLORA ANTARCTICA. [Auckland and 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island ; on the ground, at the roots of trees in the woods. 
Var. /3, Campbell's Island. 

Caules 1-2 unciales et ultra, densi, fragiles. Folia semiuncialia, nitida, fiavida, solidinervia, nervo in aristam 
longam excurrente ; perichatialia abbreviata, vaginantia, basi dilatata. Seta 1 une. longa, crassiuscula, vix torta. 
Theca suberecta, arcuata, substruinosa. Operculum tbeca longius, rostro tenui curvato. Calyptra fusca, apice 

We are not acquainted with any species with which the present could be confounded. _D. longisetum, Hook., 
has the leaves of a similar form, but their nerve is very broad and indistinct, and the theca is erect. D. eapillaceum, 
Brid. (Bryol. Univ., vol. ii. p. 460), differs in the striated capsule. The stems of the var. /3 are four inches long. 

Plate LYIII. Fig. V.— 1, a tuft, of the natural size ; 2, a stem of var. /3, of the natural size ; 3 and 4, leaves ; 
5, theca and calyptra; 6, operculum: — magnified. 

13. CAMPYLOPUS, Brid. 

Peristomium simplex ; dentibus sedecim, bifidis v. bipartitis, imperforatis, cruribus sequalibus. Calyptra conica, 
fissa, rarius integra, basi fimbriato-lacera v. subciliata. TJieca sequalis, exannulata, exapophysata, nunc basi inaquali 

1. Campylopus introficxus, Brid. ; caule erecto ramoso, foliis imbricatis e basi lata lanceolatis acuminatis 
piliferis nervo lato excurrente, seta madore curvata, theca elliptica striata, operculo conico. C. introflexus, 
Brid. Bnjol. Univ. vol. i. p. 472. Dicranum, Hedio. Sjh Muse. p. 147. t. 29. fig. 1-7. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island; growing both in moist and thy places on the lulls. 

This species is remarkable for the divergence of the filiform apices of its leaves and the broad nerve which is 
obscurely lamellated at the back, their margins also are so inflexed as to give them a subulate appearance. The nu- 
merous theca; arise from aggregated perichretia and are quite buried and concealed amongst the fobage. New 
Holland specimens of this moss exist in the Hookerian Herbarium under the name of D. pudicum, Hornsch. D. 
capitifiorum, Pal. de Beauv., from Bourbon, has more strict leaves, more distinctly lamellated at the back. 

2. Campylopus flexuosus, Brid. ; caule erecto subramoso, foliis rigidiusculis concavis subulatis acumi- 
natis nervo lato continuo, seta curvata, theca ovata striata, operculo recto cuspidato. C. flexuosus, Brid. 
Bryol. Univ. vol. ii. p. 469. Dicranum, Hedw. Sp. Muse. p. 146. t. 38. f. 1-6. Rook, et Tayl, Muse. Brit. 
p. 94. 1. 16. 

Hab. Campbell's Island; barren. 

14. LOPHIODON* JIooLfl. et Will. 

Peristomium simplex ; dentibus sedecim, pyrainidatis, per paria approximatis. Calyptra cucuLUformis. 

This genus corresponds with the Cynodon of Bridel, a preoccupied name. The present species does not accord 
with Schwaegrichen's definition of Cynodontium, and we are thus obbged to establish a genus for its reception. 

1. Lophiodox strictus, Hook. fil. et Wils. (Tab. LIX. Pig. II.) 
Var. j3, foliis longioribus flavidis, theca majore. 

* Nomen e Xocjuov parva crista et 68ovs dens. 

Campbell's Islands.] FLOKA ANTAECTICA. 131 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island; on moist rocks at an altitude of 1200 feet in 
the former locality, descending lower in the latter. Var. 0, Lord Auckland's group, with the former. 

Caules sesquiuneiales, esespitosi, fastigiatim ramosi, ramis gracilibus. Folia erecta, subsecunda, striata, sicci- 
tate appressa, subrigida, longe lineari-setacea, basi lauceolata, vaginantia, flavo-viridia, inferiora nigrescentia ; nervo 
valido continuo, apicem versus obtusurn denticulatuin paido dilatato ; periclteetialia majora, convoluta. Infores- 
centia dioica ; Fl. masc. terminalis, geumiiforrais. Seta vix uncialis, pallida, subtorta. Tlieca erecta, ovata, cylin- 
dracea, basi rotunda, badia, lsevis, nitida. Peristoma denies breves, fere horizontals, rnadore conniventes, siccitate 
erecti, pallide ferruginei. Annulus majusculus. Spora inajusculae. Operculum conico-rostratiun, erectiun, theca 
paido longior. Calyptra tlieca longior, scariosa, fusca, latere fissa. 

The singular apex of the leaf distinguishes this species, even in a barren state, from JFei-ssia contecta, or any 
similar moss. 

Plate LIX. Fig. I. — 1 and 2, specimens of the natural size ; 3 and 4, leaves ; 5 and 6, theca? ; 7, peristome ; 
8, teeth ; 9, calyptra : — magnified. 

15. CEEATODON, Brid, 

Perktomium simplex ; dentibus basi liberis, bipartitis, eruribus trabeculisque horizontalibus connexis, superne 
solutis, flexuosis. Calyptra cuculliformis. Tlieca imequalis, annulata, tandem profuude sulcata, substrumosa. — Cera- 
todon, Brid. Brgol. Univ., vol. i. p. 480. 

1. Ceratodon purjmreus, Brid. ; 1. c. Didyniodon purpureus, Hook, et Tayl. Muse. Brit. p. 113. t. 20. 
Dicranurn, Iledwig, S<p. Muse, p, 130. t. 36. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island; on the ground, abundant. 


Perktomium simplex; dentibus 32-64, brevibus, inflexis, cartilagineis, apicibus membrana horizontali (epi- 
phragma) connexis. Tlieca cxanmdata, ore epiphragmate (e columellas apice dilatato) clausa. Calyptra cuculliformis, 
glabra, v. indusio villoso e pibs intertextis obtecto. Tlieca exannulata. — Psilopdum, Catharinea, Pogonatum et 
Polytrichiuu, Bridel et auctorum. 

We would gladly avail ourselves of Bruch and Schimper's subdivisions of this genus, as proposed in the ' Bryo- 
logia Europaea,' did not the antarctic species prove them to be unnatural. Even the European species, do not coin- 
cide with the views of those authors, for the Pogonatum naiunn, Br. and S., has the inner membrane of the sporangium 
surrounding the columella perfectly cylindrical, and thus is at variance with their definition ; and there is nothing 
essentially different between its structure and that of Atrickum, of the corresponding membrane in which no mention 
is made. This inner sporuliferous lining of the columella exists in all mosses, as well as in the Atrickum undulatum. 
Br. and S., and is the portion of the seminal sac, which, being inverted at the base, ascends the axis of the theca 
surrounding the columella ; it forms the visible columella ; the tissue itself, being often of extreme tenuity, is fre- 
quently overlooked and its continuity with the sporular membrane is not always evident. We have attempted to 
explain this structure at p. 120, under Sphagnum. That the characters derived from the calyptra are not of generic 
value is proved by that organ being exposed in P. magellanicum and dendroides, which have otherwise all the cha- 
racters of Pogonatum. The origin of the villous hairs composing the outer calyptra of many species and their 
original attachment to the vagiuula did uot escape the notice of Ehrhart and Mohr and subsequently of Wahlenberg, 
although overlooked by Bruch and Schimper, whose analyses of the genera of mosses are unequalled in point of exe- 

132 FLORA ANTAECTICA. [Auckland and 

cution. The origin of these hairs in no way argues the absence of paraphyses, which those authors observe, and 
which are sufficiently perceptible though of only half the diameter of the hairs themselves, these are perfectly straight 
and inserted near the base of the vaginula. 

1. Poiathichum magellanicum, Hedw. ; caule ramoso, foliis rigidis patentibus recurvis basi ovatis 
vaginantibus delude subulatis serratis, theca inclinata v. horizontali oblonga serni-cylindracea supra plana, 
operculo conico-rostrato, calyptra glabra. P. magellanicum, Hedw. Sj). Muse, p. 101. t. 20. f. 1, 2. Catha- 
rinea, Brid. Bryol. Univ. vol. ii. p. 106. (Tab. LIX. Kg. III.) 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; moist ground, amongst grass near the tops of the lulls. 

Theca junior erecta, matiua inclinata, tandem horizontalis, basi subgibbosa, fusco-bmnnea. 

In the peculiar form of the capsule (ill represented in Hedwig's figure) and in general habit, this moss bears a 
strong similarity to Baicsonia ; Menzies, who describes the theca as subcylindrical in the Limiaean Transactions 
(vol. it. p. 71.), is the only observer who has remarked its peculiar structure. The naked calyptra allies this species 
to the Catharinea of Bridel, whence some may include it under the division called Pogonatum by Bruch and Schim- 
per ; on the other hand, the absence of an apophysis will connect it with Oligotrichum. From Polytrichum of Bruch. 
and Sehimper, it differs in wanting proper angles on the capsule, and from Atrichum, of the same authors, in having 
the inner or inverted portion of the sporular membrane surrounding the columella 4-winged. 

Tins moss is found in as low a south latitude as Brazil, from whence we have seen specimens collected by Baddi 
and named Catharinea pseudo-poly i richmn , and there are others in the Herbarium formed by Jlr. Gardner. It varies 
in the length and somewhat in the disposition of the leaves, which are sometimes widely spreading and squarrose, 
but in the specimens now under consideration, they are shorter than in others from Cape Horn. The seta is also 
of variable length. 

Plate LEX. Fig. III. — 1, a specimen of the natural size ; 2 and 3, leaves ; 4, young theca ; 5, mature ditto ; 
6, teeth; 7, transverse section of theca; 8, calyptra :— -magnified. 

17. CONOSTOMUM, Swartz. 

Peristomium simplex ; dentibus sedeeim, in conum persistentcm conniventlbus, apicibus subulatis. Calyptra 
brevissima, conico-subulata, stricta, latere fissa. Theca subinsequalis, exannulata. 

1. Con'ostomum australe, Swartz; caule erecto valde ramoso, ramis fastigiatis obscure pentagonis, 
foliis densis arete imbricatis lineari-lauceolatis acuminatis supremis longe piliferis, theca cernua subrotun- 
data v. ovato-globosa. C. australe, Swartz in Schroder, Neu Bot. Jovrn. vol. i. pt. 3. p. 31. t. 6. Schcaeg. 
Suppl., vol. i. pt. 1. p. 80. and pt. 2. p. 108. 1. 130. Brid. Bryol. Univ. vol. i. p. 152. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island; on moist rocks, at a considerable elevation. 

Conoslomum has recently been united with Bartramia, by Bruch and Sehimper. The genus is still an emi- 
nently natural one. It is not upon the most evident characters, such as the various species of Polytriclium present, 
however constant they may be, that natural genera can in many cases be founded. 

18. BAETEAMIA, Hedw. 

Peristomitim duplex ; externa dentes sedeeim, iuflexi ; interim membrana carinata, in lacinias sedeeim integras 
bifidasve fissa, ciliis interjectis v. nullis. Calyptra cucidliformis. Theca globosa v. ovato-globosa rarius elongata, 
insequalis; ore obliquo, exannulato. — Philonotis et Bartramia, Brid. Bryol. Univ. vol. ii. p. 15 et 32. 

Campbell's Islands.] FLORA ANTARCTICA. 133 

1. Bartrahia patens, Brid. ; caule erecto subramoso, foliis patentibus rigidis linearibus aeuminatis 
serrulatis basi dilatatis vaginantibus, tlieca obliqua, operculo couvexo. B. patens, Brid. Bri/ol. Univ. vol. ii. 
p. 38. Schwaeg. Suppl. vol. i. pt. 2. p. 55. t. 62. B. squarrosa, Turner in Koenig's Annals of Botany, vol. i. 
p. 583. t. 2. f. 2. 

Hab. Campbell's Island ; on rocks, half way up the lulls ; barren. 

Allied to B. ithyphylla, Brid. ; but larger, with the leaves longer and more dilated at the base. 

2. Baiitramia robusta, Hook. fd. et Wils. ; caule erecto subramoso, foliis patentibus rigidis subulatis 
serrulatis basi quadratis vaginantibus nervo lato continuo, seta crassiuscula, theca erecta, operculo coirico 
rostellato. (Tab. LIX. Fig. IV.) 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island ; in moist places, especially towards the tops of 
the bills ; barren in the latter island. 

Caules csespitosi, pollicares, robusti, basi radiculis intertexis fuscis dense obtecti et connexi. Folia densa, rigida, 
subfragilia, nervo latissimo crasso superne supra paginam folii totani extenso, flavo-viridia, inferiora subrufescentia. 
Infiorescentia dioica ; Fl. masc. teraiinalis ; antheridiis plurimis oblongis, paraphysibus longioribus immixtis. Seta 
8 lin. longa, valida, baud torta, rubra. Theca erecta, globosa, brunnea, siccitate sulcata. Peristomium non visum, 
an nullum ? Operculum couico-rostellatum, luteum. Calyptra fusca. 

A more robust species than the B. patens, with broader and more rigid leaves, their dilated bases truly quad- 
rate. The capsule is perfectly erect and the operculum rosteliate. It essentially differs from the former in the 
dioecious inflorescence. The thecae are not in a fit state to show the peristome, if this moss really possesses one, of 
wliich we have some doubt. This is uot distinguishable from the B. potosica of Montague (Ann. Se. Nat., 2nd 
Series, vol. ix. p. 56), judging only from the description of that author ; but an examination of authentic specimens 
proves the two truly distinct, the latter being more closely allied to B. patens, though having shorter leaves with their 
bases not quadrate, but oblong or almost obovate. 

Plate LIX. Fig. IV. — 1, plant of the natural si;e ; 2 and 3, leaves ; 4 and 5, theca ; 6, old ditto ; 7, calyptra : 
— magnified. 

3. Barteamia pendida, Hook. ; caule subpinnatim ramoso fastigiato, foliis ovato-lanceolatis longe 
aciumnatis-serrulatis striatis nervo continuo, tlieca pendula ovato-globosa subcyliudracea sulcata, operculo 
planiusculo. B. pendula, llooh. Muse. Exot. t. 21. Philonotis pendida, Brid. Bri/ol. Univ. vol. ii. p. 27. 
Milium pendulum, Smith in Linn. Trans, vol. vii. p. 262. 

Hab. Campbell's Island ; frequent in marshy places, always barren. 
Variable in aspect and sometimes resembling B. fontana. 

19. BRYUM, Bill. 

Peristomium duplex ; exterius dentes sedecim, asquidistantes, lanceolati, simplices ; interim membrana tenera, 
sedecim cariuata, in processus totidem dorso earinatos producta, ciliis aut mulis aut plurimis filiformibus interjectis, 
dentibus extends oppositis. Calyptra parvula, cuculbfonuis. Theca inclinata v. pendula, oblonga, pyriformis v. 
clavata, plerumque annulata, collo brevissimo v. elongato instructa. Caules apices verms innovantes. — Bryurn, "VVebera, 
Pohlia, Cladodium, et Ptychostomum, Bridel et auctorum. 

In the generic character, given above, we have closely followed that of Bruch and Schimper (Bryol. Europ.), 
though not satisfied of the propriety of excluding Mnium. 

■2 B 

134 FLORA ANTAECTICA. {Auckland and 

1. Brytm nutans, Schreb. ; caule subramoso breviusculo v. elongato, fobis superioribus elongato-lan- 
ccolatis apice serratis inferioribus ovato-lanceolatis integerriniis, theca nutante v. pendula oblongo-pj-riformi 
longitudine varia, operculo majusculo convexo papillate B. nutans, Schreber, Fl. Lips. p. 81. Hook, et 
Tayl. Muse. Brit. p. 203. t. 29. Bruch et Scliimper, Bryol. Europ. Fasc. 6-9, p. 34. t. 12. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group; on the hills, at an altitude of 1000 feet; rare, growing in a peaty soil. 

The description given above is mainly taken from the ' Bryologia Europsea,' the authors of which add to the 
specific character " hermaphroiUtum, antheridiis per paria in foliorum summorum perichartialiunique axillis inque 
archegonioriun receptacido." The Auckland Island specimens are immature and vary in size, but coincide well 
with others of British growth. This is a moss of a high arctic as well as antarctic latitude. 

2. Beytjm Wahlenbergii, Schwaeg. ; caule simplici erecto v. ascendente, foliis apices versus serratis in- 
ferioribus remotis ovatis acuininatis, caulinis confertis lanceolatis costa evanida instructis, theea inclinata v. 
pendula brevi pjrifonni, operculo convexo v. subconico mamillato, dentibus majusculis. B. Wahlenbergii, 
Schwaeg. Suppl. vol. i. pt. 2. p. 92. t. 70. Bruch et Schbnper, Bryol. Europ. Fasc. G-9, p. 44. t. 19. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; barren. (Br. By all.) 
The inflorescence of this moss is dioecious. 

3. Brytjm llaadnm, Hook. fil. et TTils. ; caule subsimplici, foliis imbricatis erecto-patentibus oblongis 
obtusis integerrimis concavis, nervo tenui subcontinuo, theca — ? (Tab. LX. Fig. I.) 

Hab. Campbell's Island ; in boggy places, frecoient, but barren. 

Caules pollicares, csespitosi, parce ramosi, flaccidi. Folia subereeta, laxe imbricata, valde concava, membranacea, 
pellucida, laxe reticulata, areolis rhomboideo-hexagonis, marginibus non reflexis, siccitate appressa, contracta, nitida, 
iufima rubella v. rosea, superiora pallide viridia, nervo rubello sub apicem v. evanido. Fructus deest. 

A very beautiful moss, remarkable for its brilliant reddish and very membranous foliage. Allied to B. celhdare, 
Hook, (in Schwaeg. Suppl., t. 211 a, idem ac Poldia tiirhhiata, Schwaeg., I.e. t. 194?); but the leaves are larger, 
much more concave and obtuse, and the stems longer. 

Plate LX. Fig. I. — 1, and 2, specimens of the natural she ; 3, a portion of a branch and leaves ; 4, leaf : — 

4. Bbtum truncorum, Brid. ; caule erecto subsimplici, fobis marginatis obovatis serratis longe acuini- 
natis supremis rosulatis, theca pendula elongata cyHndracea, operculo brevi conico apice acuto. B. truncorum, 
Brid. Bryol. Univ. vol. i. p. 699. 

Hab. Campbell's Island ; in moist exposed places, barren. 

These specimens seem to be of the same species as others gathered in New Zealand with capsules, and which 
agree well with Bridel's description of B. truncorum, a Bourbon plant, detected by Bory de St. Vincent. Our moss 
is closely allied to the B. ramosum, Hook. (Ic. Plant, t. 20. f. 2), and also to B. patens, Hook, and TA lis. (Lond. 
Journ. of Bot., vol. iii. p. 155), from which latter, as also from B. roseum, it differs in the margined leaves and in 
the remarkably narrow elongated theca. It is perhaps the B. leptothecium, Tayl. MSS. 

5. Bryoi (innulatuiii, Hook. fil. et \Tils.; caule perbrevi, fobis patentibus subrigidis ovato-lanceolatis 
acutis integerrimis sobdinerviis, theca pendida ovata, operculo conico, annulo latissimo. (Tab. LX. Fig. II.) 

Hab. Campbell's Island ; on the low grounds, scarce. 

Campbell's Islands.] FLORA ANTARCTICA. 135 

Caules cfespitosi, 2 tin. longi. Folia conferta, subeoncava, nervo crasso continuo vix excurrente instructa, sic- 
citate uon crispata. Seta 3-4 tin. longa, apice arcuata. Theca subobovata. Peristoma externi dentes lutei, tra- 
becular, trabecutis reniotis. Aunulus rnagnus, iusignis, longitudine i peristomii exterioris. 

We advance this species with much hesitation and after a very carefid examination. It is most nearly allied 
to the B. balanoides (Tayl. MSS.), of which it may possibly be a variety, differing from that moss in the rigid and 
differently shaped leaves, in the large annulus and distant trabecidse of the outer teeth. The capsule is not suffici- 
ently mature to show the nature of the cilia; of the inner peristome. 

Plate LX. Tig. II. — 1, a specimen of the natural she ; 2, 3, 4, and 5, leaves ; 6. theca : — magnified. 

20. FUNARIA, Sclireb. 

Peristomium duplex ; exterius dentes sedecim, obtiqui, apice cohgerentes ; interim cilia totidem membranacea, 
basi connata, v. membrana plana, in ciliis 16, dcntibus oppositis, fissa. Cahjptra cucullifomiis, ventricosa, basi 
subtetragona. Theca inrcquatis, piriformis, cernua, saspius annulata. 

1. Fuxaria hygrometriea, Hedw. ; caule brevissimo subsiniplici, foliis appressis ovato-lanceolatis inte- 
gerrimis nervo excurrente, seta arcuata rnadore torta, theca cernua pyriforrni profuude sulcata, operculo 
planiusculo. F. hygrometriea, Hedw. Sjj. Muse. p. 170, et auctorum. 

Hab. Campbell's Island ; frequent on the hills ; not seen in Lord Auckland's group. 

The absence of this moss, in the parts of Lord Auckland's group explored by the expedition, is very remark- 
able, considering its abundance in Campbell's Island, and is doubtless owing to the presence of carbonized matter 
over the surface of a great part of the latter island. In the Antarctic regions, as in Europe, the Funaria invariably 
follow fires, and the confervoid filaments of its youngest state constitute the first appearance of vegetation on the 
burnt soil of the Falkland Islands. 

21. ANCECTANG1UM, Brid. 

Stoma nudum. Calyptra cuculliformis. Theca sequalis, exannulata. Seta lateralis. — Hedwigia, Hook. Muse. Fxot. 

1. Amcectangiuji Humhohlti, Brid.; caule erecto diviso pinnathn ramoso, ramis deflexis subrecurvis, 
foliis hnbricatis obovatis concavis enerviis piliferis, theca subglobosa sulcata, operculo basi planiusculo oblique 
rostrate A. Hiunboldti, Brid. Bryol. Univ. vol. ii. p. 165. Hedwigia, Hook. Muse. Bxot. t. 137. Sehwaeg. 
Snppl. vol. ii. pt. 1. p. 9. t. 103. 

Var. /3, australe ; caule breviore, foliis acutis seta recta breviore terminatis marginibus nou cartilagineis. 

ELvb. Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island; on moist rocks, at an elevation of 1100 feet in 
the former and 600 in the latter island. 

The original specimen, figured in the ' Musei Exotici,' has the leaves terminated by a slender hair-like produc- 
tion of their own length, whilst others, gathered by Dr. Lyall at Rio, are muticous in that respect ; those now 
before us are intermediate, and some others from Cape Horn more closely resemble the moss of the Andes. 

22. LEUCODOjST, Sehwaeg. 
Peristomium simplex, membranaceum ; dentibus sedecim, bipartitis. Calyptra cuculliformis. 

136 FLORA ANTARCTICA. [Auckland and 

1. Leucodon Lagurus, Hook.; caule rarnoso toinentoso, foliis irnbricatis ovatis coneavis aciuninatis 
piliferis seminerviis, theca erecta cylindracea, operculo acnjninato. L. Lagurus, Hook. Muse. Exot. t. 136. 
Sckwaeg. Swppl. vol. i. pt. 1. p. 121. 1. 133. 

Var. /3, foliis ruajoribus ima basi biuerviis. 

Hab. Campbell's Island; on rocks, at an elevation of 1000 feet, barren. 

In the original specimens the leaves are generally nerved half-way up ; in the present they possess two very 
short nerves ; but the variety is not otherwise distinguishable from the Antarctic American plant. 

23. LESKIA, Hedmg. 

Peristomium duplex ; exterius dentes sedeeim acuti ; interim membrana in dentibus sedecim ajquilongis fissa. 
Calyptra cucnlliformis. 

1. Leskia concinna, Hook. ; caule erecto bipinnatim ramoso, foliis distickis oblongis acuminatis mar- 
ginatis apice serratis evanidinerviis stipulis conformibus duplo brevioribus, theca suberecta oblonga, operculo 
subulato. L. concinna, Hook. Muse. Exot. t. 34. Sckicaeg. Siippl. t. 269. Hvpopterygiuni, Bridel, Bryol. 
Univ. vol. ii. p. 711. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group; shady rocks on the tops of the lulls, altitude 1200-1100 feet. 

This moss, which is furnished with accessory leaves (stipules) on the lower surface of the stem, belongs to the 
same group as Hypnum landman, Hook. (Muse. Exot. t. 35), and L. rotulata, Hedw., they should perhaps be separated 
from Leskia and from LTookeria, to which they are in some respects allied. Bridel's genus Hypopterygium is so 
constructed as not to admit of these, the fertile flowers being lateral and not covered by the stipules, and the ealyptra 
truly dimidiate instead of mitriform. In Pterigynandrum ciliatum, Hedw., which has the habit of this group, the 
peristome is single. 

2. Leskia tamariscina, Hedw. ; caule flabellatim ramoso, ramis subdivisis, fobis disticliis oblicpie 
lanceolatis serrulatis evanidinerviis, stipulis rotundatis rnucronatis, theca oblonga subpendula, operculo conico 
rostellato. L. tamariscina., Hedw. Sjj. Muse. p. 212. t. 51. (excl. si/n. Swartziifid. Hook.). H-qioptery- 
gium, Brid. Bryol. Univ. vol. ii. p. 715. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group; barren. {Br.Lyall.) 

According to the remark in Hooker's Muse. Exot. (sub. t. 35), the name Leskia tamariscina of Swartz (Fl. Ind. 
Occ), should be substituted for that of L. rotulata, Hedw. We are not aware that any subsequent author has no- 
ticed the curious tubular setiform processes in the axillae of the leaves aud sometimes of the stipides in this moss. 

3. Leskia Novee-Hottandia, Sckwaeg. ; caule erecto siinplici, foliis disticliis oblongo-lanceolatis apice 
denticulatis nervo in cuspidem excurrente, seta basilari elongata, theca ascendente cylindracea. L. Novje 
Hollandia?, Sckwaeg. Snjgj?. vol. i. pt. 2. p. 160. t. 83. Rliizogonium, Brid. Bryol. Univ. vol. 2. p. 664. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; on the trunks of trees in the deepest and darkest recesses of the woods ; 
scarce and barren. 

21. HYPNUM, Bill. 

Peristomium duplex ; exterius dentes sedecim, lanceolati, reflexdes ; interim membrana carinata, in cilia totidem 
interdum pertusa ciliolis interjectis fissa. Calyptra cucidliformis. — Isothecium, Hypmmi et Stereodon, Bridel. 

Campbell's Islands.] FLORA ANTARCTICA. 137 

a. Foliis distichis. 

1. Hypxtjm lif art uiti , Hook. ; caule erecto subpimiatim rarnoso, foliis remotis erccto-patcutibus distichis 
lanceolatis margiuatis duplicato-serratis sobdinerviis, theca horizontali ovata, operculo conico acuminato. 
H. bifariurn, Hook. Muse. Exot. t. 57. Schwaeg. Svppl. t. 257, a. Isothecium, Brid. Bryol. Univ. vol. ii. 
p. 35G. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; ou the dead trunks of trees. 

The serratures of the leaves are composed of a double row of spines, as in E. spiniforme. The operculum is 
half the length of the theca, shorter and less acuminated than in the figure in ' Musci Exotici.' 

b. Foliis imbricatis. 
* Foliis solidineniis* 

2. Hypxuii spiniforme, L. ; caule erecto subsimpbei, foliis patentibus lineari-subulatis marginatis du- 
plicato- spinuloso-serratis soliclinerviis, seta subbasilari, theca ovata arcuata, operculo oblique conico rostrato. 
H. spiniforme, Linn. Sji. PL p. 15S7. Hedwig, Mmc.vol. iii. p. 59. t. 25. Brid. Bryol. Univ. vol. ii. p. 557. 

Var. (3, caule gracili, foliis brevioribus lanceolato-subulatis luridis. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; var. /3, under large tussacks of grass on the lulls, rare and barren. 

Neither in this nor in any other specimens of H. spiniforme have we seen the leaves to be bifarious. 

3. Hypxtjm elongat/im, Hook. fil. et Vfils. ; caule elongato robusto subramoso, ramis elongatis, foHis 
erecto-patentibus ovato-lauceolatis nervo excurrente apiculatis serrulatis striatis. (Tab. LX. Fig. IH.) 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island ; in dry rocky places on the lulls, rare and always 

Caules 4-6 unciales, basi procumbentes, deinde ascendentes, incurvi, parce et vage ramosi. Folia suberecta, 
dense imbricata, serrulata, phcato-striata, siccitate erecta, subtorta, nervo tenui hi apiculum exsertum suhelongatmn 
desinente instructa, flavo-viridia, nitida, inferiora sordide viridia, dorso papulosa, areolis minutis oblongis, basi mar- 
ginibusque pellncidis reticulatis. 

This moss closely resembles the H. densumf, Swartz (Fl. Ind. Occ), which is but ill represented in Hedwig's 
' Species Musconun.' 

Plate LX. Fig. III. — 1, a specimen, of the natural size; 2, leaf: — magnified. 

4. Hypxoi consimile, Hook. fil. et Wils. ; caule elongato subramoso debili, foliis erecto-patentibus 
supremis secundis ovato-lauceolatis acuminatis serrulatis striatis nervo subexcurrente. (Tab. LX. Fig. IV.) 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; iu marshy places on the hills, barren. 

* The subdivisions here proposed appear to us more natural than those in general use, of which they are in 
some respects modifications. 

f An original specimen of this iu Herb. Hook, may be thus characterized ; 

H. densum, Sw. ; foliis lanceolatis acuminatis argute serratis fragilibus siccitate striatis evanidinervhs (areolis 
rotundatis) margine basi pimctatis. H. densum, Swartz, Fl.Ind. Occ, p. 1S29. 

Hab. Jamaica; roots of trees on the Blue Mountains, {Swartz). 

2 c 

13S FLORA ANTARCTICA. [Auckland and 

Caules 3-4 unciales, graciles, laxe enespitosi, parce ramosi ; ramis erectis. Folia laxe inabricata ut in H. elon- 
gate/, sed multo minora et e basi subquadrata gradatim attenuata, minute serrulata, nervo valido apice incrassato 
subexcurrente instructa, areolis minimis subrotiindis v. punctiformibus. 

This moss might readily be taken for a slender state of the H. elongatum, nobis, from which it is truly distinct 
iu the lower part of the leaf being subquadrate, angled on each side a little above the base, thence tapering gradually 
to a point, in the margin being more minutely serrated, the nerve stronger, and in the smaller reticidation. 

Plate LX. Fig. TV. — 1, a specimen of the natural size ; 2 and 3, leaves ; 4, portion of a leaf, shewing the reti- 
cidation : — Magnified. 

5. Hypnum seabrifolium, Hook. fil. et TVils. ; caule pinnatim ramoso, foliis laxe imbricatis ovato-lan- 
ceolatis acuminatis margine scabris dorso papulosis nervo valido subexcurrente. (Tab. LX. Fig. VI.) 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; barren. (I)/: Lj/all.) 

Caules unciales et ultra, ramis interdum divisis. Folia cauHna dissita, patentia, subrecurva ; ramulina minora, 
laxe imbricata, ereeto-patentia, vix secunda, siccitate incurva, nervo continuo, omnia margine scabra subdenticulata, 
glaucescentia, areolis minimis punctiformibus opacis. 

This is one of the discoveries of my zealous friend Dr. Lyall, the value of whose collection is particularly noticed 
in the preface to this work. The number of mosses and sea-weeds especially, brought home from the Antarctic 
regions, was much increased through that officer's unwearied exertions. 

Nearly allied to the H. crispifolium, Hook. (Muse. Exot. t. 31), but smaller, with the leaves neither plicate nor 

Plate LX. Fig. XI. — 1, a specimen of the natural she; 2, a branch; 3 "and 4, leaves; 5, apex of ditto: — 

* * Foliis riiptinerviis. 

6. Hypxum rutabuhim, L.; caule procurnbente vage ramoso, rarnis subcompressis, foliis patentibus 
laxe imbricatis ovatis acuminatis subserrulatis nervo ad medium evanido, seta scabra, theca cernua ovata, 
operculo conico. H. rutabuhim, Linn. Sp. PI. p. 1590. Hedw. Muse. Frond, vol. iv. p. 29. 1. 12. Hoot, 
et Tai/l. Muse. Brit. p. 176. t, 26. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island ; in marshy situations. 
There are two varieties in the collection, both of them ban-en. 

7. Hypntjm serpens, L. ; caule subpiimatim ramoso, ramulis simpliciuscuks filiformibus suberecti^, 
foliis patentibus ovatis acuminatis evanidinerviis, tlieca cernua oblonga, operculo convexo subconico acuto. 
H. serpens, Finn. Sjj. PI. p. 1596. Hedwig, Muse. Frond, vol. iv. p. 45. 1. 18. Hook, et Tayl. Muse. Brit. 
p. 155. t. 21. 

Var. /3 ; foliis subsolidinerviis. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; the var. (3 only. (Dr. Lyall.) 

Except in the more defined nerve, this does not materially differ from British specimens. 

* * * Foliis subenermis. 

3. Htpntjm aeutifoli/'M, Hook. fil. et Wils. ; caule fastigiatim ramoso, foliis dense imbricatis suberectis 
elliptico-lanceolatis acuminatis integerrimis enerviis. (Tab. LX. Fig. V.) 

Hab. Campbell's Island. 

Campbell's Islands.] FLORA ANTARCTICA. 139 

Caulk procumbens, uncialis. Rami conferti, fastigiati, subsimplices, graeiles, fragiles. Folia subsecunda, sic- 
citate erecta, subappressa, vix pilifera, concava, luride viridia, areolis hnearibus. 

Allied to H. extenuatum, Brid., but smaller, the leaves more erect, and tapering gradually to a very narrow 

Plate LX. Fig. V. — 1, a specimen, of the natural size ; 2, portion of branch and leaves ; 3, leaf : — magnified. 

9. Hypnum chlamydophylhm, Hook. fil. et Wils. ; caule prostrate subranioso, ramis simplicibus elon- 
gatis cuspidatis, foliis imbricatis patentibus quadrato-rotundatis integerrimis basi trimcatis concavis nervo bre- 
viusculo evanido, seta elongata gracili leevi, theca cernua ovato-oblonga,, operculo conico. (Tab. LXI. Fig. I.) 

Hab. Campbell's Island ; on tlie ground, barren. 

Caules sesquiunciales, vage ramosi ; ramis 1 unc. longis, ad apices e foliis arete convolutis cuspidatis. Folia 
valde concava, ad apices rotundata, obtusissima, basi latissima, truncata, subauriculata, pallide luteo-viridia, subsca- 
riosa, pellucida, splendentia, nervo simplici infra mediimi evanido v. nervis duobus brevibus, areolis anguste oblongis 
inferioribus midto majoribus ; peric/iatialia erecta. Seta fere 1-J- unc. longa, gracilis, laevis, torta, rubra. Theca 
cernua v. horizontalis, ovato-oblonga, brunnea. Peristominm luteum. Operculum breve, theca concolor. 

Allied to H. coclilearifolium, but with the habit of a Leskia, and readily distinguished by its cuspidate branches, 
wider and more flaccid leaves which are singularly broad and truncate at the base, where also there are a number 
of large pellucid cells ; the seta also is longer and more slender. 

The above description has been drawn up in part from fertile Tasmanian specimens, gathered in that country 
by Mr. Lawrence. There are in the Hookerian Herbarium several allied uudescribed species, both from New Zea- 
land and Tasmania. A Fuegian moss, Hypnum ? aurkulatum, Mont., (Voy. au Pole Sud, Bot. Cryptog., t. 20. fig. 3), 
is the American representative of this, it differs in having the base of the leaves produced on each side into two 

Plate LXI. Fig. I. — 1, a specimen, of the natural size ; 2, 3, and 4, leaves ; 5 and 6, thecae : — magnified. 

10. Hypnum cocJdearifoUum, Sclrwaeg. ; caule subrepente, ramis ascendentibus apice radicantibus, 
foliis imbricatis subrotundis obtusiusculis concavissimis subhemispliericis enerviis, theca cernua ovata, oper- 
culo conico. H. flexile*, Hook. Muse. Exot. 1. 110. [excl. syn. Swartzii, Hedwigii, et Schwaegr.) 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island ; at the foot of precipices near the tops of the 
mountains, altitude 1200-1-100 feet; barren. 

This moss is a native of the woods of New Zealand, even as far north as lat. 30° S. ; hence its occurrence only 
at the tops of mountains in the most bleak and exposed situations of so high a latitude as Campbell's Island was 
quite unexpected. We cannot distinguish it from more luxuriant northern specimens in its barren state. 

11. Hypnum Arluscula, Sw:; caule erecto bipinnatim ramoso, foliis imbricatis erecto-patentibus ovatis 

* The Hypnum Jlexile, Hedw., is a very different moss from this, as may be inferred from the following descrip- 
tion drawn up from an authentic specimen : — 

hzsKiAjlexilis, Hedw. ; eaule pendulo subpinnatim ramoso, foHis ovato-oblongis rigidiusculis apicnlatis (apiculo 
recurvo) enerviis, perichsetialibus squarrosis, theca erecta elliptica, operculo subulato, calyptra valde pilosa. — L. flexilis, 
Hedw, Sp. Muse. p. 234. t. 58. Hypnum? Swwrtz, Prodr. p. 141. Fl. Incl. Oee. p. 1830. 

Hab. Jamaica ; on the tops of mountains in the southern parts of the island, (S/cart:). 

140 FLORA ANTARCTICA. [Auckland and 

obtusis integerrimis concavis subbinerviis, seta brevi, tlieca erecta ovata. H. Arbuscula, Smith, in Linn. 
Trans., vol. xix. p. 230. t. 23. Hook. Muse. Exot. 1. 112. Isotheciurn, Brid. Bri/ol. Univ. vol. ii. p. 372. 
Var. /3, foliis subdisticliis. H. Arbuscula, Sclnvaecj. Snppl. t. 300. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island ; rocky places on the hills ; and on the ground 
in the woods, where it was found in fruit by Dr. Lyall. Var. /3, Lord Auckland's Island ; barren. (Br. Lyall.) 

The original specimens, figured in the ' Musci Exotici,' are there correctly described as baring the leaves imbri- 
cated all round the stem, but the seta is represented too long and slender. The stems of the var. /3 are somewhat 
compressed, and the leaves thus become in a measure distichous, as shown in Schwaegrichen's figure, winch may 
indicate, a different species. The majority of our specimens agree well with the figure in ' Muse. Exot. ;' except 
that the theca is more truly elliptical and somewhat apophysate, gradually tapering downwards into a thick slightly 
curved seta, which is very Little longer than the capsule and barely exserted beyond the perichartial leaves. We 
have never seen the seta so short, or the theea so globose, as they are represented by Schwaegrichen. The arcuate 
stems sometimes root at the apex. 

c. Foliis pat id is squarrosis. 

12. Hypntjm aciculare, Brid.; caule vage ramoso, ramis sitnplicibus, foliis squarrosis ovatis acuminatis 
apice inciso-serratis subenerviis, theca incLhiata cylindracea arcuata, operculo aciculari longissimo. H. acicu- 
lare, Brid. Bri/ol. Univ. vol. ii. p. 505. Sekwaeg. Snppl. vol. ii. p. 280. t. 92. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island; on the ground in the woods, rare in fruit. 

The calyptra is remarkably long in this moss, lanceolato-subulate, slightly inflated when young, of a rich chest- 
nut-brown colour. 

d. Foliis secundis. 
* Nervosis. 

13. Hypnum comosmn, Lab. ; caule repente, ramis erectis supeme fastigiatim ramosis subdendroideis, 
foliis imbricatis subscopariis patentibus ovato-lanceolatis apice serratis nervo excurrente superioribus subse- 
cundis, theca pendula sulcata, operculo curvirostro. H. coniosum, La Billard. Fl. Nov. IIoll. vol. ii. p. 107. 
t. 253. f. 2. Schwaeg. Suppl. vol. i. pt. 2. p. 265. t. 91. Isothecium, Brid. Bryol. Univ. vol. ii. p. 374. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; forming large tufts in the woods near the sea, rarely fruiting. 
In habit this fine moss resembles some species of Bartramia. 

14. Hypnum hispidum, Hook. fil. et Wils. ; caule ramoso curvato v. arcuato, foliis imbricatis falcato- 
secundis ovatis longe acuminatis integerrimis subplicatis nervo crasso longe exserto, seta lsevi, tlieca ovata 
fequali, operculo longirostro. (Tab. LXI. Fig. II.) 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; rocky places near the tops of the hills, barren. 

Caules 2-4 unciales, vage ramosi, ramis rigidis simpliciusculis, curvatis. Folia dense imbricata, rigida, basi 
ovata, deinde setaceo-subulata, nervo valido excurrente longe acuminata, subconcava, basi obscure plieata, atro- 
viridia, siccitate suberecta, areolis minutis ; perichatialia minora, ovata, nervo longe exserto. Seta valida, flexuosa, 
a une. longa, rigida, rubra, apice arcuata. Theca sequalis, subhorizontalis, fusco-lutea, opercido aequilongo, rostro 
obliquo. Calyptra non visa. 

This is a very common moss in the northern island of New Zealand, growing on rocks, on the exposed roots of 
large forest-trees, especially of the Podocarpus dacrydioides, and upon stones in streams of water ; under the last circum- 

Campbell* Islands.] FLORA ANTARCTICA. 141 

stances the stems become much elongated, and the whole plant resembles the Ancectangium aquaticum, Hedw. The 
drawing is made from New Zealand specimens. 

Plate LXI. Fig. II. — 1, a specimen of the natural size; 2, another, of the aquatic state, also of the natural 
size; 3 and 4, leaves; 5, young theca; 6 and 7, mature theca? : — magnified. 

15. HYFmmJilieinim, L. ; caule comprcsso pinnatim rarnoso, foliis falcato-secundis lanceolatis acumi- 
natis basi cordatis solidinerviis perichsetialibus striatis, theca cernua subcylindraeea, operculo conico acuto. 
H. filicinum, Linn. Sp. PI. p. 1590. Hedw. Sp. Muse. p. 258. t. 76. f. 7-10. Hook et Tai/l. Muse. Brit. 
p. 183. t. 26. 

Var. /3, minor; caule gracili, foliis suberectis lanceolatis. 

Hab. Var. /3. Lord Auckland's group; in woods by the banks of streams. (Dr. Li/all.) 

Though the habit is more delicate than that of British specimens, we are unable to separate this moss specifically 
from II. filicinum, of which a perfectly intermediate variety occurs in the Falkland Islands. 

16. Hypnum fluitans, L. ; caule erecto v. natante subpinnatirn ranioso, foliis laxe iinbricatis falcatis 
lanceolatis acuminatis nervo ultra medium producto, theca cernua oblonga, operculo conico. H. fluitans, 
Linn. Fl. Suec. Ed. 2. p. 399. Hedw. Muse. Frond, vol. iv. p. 94. t. 36. Hook. Muse. Brit. p. 185. t. 24. 

Hab. Campbell's Island ; in swampy places, barren. 

* * Foliis enerviis. 

17. Hypnum ffraeile, Hook. fil. et Wils. ; caule rarnoso, ramis gracilibus subrecuxvis, foliis iinbricatis 
secundis erecto-patentibus ellipticis obtusiusculis concavis subdenticulatis subenerviis, perichsetialibus squar- 
rosis. (Tab. LXI. Fig. III.) 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; dry rocky places near the tops of the hills, scarce and barren. 

Caules unciales et ultra, curvati, subsimplices, nunc valde raniosi ; ramis gracilibus. Folia elliptica, subspathulata, 
minutissime denticulata, nervo infra medium evanido v. nervis duobus brevibus, areohs linearibus supremis latio- 
ribus ; perieliwtialia ovata, acuminata, serrulata, enervia. 

Allied to H. micans, Wils. (in Hook. Brit. Fl. vol. ii. p. 86), but different in the branched stems and larger 
leaves, which are not recurved at the margin. 

Plate LXI. Fig. III. — 1, a specimen of the natural size ; 2, a portion of a branch ; 3 and 4, leaves : — magnified. 

18. Hypnum cupressiforme, L. ; caule decumbente vage pinnatim rarnoso, ramis siniplicibus incurvis, 
foliis circinnato-falcatis secundis ovatoJanceolatis integerrimis subenerviis, perichsetiahbus conforrnibus, theca 
subcernua cylindracea, operculo conico cuspidate H. cupressiforme, Linn. Sji. PI. p. 1592. Hedw. Muse. 
Frond, vol. iv. p. 59. t, 23. Hook, et Tai/l. 3Iusc. Brit. p. 189. t. 27. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island ; abundant, but barren. 

19. Hypnum leptorliynclmm, Brid. ; caule subpinnatirn cliviso, foliis falcatis tortis lineari-lanceolatis 
acuminatis apice denticulatis enerviis, theca nutante oblonga, operculo longissime et tenuissime rostrato. H. 
(Stereodon) leptorhynchum, Brid. Bri/ol. Univ. vol. ii. p. 621. Sckwaeg. Sitjjpl. vol. i. pt. 2. p. 295. t. 93. 

Yar. ft seta brevior. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; both varieties on the trunks of prostrate trees, rare. 

2 D 

142 FLORA ANTARCTICA. [Auckland and 

20. Hypxi'ii Terra-Nova, Brid. ; caule pmuatim ramoso, ramis incurvis siniplicibus, foliis secundis 
circiimatim falcatis ovato-lauceolatis subintegris enerviis, perichEetialibus elongatis recurvis subcrinitis sub- 
serrulatis, tbeca suberecta cylindracea, operculo brevi conico apiculato. H. Terrfe-N 1 ova?, Brid. Brgol. Univ. 
vol. ii. p. 619. (Tab. LXI. Kg. IV.) 

Var. 0, anstrale ; foliis e basi lata gradatim attenuatis subpiliferis integerrimis. 

Hab. Var. /3. Campbell's Island ; on decayed vegetable matter in the woods. 

Our specimens do not sufficiently depart from the description of Bridel to wan-ant our considering them as a 
distinct species ; the only difference appears to lie in the entire perichsetial leaves and the cauline being probably more 
gradually attenuated from the base upwards. The seta is half an inch long. Operculum convex, subcorneal, 
or nearly hemispherical. 

Plate LXI. Fig. IV. — 1, a specimen of the natural size; 2, 3, and 4, leaves; 5 and 6, theca? : — magnified. 

25. HOOKEKIA, Sw. 

Peristomium duplex ; exterius dentes sedecim, basi liberis ; interim membrana erecta, in lacinias sedecim cari- 
natas fissa, ciliolis interjectis plermnque nullis. Calyptra mitrfeformis. 

1. Foliis marginatis midique imbricatis. 

1. Hookema nervosa, Hook. fil. et TVils. ; caule parce fastigiatim ramoso, foliis imbricatis erecto- 
patentibus ovato-lanceolaiis aenminatis carinatis marginatis integerrimis soliclinerviis, tbeca erecta ovato- 
cylindracea apophysata, calyptra basi fimbriata. (Tab. LXI. Kg. V.) 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group; on twigs of bushes in ravines, at an altitude of 500 feet, rare. 

Catdes fere l\ unciales, dense conferti, ranhs fastigiatis. Folia arete imbricata, acuminata v. longe cuspidata, 
inargirje incrassata, nervo vahdo subexcurrente, pallide viiicba, siccitate appressa, areolis rotundatis ; perichatialia 
breviora, erecta, elliptica, obtusiuscida. Seta 3-4 lin. longa, rubra, apice scabriuscula. Theca parvula, suberecta. 
Calyptra conico-subulata, basi fimbriata, apice scabriuscula, fusco-brunnea. 

This moss closely resembles the Baltonia splacJinoides, Schwaeg., and cannot be generically removed from that 
plant. It differs specifically in the inflorescence not being hermaphrodite, in the shorter peristome, in the spondes 
being twice the diameter, the calyptra twice as long, less conical, the seta shorter and thicker, the theca more ob- 
long; the leaves wider, more patent, carinate, and nerved to the very apex or beyond it. We have South American 
specimens of B. splacJinoides ; but none corresponding with the moss now before us. 

Plate LXI. Fig. V. — 1 and 2, specimens of the natural size ; 3, a leaf; 4 and 5, perichretial leaves ; 6, theca ; 
7, operculum; 8, teeth; 9, calyptra; 10, base of ditto : — magnified. 

2. Hookekia pulcliella, Hook. hi. et \Vils. ; caule procumbente distiche ramoso, ramis compressis, 
foliis confertis imbricatis subdistichis obovatis obtusis marginatis seminerviis, theca suberecta oblonga apo- 
physata, operculo rostrato, calyptra basi dense fimbriata superne glabra. (Tab. LXn. Kg. I.) 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group; on bushes and the ultimate branches of trees, about 500 feet above the 
sea, rare, but abundantly fruiting. 

Caules semiunciales et ultra, subphmatim ramosi ; ramis subcomplanatis molhbus. Folia late obovata obtusa 
interdum apiculata, flaccida, pellucida, lateraba patentia, antica posticaque subappressa, margine tenue cartilaginea, 
albida, integerrima, nervo teniu ad mediiun evanido instructa, areohs parvis rotundatis hiferioribus majoribus ; peri- 
chcetialia minora, erecta, ovata, obtusa, subconvoluta. Seta vix semiunciahs, apice scabriuscula, luride rubra, infra 

Campbell's Islands.] FLORA ANTARCTICA. 143 

thecam paulo incrassata. TJieca suberecta, parvula, oblonga, basi obconica, seta concolor, apophysi angusta. Peri- 
slomium stramineurn. Operculum tlieca paulo brevius, basi conoideum, rostro recto cyHndraceo, margine submem- 
branacea, seniitliaphana. Calyptra tliecse parimi longior, conico-subulata, fusco-lutea, apice rufo-fusca, basi ciliis 
plurimis coiifertis fimbriata. 

A most beautiful little flaccid and tender species, of a pale straw colour, with the calyptra exactly as in Bawsonia 
splachnoides, Schwaeg., whence the species will form a connecting link between Baltonia and Hookeria (PterigophyMum, 
Brid.). It is not improbable that this curious structure of the calyptra, which appears to be of very rare occurrence 
in the genus, may, in conjunction with the erect theca and some other peculiarities, prove of sufficient importance 
to separate these species from all other Hookeria. 

Plate LXII. Fig. I. — 1, a specimen of the natural size; 2, a leaf; 3 and 4, theca; 5, operculum; 6, ca- 
lyptra : — magnified. 

3. Hookeria denticulata, Hook. fil. et Wils. ; caule suberecto parce ramoso, foliis laxe Lmbricatis sub- 
quadrifariis lateralibus disticbis intermediis appressis subrotundis grosse dentatis nervo ad medium evanido, 
theca pendula ovata, operculo rostrato, calyptra glabra. (Tab. LXII. Fig. II.) 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island; in wet and marshy places, not uncommon, rare 
in fruit, which was only seen in the former locality. 

Caules pollicares, parce ramosi ; rami compressi, subincurvi, siccitate rigidi. Folia configuratione sat varia, 
late oblonga, ovata, v. obovata, obtusa, musco recenti micantia, pellucida, siccitate nigricantia, subcrispa, fragilia, 
madore tardius nervo valido plerunique furcato infra medium evanido interdum brevissimo, areohs majuscidis hexa- 
gonis; perichatialia parva, ovata. Seta ■§■ unc. longa, crassa, vix torta, rubra. Theca cernua v. pendula, elliptica, 
basi atteuuata, rufo-bruunea, opaca. Peristoma dentes extend flavi, lineis duobus rubris notati. Operculum rostra- 
turn, rectum, theca brevius. Calyptra conico-rnitrseformis, glabra, carnosa, rufo-fusca. 

Our specimens want both the operculum and calyptra, the descriptions of which are taken from Tasmanian 
specimens. This species bears much affinity to H. quadrifaria, but is smaller and readily distinguishable by its 
dentate leaves. In general aspect it approaches the H. cristata. 

Plate LXII. Fig. II. — 1, specimen from Cape Horn of the natural sice ; 2, a Campbell's Island specimen 
of the natural size ; 3 and 4, leaves : — magnified. 

4. Hookeria pennata, Smith; caule erecto simplici, foliis bifariis verticalibus ovato-lanceolatis serratis 
subenerviis, stipulis orbicularis mucronulatis serratis, seta perbrevi, theca suberecta ovata, operculo conico 
acuminato. H. pennata, Smith, in Linn. Trans, vol. is. p. 277. Hook. Muse. Exot. t. 163. Cyathophorum, 
BriJ. Bryol. Univ. vol. ii. p. 722. 

Var. /3, minor; foliis rotundatis concavis fusco-olivaceis. (Tab. LXII. Fig. III.) 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; in the dark woods, barren : var. /3, on decaying stumps of trees by a 
water-course, also barren. 

The var. /3 is certainly not entitled to rank as a species, though at first sight its difference appears striking. 
Another form, probably also a variety, with very narrow leaves, has been sent from Assam by Mr. Griffith, under 
the name of Neckera Adiantum, Griff. MSS. Hookeria pennata, on account of its accessory leaves (stipules), ap- 
pears most naturally allied to those species included by Bridel in Hypopterygium ; it is only in the much advanced 
state that the vagimda becomes hollow and cup-shaped, whence Bridel's name of Cyathophorum is scarcely tenable, 
considering that the vaginula in other species of Hookeria is very turgid. The calyptra is truly mitriforrn. 

We have New Zealand specimens of this magnificent moss, nearly a foot long and loaded with theca?. 

Plate LXII. Fig. III. — 1, a specimen of the natural size; 2 and 3, leaves : — magnified. 

144 FLOKA ANTARCTICA. [Auckland and 


(By Dk. Thomas Taylor* and J. D. Hookek.) 


(1. Gym> t ohiteion, Nees.) 

1 . Juxgermanxia sfj/gia, Hook. fil. et Tayl. ; perpusilla, caule erecto laxe csespitoso ramoso, foliis 
erectis subinibricatis appressis obovatis obtusis integris v. emarginatis, periclisetiis rotundatis caule duplo 
latioribus. (Tab. LXII. Fig. IV.) 

Hab. Campbell's Island; on rocks on the lulls, growing amongst other Hepatica and Mosses. 

Caides 2-3 liu. longi, crassiusculi, superne fusco- v. atro-purpurei, inferne fusco-olivacei vage ramosi ; ramis 
divaricatis. Folia minima, subsecunda, alterna, vix imbricata, obovata v. oblonga, apices versus obtusos late emar- 
ginata, segmentis obtusis, rarius integra, rnargine superiore interdum scariosa. Pericluetia subrotunda, foliis imbri- 
catis, latiusculis, ad apices albidos plerumque scariosis. 

A very inconspicuous little species, approaching /. concinnata (Lightf.), of which it is probably the repre- 
sentative in these islands. The leaves are, however, more distant, never bifid at the apex, the stems slenderer and 
the perichsetia sessile and round. Its colour is like Ch/mn. adustmn, Nees, a German plant, with short and 
simpler stems. 

Plate LXII. Fig. IV. — 1, a plant of the natural size; 2, a specimen, magnified; 3, stem and leaves; 4, leaf: 
both magnified. 

2. Jtj>'gerila>~n t ia acinacifolia, Hook. fil. et Tayl. ; atro-fusca, caulibus erectis csespitosis parce rarnosis, 
foliis secundis ante imbricatis erectis acinaciformibus integerrirnis apice rotundatis demum scariosis concavis 
atro-purpureis. (Tab. LXII. Fig. V.) 

* The liberal manner in which the most eminent Naturahsts in each department of Cryptogamic Botany have 
afforded their cooperation, has removed the diffidence I should otherwise have felt in publishing this difficult portion 
of the Antarctic Flora. To Dr. Taylor's extensive knowledge and keen discrimination I owe the diagnoses of the 
Hepatica and Liehenes. The large amount of Jungermanmia which were collected, and the entangled manner in 
which they delight to grow, rendered their separation a task demanding no ordinary patience and skill. Further, 
the microscopic investigation of eighty different species and a much greater number of specimens, entailed upon that 
gentleman and myself an amount of labour which we woidd fain hope has resulted in the correct determination of a 
collection so unexpectedly novel and interesting. After a thorough examination by Dr. Taylor, the specimens have 
passed twice under my own eyes, preparatory to the completion of the descriptions and the drawings, which latter 
have been further revised by Mr. Fitch when transferring them to the stone ; this severe scrutiny will, it is to be 
trusted, reduce the errors into which I shoidd otherwise personally have fallen, to a very small number. 

Amidst so many new species it is not to be wondered that some are advanced with hesitation. In a tribe of 
plants so minute, a casual resemblance or a sbght variation may often lead (without reference to the microscope) on 
the one hand to a union of what are not the same, and on the other to a multiplication of species. The difficulty of 
holding a middle course between these extremes is acknowledged. Our plan, when investigating the plants of new 
countries, so remote from any whose productions are explored, has been, to consider tangible characters, though 
often slight, as specific differences ; at the same time stating the amount of difference, and hoping that future ob- 
servers may obtain such materials as will cither unite these with the plants of other lands, or tend still further to 
prove them distinct. 

Campbell's Islands.'] FLORA ANTARCTICA. 145 

Hab. Campbell's Island ; on rocks near the hill-tops, growing amongst mosses, &c. 

Cmspites luride atro-purpurei, vix 1 unc. alti, supra muscos elati. Caides saspius curvati, anni prseteriti nunc 
ad apices innovationibus binis instructi. Folia ita irnbricata et secimda ut caulis superne profuude canaliculata ap- 
pareat, opaca, aciuacilbmiia, margine posteriore lente reciu-va, anteriore convexa. 

A larger plant than the former, or than /. concinnata ; of a rigid habit, more sparingly branched and of a fus- 
cous or blackish purple colour, with leaves so densely imbricated all round the stem, that the latter appears terete 
and grooved down the front. It is perhaps more nearly allied to the J. lutescens, Gottsche, but its leaves are broadly 
rounded, of a thinner texture, the shoots pale lenion-colour, the whole plant of a different habit, and further, the 
latter is furnished with stipules. 

Plate LXII. Fig. V. — 1, a specimen of the natural size ; 2, another specimen, magnified ; 3, part of stem and 
leaves; 4, a leaf; both magnified. 

3. Jungeehaknia ochrophylla, Hook. fil. et Tayl. ; pallide viridis, caule suberecto v. deeumbente 
parce ramoso, foliis distichis laxe imbricatis erecto-patentibus late obovatis v. subquadratis breviter bifidis 
segmentis obtusis concavis, stipulis valde inconspicuis v. nidlis. (Tab. LXII. Kg. VI.) 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group; amongst mosses on rocks at the tops of the lulls, altitude 1200 feet. 

Laxe caespitosa. Caspites pallide virescentes, 1 unc. lati et ultra. Caides subunciales, superne subincrassati, 
irregulariter pinnatim ramosi. Folia semiamplexicaulia, irnbricata, patentia, subdivaricata, obovata, basi angusta, 
concava, bifida, sinu brevi, segmentis longitudine vix \ folii obtusis. Stipula dum adsint minima;, oblonga?, 
apicibus vix emarginatis. 

This has more the appearance of the European /. minuta than of any of its congeners, but the leaves are not so 
abruptly truncate, the notch at their summits is much narrower and then sides more rounded. It is a more con- 
spicuous plant than either of the two preceding, of a looser texture and paler colour, and has patent leaves. Erom 
J. perigonialis, nobis, it may be distinguished by its greater size, paler hue, stout stems and more crowded leaves, 
which are loosely reticulated and have obtuse segments. 

Plate LXII. Fig. VI. — 1, specimen of the natural size; 2, a portion of a branch with leaves; 3, a leaf; 
both magnified. 

(2. Sarcoscyphus, Corda.) 

4. Jungermannia perigonialis, Hook. fil. et Tayl.; pusilla, caule csespitoso erecto subramoso, foliis 
approximatis suberectis secundis obovatis v. ovato-rotundatis insequaliter bifidis subobtusis basi semi-am- 
plexicaulibus margiuibus integerrimis, perigoniis ovato-oblongis, foliis perigonialibus arete imbricatis sub- 
iutegris valde concavis basi ventricosis saccatisve. (Tab. LXII. Fig. VII.) 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; ou rocks, at the tops of the lulls. 

Caspites densi, luride brunnei, 2-3 unc. diametro. Caides graciles, intertexti, sub i unc. longi, crassiusculi. 
Folia laxe irnbricata, subsecunda, curvata, breviter bifida, sinu obtuso, segmento inferiore plermnque majore. Peri- 
gonia plurima, terminalia v. ramidis ultirnis lateralia, basi subampullacea v. in sacculum product a, apicibus brevibus, 
rarius emarginatis, nunc bifidis. 

No calyces have been observed upon this plant, which is so nearly allied to the /. Funckii, Mohr, that they 
might easily be confounded ; the latter differing in its short stems and more closely imbricated leaves, which are, 
as well as those of the convolute perigonia, acutely bifid ; the segments of all are acute. It also a good deal re- 
sembles /. stygia, nobis, though the plant is larger and the leaves have a very different direction. 

2 E 

146 FLORA ANTARCTICA. [Auckland and 

Plate LXIT. Fig. VII. — 1, a specimen of the natural size ; 2, front view and 3, lateral view of portion of 
stem and leaves ; 4, leaf ; 5, ditto of perigonium ; magnified. 

(3. Auliculaeia, Co-rda.) 

5. Jtogeiiiiax>"1a occlusa, Hook. fil. et Tayl.; caule erecto laxe caespitoso, ramis binis simplicibus v. 
parce ramosis, foliis appressis reniformi-rotuiidatis basi sublobulatis in ramos decurrentibus integerrimis 
concaviusculis. (Tab. LXII. Fig. V1TI.) 

Hab. Campbell's Island ; in moist boggy places. 

Caules biunciales, luride v. pallide virescentes, inferne bnumei v. nigrescentes. Folia olivacea, pallide flava v. 
brumiea, supeme arete in capitulum cii'cinnatum imbricata, areolis crebris minimis. 

This is evidently the southern representative of /. compressa, from which it is distinguishable by the inferior 
margin of the leaf being produced into a lobe, as also by the closer and smaller cells of the leaves. In the European 
plant the lower lobe of the leaf is decurrent on the stem, but does not form a lobe nor is it produced below the 
junction of its inferior margin with the branch. 

Plate LXII. Fig. VIII. — 1, a specimen of the natural size; 2 and 3, leaves; magnified. 

6. Juxgekmajtn'ia stronyylophylla, Hook. fil. et Tayl.; minuta, caulibus csespitosis erectis rarnosis, 
foliis minimi s suberectis laxe imbricatis secundis rotundatis integerrimis concaviusculis, stipulis truncatis 
bifidis, calyce oblongo subcompresso ore rotundato bilabiato. ((Tab. LXII. Fig. IX.) 

Var. /3, minima ; gracilis, foliis minoribus. 

Hab. Campbell's Island ; on the hills : var. £, Lord Auckland's group ; in wet places at the roots of 
grasses, &c. 

Caspites brunnei v. virescentes, supra muscos prostrati v. iis immixti. Caules graciles, subflexuosi. Folia minima, 
laxe cellulosa, pellucida, cellulis marginalibus majoribus, madore sub lente pallide fusco-oHvacea. Stipules oblongae 
v. obovatae, truncatae, bifidee. Folia perichatialia elongata calyce oblongo-obovato ore crenato paulo longiora. Va- 
rietal /3, minor evadit, fohis remotis perigoniisque instructa. Perigonia plurima, lateralia, e foliis majoribus confertis 
ventricosis spicatis formata. 

There is no northern congener with which this will bear any close comparison ; the form of the calyx and 
pericha?tial leaves resemble the /. crenulata ; the present is, however, a very much smaller plant, distinctly stipulate, 
of a different habit and with rounder leaves. 

Plate LXII. Fig. IX. — 1, a specimen of the natural size; 2, the same, magnified; 3, portion of branch with 
leaf and stipule ; magnified. 

(4. Gottschea, Nees.) 

7. JrjNGERMA?TN*iA Lehmaiiniana, Lind. in Lehm. Pugill. Plant. IF. p. 60. Gottsche, Nees et Liu- 
denb. Synops. Hepat. p. 20. G. Hombroniana, Mont, in Voy. au Pole Sud. Bot. Crypt. 1. 16. f. 1. et in Ann. 
Sc.Naf.lM3. p. 243. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; on rocks and at the roots of trees in the woods, abundant. 

Also a native of Tasmania and of New Holland. We quite agree with the authors of the ' Synopsis Hepati- 
carum ' in uniting G. Hombroniana, Mont, with this. 

Campbell's Islands.'] FLORA ANTARCTICA. 147 

8. Jungermannia pinnatifolia, Hook. Muse. Exot. t. 114. Gottsche, Lindenberg et Nees, Synops. 
Hepat. p. 22. G. ciliigera, Hook.fil. et Tayl. in Hook. Lond. Jonrn. of Bot. vol. iii. p. 376. (Tab. LXIII. 
Kg. I.) 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; growing amongst mosses in the woods, often forming large tufts by 

This noble plant was described under the name of /. ciliigera in the' London Journal of Botany,' quoted above. 
The specimens differed from the pubhshed figure in the lobes of the leaf being considerably unequal, and espe- 
cially in their being produced at their union below into a ciliated wing or keel, characters which appear to have 
been overlooked in the ' Mmci Exotici.' We have added a correct drawing of this species, which was prepared be- 
fore we were aware that it was an already pubhshed plant. 

Plate LXIII. Fig. I. — (sub nom. /. ciliigera), 1, a specimen of the natural size; 2, the same, magnified: 
3 and 4, leaves ; 5, calyx ; magnified. 

9. Jtjngermannia Balfonriana, Tayl.; caulibus erectis laxe csespitosis subsimplicibus squamosis, foliis 
subimbricatis patentibus lobo ventrali oblongo-falcato subtus apicem versus cristato cristis tribus ciliatis, 
dorsali serni-ovato utroque obtuso ciliato, stipulis quadrato-rotimdatis quadrifidis. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; in woods near the sea. 

Laxe ceespitosa, pallide vnidis. Caules e caudice repente erecti, 3 unc. longi, squamis ciliatis lanceolatis obsiti. 
Folia conferta, vix imbricata, oblongo-lanceolata, obtusa, superne lobo verticali aucta. Stipularum lacinise obtusa?, 

The GottscJiea of Nees are a group of Jungermannim almost confined to the southern hemisphere ; one is a 
native of the Philippine Islands, and a few others inhabit the Peninsula of India and the Island of Java ; but the 
larger proportion frequent the humid and temperate woods of New Zealand, from whence we have received no less 
than eight species ; they are certainly the mobiles of the order Hepaticce. J. Balfonriana is most nearly allied to 
Gottschea Blumii of Nees, a Java plant ; from which it may be discriminated by its smaller size, less falcate leaves, 
more entire cauline scales, and above all by the quadrifid stipides. It was first received by Dr. Balfour from New 
Zealand, though probably originally discovered by Mr. Colenso in that island, or by the Antarctic Expedition in 
Lord Auckland's group. A figure of it will be given in the Plora of New Zealand. 

10. Jungerjiannia pachyphylla, Lelrmarm, Pugillus Plant. VI. p. 61. Gottsche, Nees et Lindeni. 
Synops. Hepat. p. 19. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; on the bare ground, at an elevation of 600-800 feet, very rare. 

Originally discovered by Du Petit Thouars in Tristan d'Acunha. Our specimens are small and very imperfect ; 
growing on the bare ground in exposed places, the plant is with difficulty detected. 

(5. Plagiochixa, Nees et Mont.) 

11. Ju>-gerjian>*ia fascieulata, Lind. Sp. Hepat. Fasc. 1. p. 7. n. 2. 1. 1. Gottsche, Lind. et Nees, 
Synops. Hepat. p. 27. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; forming large tufts in the woods. 

A very fine species, hitherto only known as a native of New Holland. The stems are rigid and wiry, 2-3 
inches long, branching upwards, with the branches erect and curving. The leaves are rather coriaceous, pale fus- 
cous-yellow ; it belongs to the same section with the European /. spinulosa, Dicks. 

148 FLORA ANTARCTICA. {Auckland and 

12. Jungermajjnia hemicardia, Hook. fil. et Tayl.; caule ascendente subtriangulari simplici v. ramoso, 
foliis dense arcteque imbricatis erecto-patentibus oblique et late ovatis basi cordatis apicibus rotundatis mar- 
ginibus integris v. superne denticulatis subconcavis, margine anteriore recurvo posteriore basi in lobulum 
producto. (Tab. LXIII. Kg. II.) . 

Hab. Campbell's Island ; on exposed rocks, near the summits of the hills. 

Caspites fusco-olivacei, 1-2 unc. lati. Catties una cum foliis triangulares, f— 1 unc. longi, e rhizomate repente 
ascendentes, simpliciusculi, rigidi, antice plani, profunde caualicidati. Folia arete imbricata, integra v. denticulata, 
opaca, dense cellulosa, areolis minimis hexagonis. 

The leaves of this species meet back to back and are so closely imbricated that the stems appear triangular, 
their anterior margins not touching but leaving a space which appears like a groove running down the whole length 
of the stems, then- recurved margins are rather tumid and decussate on the opposite face. In general habit this 
resembles the J. punctata, Tayl., a species recently detected both in Ireland and the Canary Islands, froin which the 
gibbous or oblique leaves will readily distinguish it. 

Plate LXIII. Fig. II. — 1, a specimen of the natural size; 2, astern; 3, portion of a branch; 4 and 5, 
leaves ; magnified. 

13. Jungermannia circinnalis, Lehm. Pugitt. Plant. IF. p. 64. Lehm. et Lind. Spec. Hep. p. 1 24. 
t. 27. Gottsche, Lind. et Nees, Sj/nops. Hep. p. 53. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; on rocks and on the lulls, rare. 

This agrees with authentic specimens of Lehmann's plant, except hi the summits of the stems not being so re- 
markably eircinnate as they are described. Such circinnate summits, however, are truly perigonia, whose leaves are 
smaller, more ventricose and erect than those of the stem ; and further, some of them contain in their axilla? a single, 
rather large, peclicellated anther. Our specimens are about half an inch long, stout and curved ; the leaves much 
more lax than in the former species. 

14. Jungermannia cogmta, Hook. fil. et Tayl.; parvula, fulva, caule erecto csespitoso subsimplici v. 
rainoso, foliis laxe imbricatis patulis late ovatis v. elliptico-oblongis acuminatis paucidentatis basi attenuatis 
decurrentibus, margine anteriore vix recurvo, calyce terminali perichaetio aequilongo vix curvato bilabiato 
labiis ciliato-dentatis. (Tab. LXIII. Fig. III.) 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group; on alpine rocks, growing amongst stunted tufts of Hymenophyllum 

Caspites diametro 1-2 unciales, inferne brunnei, superne flavi v. flavo-fusci. Caules erecti, 1 unc. longi, subri- 
gidi, inferne nudi, parce ramosi, anni prsecedentis ssepius innovati, apicibus subcurvatis. Folia distieha, subpatentia 
v. divaricata, coriacea, apices versus 3-5 dentata, dente apicali majusculo acuminato, margine anteriore subrecurvo 
decurrente ; foba pericha;tii erecta, elongata, magis dentata. 

This has much affinity to the /. decipiem, Hook., a very variable species in the form of the leaves, but in which 
their cellules are much larger and more lax, while in this they are so dense as to be hardly distinguishable. The 
European plant differs further from the present in a character alluded to by the authors of the ' Synopsis Hepati- 
carum,' who remark, " J. decipiens ab omnibus congeneribus margine dorsab folii iimexo nee reflexo differt." 

Plate LXIII. Fig. III. — 1, a specimen of the natural size; 2, the same, magnified; 3 and 4, portions of stems 
and leaves; 5, perichsetium and calyx ; magnified. 

15. Jungermannia ple?irota, Hook. fil. et Tayl.; casspitosa, caule erecto diviso v. parce ramoso, foliis 

Campbell's Islands] FLORA ANTAECTICA. 149 

laxe inibricatis erecto-patentibus obovatis obtusiusculis apices versus parce crenato-dentatis basi angustatis, 
margine auteriore recurvo decurrente, calyce elongato-obovato basi nudo 4-5-alato ore contracto denticulato. 
(Tab. LXIII. Fig. IV.) 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; on moist rocks, near the summits of the hills. 

Caspites subdensi, 2-3 unc. diametro, pallide straminei v. virescentes. Caules i unc. longi, subrigidi, sirapli- 
ciusculi. Folia inferiora integra v. interduiu unidentata, superiora apices versus plus minusve irregulariter crenato- 
dentata, omnia conformia, basi angustata antice decurrentia, apices versus rotundata, cellulis distinctis. Calyx ter- 
minalis, subpedicellatus, erectus, basi attenuatus, foliis caulinis vix duplo longior, alis 4-5 angustis planis v. rugosis, 
duobus oppositis interdum opacis, ore subtubuloso, crenato v. 4-fido, tandem fisso, foliis perichsetii propriis nullis. 

In external appearance this species very closely resembles the former, the leaves are, however, more loosely 
cellular, and in the structure of the calyx it widely differs. The Peruvian PI. gymnocalycina, Lind., (Spec. Hep. 
p. 48. 1. 10) has the calyx equally naked below and of a similar outline, but it is smooth and furnished with only 
two very obscure ribs, its foliage also is perfectly dissimilar and the whole plant is much larger. The wings of the 
calyx are formed out of deep folds of its membrane. 

Plate LXIII. Fig. IV. — 1, a specimen of the natural size; 2, calyx and upper leaves; highly magnified. 

16. Jungermannia fiiscella, Hook. fil. et Tayl. ; caule subesespitoso ascendente curvato vage ramoso, 
foliis laxe imbricatis patulis late oblongo-rotundatis basi obliquis subdeflexis siccitate verticalibus v. sub- 
crispatis, margine anteriore recurvo subdecurrente, posteriore in lobidum latum producto denticulato, calyce 
terminah obovato truncato deflexo fohis perichsetialibus breviore. (Tab. LXIII. Fig. V.) 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; in moist boggy places. 

Caspites late diffusi, 3-4 uncias diametro, luride olivacei v. fusco-atri. Caides 1^-2 unciales, superne cur- 
vati, subgraciles, saepe reflexi, siccitate una cum foliis subcrispatis subsquarrosis rigidi. Folia latiuscula, dense 
cellulosa, opaca, areolis subpunctiformibus, luce transmissa pallide fusco-obvacea, marginibus integris v. plerumque 
margine posteriore denticulato, supremis interdum omnino sub lente denticidatis. 

In many respects this species resembles Montagne's P. pusilla (Voy. au Pole Sud, Bot. Crypt, tab. 16. f. 3), 
a species, judging from the plate, founded upon a young and imperfect specimen, and which we think exists in 
the Herbarium of the Expedition of a larger size. It differs from this in the deep serratures of the leaves, in the 
habit and colour and above all, in belonging (according to the figure) to a section having the leaves coadunate at 
the base. In the form of the foliage our plant more nearly resembles the P. hemicardia, nobis, but is very different 
in the disposition of the leaves on. the stem. A few calyces were observed ; they are very uniform, shorter than the 
pericha:tial leaves and concealed by them ; some are proliferous, the stem being produced through their axis and ex- 
serted : this abnormal state has been observed in /. Lyoni, Tayl., and in several species of mosses, as in Conomitrium 
Berterii, Montagne (Cryptog. BohV. t 3. f. 4). 

Plate LXIII. Fig. V. — 1, a specimen of the natural size ; 2, 3, 4, leaves ; magnified. 

(6. Jungermannia, Wees.) 

17. Jungermannia colorata, Lehmann, in Limma, vol. iv. p. 366. Gottsche, Nees et Lind. Syuops. 
Hepat. p. 86. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island ; in various situations from the sea to the hill 
tops, abundant. 

2 F 

150 FLORA ANTARCTICA. {Auckland and 

This is one of the most universally diffused species in the Southern Hemisphere, and especially abundant 
throughout the Antarctic regions ; it bears considerable resemblance to the /. orbicularis, Mich., of North America, 
and to several other species. 

18. JCngermannia intortifolia, Hook. fil. et Tayl.j sordidc purpurea, csespitosaj caulibus erectis sub- 
flaccidis simplicibus v. parce ramosis, foliis patentibus iinbricatis concavissimis oblongo-rotundatis insequa- 
liter bi-quadriiidis segmentis acuminatis margiuibus incurvis paucidentatis, stipulis imbricatis rotundatis 
emargiiiatis v. biliclis subdentatis valde concavis. (Tab. LXIV. Kg. I.) 

Hab. Campbell's Island ; in bogs on the bill-sides. 

Caspites lati, interdum supra terram extensi, fiaccidi, sordide purpurei. Caules 1-J-- 2 unc. longi, erecti, su- 
perne incrassati, subdichotome ramosi. Folia valde concava et veutricosa, quasi inflata, amplexicaulia, rarius 
integra, segmentis aciuninatis, apicibus incurvis, substantia flaccida cellulosa laxe reticulata, vix pellucida. Stipules 
spepe latere unico solummodo dentatse, inajusculse, membranaceae, dense invbricatae. 

The whole of the texture of this fine species is, when wet, so flaccid, that its large closely imbricated stipules 
are at first with difficulty distinguished from the leaves. It is perhaps more nearly allied to the /. serrulata, Sw. 
(Muse. Exot. t. 88), than to any other; still, this is quite a distinct plant, much larger, stouter, with the leaves 
somewhat fleshy and brittle, longer and more erect, of a lurid purple colour. 

Plate LXIV. Fig. I. — 1, a specimen of the natural size; 2, portion of stem with leaves and stipules; 3, a 
leaf; both magnified. 

19. Jungerjiannia sehismoides, Montague in Voy. an Pole Sad, Bot. Crypt, t. 17. fig. 1. et in Ann. 
So. Nat. 1S43. p. 250. Gottsche, Lindenb. et Nees, Syn. Hepat. p. 81. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island ; creeping amongst mosses and other Hepaticce. 

Gottsche (Synopsis, 1. c.) compares this species with J.piligera, Nees, a plant of Java ; it is perhaps more like 
./. incumbens, Lehm. of Tristan d'Acunha, differing by the greater size and nearly equal segments of the leaves. 
These have no near ally in Europe. 

20. Jungermanxia multicuspidata, Hook. fil. et Tayl.j laxe csespitosa, subramosa, prostrata, ramis 
interne radicantibus apicibus ascendentibus, foliis distantibus suberectis laxis obovatis bi-tri-quadrifidis seg- 
mentis acutis v. acuminatis laxe cellulosis, calyce terminali v. laterali elongato cylindraceo ore dentato. 

Hab. Campbell's Island ; in pools, near the sea. 

Caspites inter Sphagna repentes vel in aquam subnatantes, rarius supra terram in umbrosis, 1-2 unc. diametro, 
laxe intertexti, pallide albido-straminei. Caules subramosi, plerumque ad basin calycis innovationibus birds instructi, 
graciles, laxe fohosi. Folia pellucida, valde membranacea, ad medium divisa, sinubus obtusis, segmentis subdivari- 
catis ; pericluetiaUa erecta, laxe imbricata, plerumque tri-quadrilida. Calyx pericha;tio bis longior, elongatus, cylin- 
chaceus, ore contracto insequaliter 3-5 dentato, latere fissus, infra orem obscure sidcatus. 

This species has indeed many points in common with /. bicuspidata, the same pale colour, loose leaves with 
large cellules, acuminated segments, and an elongated calyx. It is marked by the smaller size, the stem-leaves 
being more erect, the division of the leaf deeper, and the calyx more generally terminal than in /. bicuspidata, L. 

21. Jungerman'NIA turgescens, Hook. fil. et Tayl.; caule caespitoso procumbente rainoso, foliis imbri- 
catis secundis suberectis concavis reniformi-rotundatis hitegerrimis, margine anteriore decurrente, stipidis 

Campbell's Islands.'] FLORA ANTARCTICA. 151 

obovatis rotundatisve integerriinis apice bifidis, calyce terminali compresso oblongo truncato ore integerrimo 
v. obscure lobato. (Tab. LXIV. Fig. II.) 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; on the ground, near the tops of the hills. 

Caspites 2-3 unc. lati, pallide flavo-olivacei. Caides vix unciales, intertexti, vage rainosi, prostrati, apieibus 
ascendentibus. Folia fere reniformia, e marginibus valde incurvis concava, subpellucida, areolis niiiiutis. Stipulee 
parvae, sinu brevi, segrnentis subacutis. Calyx in rarao anni praeteriti terminalis, compressus, oblongus, basi angus- 
tatus, vix curvatus. 

The leaves on the fertile shoots of this species rapidly increase in size upwards, becoming more densely imbri- 
cated ; the terminal pair or perichsetial leaves are the largest and most erect. 

Those species of Jungermannia with round, concave, imbricating leaves and bifid stipules, which inhabit the 
north of Europe, have their calyces subeylindrical or ovate ; the present differs from all of them in that organ being 
decidedly compressed and truncate, appearing like a flattened cylinder after the egress of the capside. It may by 
some be considered as forming a separate genus, to which perhaps our /. strongylophylla should be referred. 

Plate LXIV. Fig. II. — 1, a specimen of the natural size ; 2, back view of stem, leaves, and stipules ; 3, front 
view of leaf and stipide ; 4, back view of leaf; 5, stipule; 6, calyx; magnified. 

22. Jungermannia notopki/lla, Hook. fil. et Tayl.j straminea, caule erecto subsimplici v. ramoso, 
foliis numerosissimis arete irnbricatis patenti-recurvis reuiformi-rotundatis valde concavis integerrimis mar- 
ginibus incurvis, stipulis ovato-rotuudatis obtusis v. emarginatis integriusculis. (Tab. LXIV. Fig. III.) 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; on banks, in the woods near the sea, for min g large patches. 

Caspites majusculi. Caides graciles, teretes, superne subincrassati et incurvi, pallide straminei, flaccidi, 2 unc. 
longi. Folia densissime imbricata, marginibus valde incurvis, quasi inflata, substantia molli, tlaccida, subpellucida, 
subauriculiformia, obbqua, antice decurrentia, carnosa. Stipulee valde concavee, lata;, pleruinque integrae, magnitu- 
dine 4- fobonun. 

This curious and fine species is of a peculiarly flaccid and as it were greasy texture when moist ; there is no 
European or exotic Juiigermannicl known to us with which it can be at all compared. 

Plate LXIV. Fig. III. — 1, a specimen of the natural size ; 2, portion of stem with leaves and stipules ; 3, leaf 
and stipule ; 4, stipide ; magnified. 

23. Jungermannia ei/mlalifera, Hook. fil. et Tayl.; caule laxe implexo suberecto v. procumbente 
subsimplici tereti curvato, foliis arete denseque irnbricatis erecto-patentibus oblique rotundatis serrulatis 
concavis margine anteriore sursuni in appendiculain obovato-rotundatam producto, stipulis transversis latis- 
simis arete irnbricatis obscure trilobis integerrimis, calyce laterali ovato-oblongo subcomprcsso plicato ore 
dentato. (Tab. LXIV. Fig. V.) 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; on the roots of old trees in the woods, rare. 

Caspites laxi, pallide virescentes v. lutescentes. Caides subimciales, teretes, intertexti, simplices v. parce ra- 
mosi, flexuosi, prostrati, apieibus ssspius incurvis. Folia densissime imbricata, subsecunda, marginibus anticis 
approximatis, appendicibus seu auricnlis pedicellatis e membrana duplici formatis instructa, substantia subcarnosa, 
flaccida, pellucida, cellulis cbstinctis. Calyx vere lateralis, basi subtumidus, infra orem compressus, longitudinaliter 
plicatus, foliis perichaetialibus paucis. 

A singularly beautiful and easily recognised plant, with much the habit and external appearance of /. notophylla, 
nobis, but most distinct from it and from any other species. The appendages of the leaves and the broad obscurely 
lobed stipules all closely imbricating up the stem give the appearance of a very complicated structure. Like the 

152 FLORA ANTARCTICA. {Auckland and 

J. notophylla it swells much in moistening, and assumes a stout and as it were greasy appearance, from the pecu- 
liar texture of the distended cells. The broad stipules, reaching nearly across the back of the stem, resemble those 
of /. Billardieri, and are as regular and close along the whole plant as the scales of a snake. 

Plate LXIV. Fig. V. — 1, a specimen of the natural size ; 2, front ; 3, back, and 4, side view of stem ; 5, a 
leaf; 6, calyx and perichaetium : magnified. 

24. Jungeehannia (liphphylla, Hook. fil. et Tayl.j caule procumbente laxe implexo divaricatim ra- 
nioso, foliis distichis arete imbricatis divaricatis bilobis lobis plica conduplicatis ciliatis v. ciliato-dentatis, 
lobo superiore erecto patente multo minore ovato subacuto substipulifornii, inferiore patente late ovato obtuso, 
stipulis subquadrato-rotundatis bifidis seginentis ciliato-dentatis. (Tab. LXIY. Fig. IV.) 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; creeping over the caudices of Ferns, rare. 

Canles subsolitarii, vage repentes, v. casspites laxos pianos sub 1 unc. diametro formantes, planiusculi, pro- 
cumbentes, parce divaricatim ramosi, 1 unc. longi, latiusculi, albidi. Folia tenerrima, membranacea, laxe eellulosa, 
pellucida, dense imbricata, pulcherrirae ciliato-dentata, valde concava, profunde biloba, lobis valde inaequalibus, lobo 
anteriore imdto minore supra faciem anticam caulis extenso, stipulam referente ; folium superius in sinu concavo in- 
ferioris receptum. .^ 

In some respects this remarkably beautiful species resembles a Gottscliea, but it is in reality more allied to the 
genus Scapania of Liudenberg, from whose pubbshed characters it differs only in the presence of stipules ! From 
what we have seeu of the fructification, however, it widely departs from that group. The calyptra, in a specimen 
from M'Quarrie's River (New Holland), is globose, destitute of any calyx, surmounted by a truncated stvle, 
rough with numerous barren pistilla on its surface, and sin-rounded by scales ; the scales are laciniate, the outer- 
most the narrowest, and all enclosed in a triphyllous perichaetium. 

Plate LXIY. Fig. IV. — 1, a specimen of the natural size ; 2, front, and 3, back view of a branch ; 4, a sti- 
pule : magnified. 

25. Jungermaxnia minuta, Crania, Hist. Given, p. 285. Hoot. Brit. Jang. t. 44. Gottsche, Nees 
et land. Sj/nops. Hepat. p. 120. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; amongst mosses and other Hepatiea. 

This little species is probably not uncommon in the high southern latitudes, having been also gathered in 
Kerguelen's Land. 

26. Jo'germaxn'ia tenacifolia, Hook. fil. et Tayl.j caule rigido tenui laxe csespitoso erecto subsim- 
plici flexuoso, foliis distantibus patentibus rigidis tenacibus elliptico-oblongis obtusis integerrimis basi 
angustatis marginibus planis v. recurvis, stipulis conformibus minoribus integris bifidisve. (Tab. LXIV. 
Fig. VI.) 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; amongst other Hepatica, mosses, &c, in exposed situations near the 
tops of the hills. 

Ceespites laxi, fusco-brunnei v. atri. Canles graciles, vix 1 unc. longi, rigidi, vix ramosi, flexuosi. Folia stipulis 
conformia semper patentia, dura, rigida, opaca, rarius reeurva, fusco-brunnea. 

We know of no species with which the present can at all be compared. The leaves and stipules are so nearlv 
alike and so regidarly stiff and patent, that the stems look pectinated with a triple row of spines, standing at regular 
intervals. This rigidity, combined with the slender habit, is very remarkable. 

Plate LXIV. Fig. VI. — 1, a specimen of the natural size ; 2, back, and 3, side view of portion of stem ; 
4, leaf; 5, stipule: all magnified. 

Campbell's Islands] FLOEA ANTARCTICA. 153 

27. Jungermannia vertebralis. — Scapaiiia? vertebralis, Gottsche, Bind, et Nees, Synops. Hepat. 
p. 72. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; on trees, very rare. 

Our specimens of this beautiful species are smaller, but otherwise they coincide with those of Tasmania. It is 
very closely allied to the /. c/doroleuca, nobis, from Cape Horn, and also to the /. demifolia, Hook. 

(7. Gymnanthe, Tayl., subgenus novum.) 

Receptaculum commune terminale, descendens, obconicum. Calyx nullus. Capsula quadrivalvis, seta suffidta. 
Elateres spirales seminibus imnrixti. Anthem in fohoruin axillis Hberse, pedieellatae. — Stirps exstipulata ; perichaetia 
majora ; folia caulina infirm minima. Tayl. MSS. 

28. Jungermannia saccata, Hook. ; Muse. Exot. t. xvi. J. tenella, nobis in Loud. Journ. of Botany, 
vol. iii. p. 377, 560 and 579. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; in the woods, abundant. 

The figure of this plant, in the ' Musci Fxotici,' does not well accord with our species, in which the upper mar- 
gin of the leaf is more produced into a lobe, the apex blunter and sometimes emarginate or even bilobed, the lower 
margin more recurved and the whole base broader. 

To this group may be added the Jungermannia (Acrobolbus, Gottsche) Wihoni, Nees, and the following. 

29. Jungermannia Urvilleana. — Scapania Urvilleana, Mont, in Toy. au Pole Slid, Bot. Crypt, t. 16. 
f. 2. et in Ann. Sc. Nat. 1843. p. 247. Gottsche, Bind, et Behm. Syn. Hepat. p. 63. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; mixed with other Hepatica in the woods. 

This species, rather variable in its form, especially of the margins of its leaves, is a native of Tasmania, as well 
as of Lord Auckland's group and the Straits of Magalhaens, where it was first detected by D'Urville. 

(8. Lophocolea, Nees.) 

30. Jungermannia bispinosa, Hook. fil. et Tayl. ; caulibus procumbentibus implexis subramosis, foliis 
laxe imbricatis secundis erecto-patentibus oblongo-ovatis v. quadratis obtuse emarginatis bifidisve segmentis 
divaricatis acuminatis basi lata decurrente, stipulis minimis bipartitis segmentis subulatis integerrimis v. 
utrinque subdentatis. (Tab. LXIV. Fig. VII.) 

Hab. Campbell's Island; on moist ground and trunks of trees in the woods. 

Coespites implexi, 2-3 unc. lati, pallide straminei. Caules prostrati, subflexuosi, graciles. Folia secunda, re- 
mota, bifida ; stipidis bifidis, rarius midtifidis. 

Very nearly allied to the /. bidentata, L., differing in its smaller size, more remote and suberect leaves, which 
are narrower, their cellules more minute, then 1 emargination deeper, and in the stipules being less and generally not 
so compound. 

Plate LXIV. Fig. VII. — 1, a specimen of the natural size; 2, portion of the stem, magnified. 

31. Jungermannia lenta ; Hook. fil. et Tayl. ; caulibus elongatis csespitosis subsimplicibus flexuosis 

2 G 

154 FLORA ANTAKCTICA. [Auckland and 

flaccidis ascendentibus, foliis contiguis patentibus disticliis oblongis biiidis segmentis divaricatis acuminatis 
integerrimis, stipulis minutis lanceolatis bipartitis integerrimis, calyce obovato compresso trigono, ore bila- 
biate) dentate 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; in large tufts upon the moist trunks of trees. 

Ccespites lati, interdum 2-3 unciales, supra albidi v. pallide straminei, inferne dilute bnmnei. Caules 1-2 
unciales, valde intertexti, elougati, graciles, simplices v. rarius ramosi, apices versus paulo curvati, flaccidi, cellidosi. 
Folia e caide prostrato suberecta, paulo divergentia, hinc quasi biserialia, oblonga, versus medium sublatiora, emar- 
ginata v. bifida, siuu obtuso, segmentis acuminatis ; perichcetialki conformia, erecta. Stipules bifidse, integerrimae, 
rarius basi extus unidentatae. Calyx membranaceus, pellucidus, trigonus, latere anteriore latiore, angulis incrassatis 
opacis, ore niajusculo bdobo, lobis acuminatis argute dentatis. Capsula ovalis, pedunculo \ unc. longo. 

This species is very nearly allied to and apparently intermediate between the /. bidentata, L. and J.perpusilla, 
nobis, the former in particular, from which it is only to be distinguished by the smaller size and the entire segments 
of the stipules ; from the latter it may be known by being at least double the size, by the more tufted habit, the 
deeper emargination of the leaf, their more acuminate segments and larger cells, and by the deeper division of the 
stipides. There are numerous radicles issuing from the stem throughout its whole length, their position is immedi- 
ately above the stipules, whence it seems highly probable that, when less tufted, the plant may be wholly creeping. 
This species will be figured in the Flora of New Zealand, of which island also it is a native. 

32. Jungermannia perpus'dla, Hook. fil. et Tayl. ; caespitosa, caulibus ascendentibus subrarnosis, 
foliis erecto-patentibus subsecundis oblongo-ovatis biiidis segmentis divaricatis subobtusis integerrimis, sti- 
pulis minutis oblongis biiidis v. rarius laceris, perigoniis ovatis. (Tab. LXIV. Fig. IX.) 

Hab. Campbell's Island ; mixed with other Hepatka and mosses, sparingly. 

Ccespites parvi, pallide flavi, laxi. Caules vix 3 lin. longi, subramosi, gracUes. Folia patentia, ovata, basi 
lata, bifida v. rarius trifida, siuu obtuso. Stipules diametro caulem aequantes, in segmentis 2 aequilongis integris 
v. rarius sectis divisae. Perigonia e foliis ventricosis imbricatis ad apices recurvis in spicam brevem ovatam dis- 
positis. Perichcetii abortivi folia elongata, subdentata, sinu minus profunda. 

Under the preceding, to wluch this bears most affinity, we have pointed out their relative peculiarities. 

Plate LXIV. Fig. IX. — 1, a specimen of the natural size ; 2, a portion of a branch, magnified. 

33. Jungermannia grisea, Hook. fil. et Tayl. ; caespitosa, procumbens, caulibus implexis raniosis, 
foliis patentibus approximates supremis congestis oblongo-rotundatis integerrimis marginibus recurvis, sti- 
pulis bipartitis segmentis hinc unidentatis v. rarius multipartitis, calyce terminali oblongo trigono compresso 
ore dentato. (Tab. LXIV. Fig. VIII.) 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; creeping amongst mosses, &c., rare. 

Ccespites depressi, plani, fusco-olivacei. Caules 1 unc. longi, vage ramosi, flexuosi, apicibus ascendentibus. 
Folia inferiora disticha, marginibus recurvis, convexa, suprema appressa, secunda, in capitulum congesta, substantia 
crassiuscula, luride flava, subpellucida, cellulis minimis. Calyx 1 bn. longus, trigonus, angulis incrassatis opacis, 
latere inferiore latiore, ore triangulari dentato. Perichcetii folia tria, erecta, horum duo superiora majora magisque 
elongata quam in fobis caubnis, rotundata, integra ; tertium v. stipulare, oblongum, emarginatum, marginibus 

This very closely resembles the L. discedens, Nees ; it is, however, a larger species, of a paler colour. The 
leaves are erecto-patent and not recurved, their tops entfre, the stipules are divided, and each segment is again 
divided or bears a tooth at the outer margin. 

Campbell's Islands.] FLORA ANTARCTICA. 155 

Plate LXIV. Fig. VIII. — 1, a specimen of the natural size ; 2, portion of branch ; 3, perichaetium and calyx : 
both magnified. 

34. Jungermannia midtipenna, Hook. fil. et Tayl.; procurnbens, caulibus implexis ramosis, foliis dis- 
ticliis patentibus imbricatis obovatis acutis obtusisve truncatis v. emarginatis margine anteriore gibboso in- 
feriore decurrente, stipulis subquadratis varie sectis pleruinque bifidis segmentis divisis v. quadrifidis rarius 
irregulariter dentatis interdum in lacinias quatuor divaricatas subulatas fissis, calyce oblongo triquetro ala 
superiore latiore ciliato-dentata. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; on the ground and on the bark of trees in the woods. 

Caspites horizontales, appressi, pallide brunnei v. run, rarius virescentes. Catiles vix 1 una longi, vage ramosi. 
Folia late ovato-oblonga, exacte opposita, horizontahter patentia, forma apices versus varia, plerumque truncata v. 
late emarginata, laxo cellulosa, pellucida, superiora interdum utrinque cum stipulis connata ; perichcetialia erecta, 
dentata. Stipula variae, interdum subintegras, marginibus irregulariter dentatis, saepius late quadrats?, quadrifida? 
v. bifidae, segmentis basi extus unidentatis, rarius quadripartitae, laciniis divaricatis elongato-subulatis. 

This plant has so many points in common with /. heteropkylla, Schrad., that we retain it as a separate species 
with much hesitation, and chiefly on account of the larger cells of its more rounded leaves, which are more gibbous 
above and narrower towards the apex ; the broad stipules, which are never ovate, and also on account of the longer 
calyx, of which the lips are more frequently and deeply toothed, as are the perichsetial leaves. Through a mistake 
the specific character and description of /. intortifolia, nobis, were repeated under this species in the ' London Journal 
of Botany,' vol. iii. p. 381. 

35. Jungermannla sjnnifera, Hook. fil. et Tayl.; caulibus prostratis laxe implexis subramosis, foliis 
densis arete imbricatis erecto-patentibus tenerrimis laxe reticulars ovato-oblongis basi decurrentibus rnargi- 
nibus recurvis bifidis segmentis elongatis subulatis, stipulis majoribus latissimis reniformibus sexfidis seg- 
mentis lanceolatis. (Tab. LXV. Fig. I.) 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; on wet rocks near the tops of the hills, scarce. 

Pallide flava v. albo-virescens, inter alias Hepaticaa repens. Caulis i unc. longus, apicem versus attenuatus 
recurvus, antice canaliculars. Folia arete imbricata basi latiora antice approximata, margine inferiore longe 
decurrente, sinu obtuso, segmentis acumiuatis divaricatis, cellulis inajusculis laxis pellucidis. Stipule plerumque 
conformes, pro genere maxima;, basi concavae, amplexicaules, in lacinias sex erectas v. divergentes subulatas fissae. 
Anthera inter baseos foliorum perigonii parte superiore caulis sitae, pedicellatse, albas, majusculae. 

A highly beautiful species and very different from any we have ever seen. The apices of the leaves are rather 
variable, in general they are bifid for i or i way down, with a rounded sinus ; but, in other cases, the segments 
have more the appearance of subulate appendages placed on each of the rounded apices of the leaf; in one instance a 
trifid leaf was observed, the third segment was on the upper margin towards the base. 

Plate LXV. Fig. I. — I, a specimen of the natural size ; 2 and 3, leaves ; 4, stipule ; magnified. 

36. JuNGERMAifNiA allodonta, Hook. fil. et Tayl. ; caulibus implexis prostratis ramosis, foliis distichis 
imbricatis horizontahter patentibus ovato-oblongis obtusis rotundatisve utrinque ad apicem bisetosis v. trun- 
catis rarius acutis v. apiculatis, stipulis minutis lanceolatis bipartitis. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; on the bark of trees in the woods. 

Caspites 1-2 unc. diametro, plani, appressi, luride virescentes. C'aules sub 1 une. longi, vage ramosi, prostrati, 
hie illic radicantes, una cum foliis sub 1 lin. lati. Folia tenera, laxe cellulosa, alterna, horizontaliter patentia, 

156 FLORA ANTARCTICA. [Auckland and 

ovato-oblonga v. subquadrata, basi lata decurrente, plerumque rotundata, apicem versus setis duabus subulatis 
divaricatis aucta, hinc quasi bieaudiculata, non raro autem truncata v. subemarginata, superiora interdum acuta v. 
apiculata. Stipula profunde bifida;, sscpius in lacinias duas subulatas parallelas v. paulo divergentes partita;, 

37. Jungekmanxia planivseida, Hook. fil. et Tayl. ; laxe csespitosa, caule procumbente ramoso, foliis 
membranaccis tenerrimis disticliis laxe imbricatis patentibus ovato-rotundatis basi obliquis latioribus decur- 
rentibus iutegerrimis, stipulis ovatis apice bifidis utrinque unidentatis rariusve integris. (Tab. LXV. Fig. II.) 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; on wet rocks near the sea, in the beds of streams, &c, forming large 

Caspiles majusculi, 3-4 unc. lati, fusco-purpurei, innovationibus pallide olivaceis. C'aules nigricantes, sub 2 
unc. longi, flaccidi, vage ramosi, procumbentes v. prostrati. Folia magnitudine varia, plerumque majuscula, 1-i Un. 
longa, laxe cellulosa, tenerrima, pellucida, apicibus rotundatis ssepe recurvis, marginibus interdum undulatis. Stipules 
bifida;, segmentis subulatis erectis approximatis. 

This exhibits much the habit and mode of growth of the last, but is a widely different and far larger plant ; it is 
very variable in size, some of the shoots on the same branch having leaves not half the length of others. 

Plate LXV. Fig. II. — 1, specimen of the natural size; 2, branch with stipule and leaf; 3, leaf; 4 and 5, 
stipules ; magnified. 

(9. Cheiloscyphus, Cor da.) 

38. Jtjngebmannia ausfralk, Hook. fil. et Tayl. ; csespitosa, procumbens, caule ramoso, foliis imbri- 
catis suberectis rotundatis basi superne sublobatis inferne decurrentibus, stipulis bipartitis varie sectis seg- 
mentis plerumque basi dentatis, fructu in ramis brevibus terminali, calyce oblongo curvato subcompresso 
bialato bilabiato labiis rotundatis obscure crenatis. (Tab. LXV. Fig. III.) 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island ; moist banks in the woods and on trunks of trees. 

Caspites 2-3 unc. lati. C'aules robusti, suberecti v. procumbentes, vage ramosi, nunc inter Hepaticas abas 
solitarii, sub 1 unc. longi, fusco-brunnei, srepe per totam longitudinem radicantes. Folia inferiora subpatentia, 
superiora imbricata, erecta, appressa, oblongo-rotundata, apicibus rotundatis integerrimis, cellulis plerumque majus- 
culis opacis. Stipulte forma varia;, plerumque oblongae et bifida;, utrinque basi unidentatse, segmentis divaricatis 
acuminatis, rarius subquadratae, quadrifida;, v. quadridentata?. Calyx exscrtus, paulo curvatus, oblongus, basi eylindra- 
ceus, superne compressus, bialatus, alis subundulatis, ore obliquo bilabiato, labiis divergentibus obscure crenulatis. 

The fertile branches of this plant are short, with about five pahs of leaves, of which the upper, or perichastial, 
are oblong, and the corresponding stipide is the largest and most deeply laciniated. A broken capsule, found within 
the calyx, contained rounded angular seeds and slender much-twisted spiral filaments, each formed of a double hebx. 
The barren plant strongly resembles some states of /. polyantlios, L., but in the fertile plant the oblong winged 
calyx, the included calyptra, and the more divided and toothed stipides abundantly distinguish it. 

Plate LXV. Fig. III. — 1, specimen of the natural size; 2, branch and calyx; 3, leaves and stipule; 4 and 5, 
stipides : magnified. 

39. Jungermannia BUlardieri, Schwaeg. Muse. Hepat. Prodr. p. 19. HooJc. Muse. Ejcot. t. 61, Chei- 
loscyphus, Corda, Nees et auctorum. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island ; abundant in the woods and in marshes on the 

Campbell's Islands.] FLOE A ANTARCTICA. 157 

40. Jungermannia coaUta, Hook.; Muse. Exot. t. 123. Cheiloscyphus, auctomm. 
Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; on the trunks of dead trees, &c, in the woods. 

41. Jungermannia sinuosa, Hook.; Muse. Exot. 1. 113. Cheiloscyphus, auctomm. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; at the roots of trees, growing mixed with mosses. 

Our specimens are quite white, the leaves, and especially the stipules, broader than in the figure quoted above ; 
the latter renifonn, with shorter laciuias. 

42. Jungerman^iia leiicoplujlla, Hook. fil. et Tayl. ; laxe esespitosa, caulibus erectis elongatis subra- 
mosis gracilibus, foliis arete imbricatis patentibus membranaceis convexis subtriangularibus una cum stipulis 
coahtis marginibus recurvis ciliato-dentatis, stipulis oblongis erectis margimbus recurvis eroso-dentatis, 
calyce elongate oblongo compresso bilabiato labiis denticulatis, perigonii foliis confertis abbreviatis. (Tab. 
LXV. Kg. IT.) 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; on the ground in the woods, generally mixed with other species. 

Caules laxe csespitosi, dispersi, flavo-fusci v. pallide brunnei, tenues, curvati, vage ramosi, vix 1 unc. lati, cum 
foliis stipulisque subtrigoni. Folia una cum stipulis in laminam triangidarem horizontaliter patentem perfoliatam 
oinnino coahta, margiuibus recurvis seu potius deflexis, substantia tenera pellucida laxe cellulosa. Perigonia ter- 
minaha v. lateralis, raniis angustiora, conspicua, fohis brevioribus quam foha cauhna magisque confertis. Antkera 
3-4, pedicellata?, minimse. 

A well marked and beautiful species. 

Plate LXV. Fig. IT. — 1, a specimeu of the natural size ; 2, front, 3, back, and 4, side view of a branch j 

43. Jungermannia fissistipa, Hook. fil. et Tayl.; caule prostrato subranioso, foliis disticlris oblique 
patentibus densis arete imbricatis ovatis obtusis apices versus grosse dentatis, marginibus decurvis inferiore 
integerrimo basi decurrente, superiore cum stipula rotundata fimbriato-lacera coalito. Cheiloscyphus fissi- 
stipus, Gottsche, Lehn. et Lincl. Spec. Hepat. (ined.) 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; on the dead and decaying trunks of trees, in the woods. 

This beautiful and strongly scented species is a near ally of /. coalita, Hook. ; but hi that the leaves are simply 
bifid at the apex, in this they are toothed repeatedly, and the stipides are much more divided, besides being gene- 
rally distinctly bifid at the apex owing to the terminal pah of teeth being more remote than the others. 

(10. Lepidozea, Dumorf.) 

44. Jtjngermannia lamfolia, Hook. fil. et Tayl. ; esespitosa, implexa, caule elongato pinnate, rarnis 
breviusculis patentibus attenuatis recurvis, foliis stipulisque quadrato-rotundatis quadrifidis rarius tri-quinque- 
fidis segmentis acutis incurvis, calyce in ramis inferioribus abbreviatis terminali lanceolato acuminato sub 
orem denticulatum plicato. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island; at the roots of trees, &c, abundant. 

Caspites plani, appressi, subdensi, dilute flavo-brunnei v. olivacei. Caules graciles, 1-2 unc. longi, ramis diva- 
ricatis. Folia horizontaliter patentia, caide oblique inserta, remota, lsevia, pallida, pellucida. Stipula \ magnituchnjs 
fohi. Perichatium perbreve, e foliis paucis erectis appressis quam fohis caulims minus profimde sectis. Capsula 
cyliudracea ; semina numerosa, luride-brunnea, globosa ; Jila spiraliter torta, elongata, helice duphci. 

2 H 

158 FLOKA ANTAECTICA. [Auckland and 

This and the following may be considered representatives of the British /. reptans, L., to which the present is 
very nearly allied, though differing in the much smaller size, the less pinnated stems, the more distant leaves which 
have not the singularly prominent cells of the northern plant, and especially in the short perichaetium and elongated 
calyx. It is also a native of New Zealand, in the Flora of which country it will be figured. 

45. JxmGEBMAKiaA patentissima, Hook. fil. et Tayl. ; subcsespitosa, caule valido repente pinnatim ra- 
lnoso, ramis brevibus, foliis plus minusve imbricatis patentibus v. incurvis cellulosis latissime obovato-quad- 
ratis basi angustatis tri-quadrifidis segmentis integerrimis obtusis rectis v. incurvis, stipulis brevibus sub- 
quadratis transverse elongatis tri-quadridentatis. (Tab. LXV. Kg. V.) 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; creeping among tufts of other Hepatica, on trunks of trees, &c. 

Caides inter Hepaticas alias Muscosqne dispersi, pallide fiavo-olivacei, breviusculi, vix \ unc. longi, validi, cras- 
siusculi, cellidosi ; ramis plerumque inconspicuis, brevibus, alternis, versus apices attenuatis. Folia caulina plerumque 
conferta, patentia (sed oblique, non horizontalia), subquadrata, plus minusve obovata, basi angustata v. subcuneata, 
segmentis incurvis v. planis, obovatis, 3-5-fidis, saepius 4-fidis, cellulis majusculis. Stipules caule vix latiores, seg- 
ments brevibus. 

This plant approaches nearer to the /. reptans, L., than the former ; it is, however, very much smaller, the 
leaves more closely imbricated, generally more deeply divided and narrower at the base. 

Plate LXV. Fig. V. — 1, specimen of the natural size ; 2, portion of branch ; 3 and 4, leaves ; 5 and 6, sti- 
pules ; magnified, 

46. JrNGEiniANNiA tenax, Greville, in Annals of Lyceum of New York, vol. i. p. 277. pi. 23. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; on the dry trunks of trees and on the ground. 

A curious little species, first described by Dr. Greville, who gives an excellent figure of it, from New Holland 

47. Jungekmannia tetradactyla, Hook. fil. et Tayl. ; csespitosa, implexa, caule debili prostrato sub- 
pinnatim raruoso, foliis subremotis distichis patentibus basi quadratis quadrispinosis spinis articulatis, stipulis 
minimis quadripartitis, calyce elongate cylindraceo ore contracto eiliato. 

II us. Lord Auckland's group ; creeping over patches of /. coalita. 

Caspites 1-2 unc. lati, pallide flavo-virides. Caules interdum 1 unc. longi, innovationibus plurimis ramosi ; 
celluke externse latre, pellucida?, alba?, centrales virides, opacse, hinc cauhs sub lente quasi ala membranacea cinctus 
appareat. Folia caulina reniota, ramidina (plerumque superiora) conferta, basi angusta, deinde latiora, hi spinas 
elongatas desinentia. Stipula caide vix latiores, segmentis subulatis. 

Closely allied to the /. centipes, nobis, of Tasmania, from which it may be distinguished by the (transparent) 
more branched and pinnate stems, the more distant and patent transparent leaves, which are more deeply divided, 
with the segments elongated and setaceous : the two species are very near in other respects. 

From New Zealand we have this plant with calyces and perigonia ; the former are remarkably large in propor- 
tion to the size of the plant, being as long as the shoots winch bear them, they are ovato-cylindrical and slightly 
bent on one side. The perichastial leaves are erect, with a longer entire portion or base than the cauline. Perigonia 
forming cylindrical spikes, their leaves large, bifid above with tumid bases, each containing in its axhla a single mi- 
nute, round, brown, pedicellated anther. 

48. Juxgermaxsia (tixpar, Mont.; caulibus elongatis caespitosis ramosis, foliis laxe imbricatis rarius 
in ramulis terminahbus imbricatis patenti-incurvis obovato-cuneatis basi angustatis ad medium trindis seg- 

Campbell's Islands.} FLORA ANTARCTICA. 159 

mentis lineari-subulatis subacutis, stipulis minoribus conforrnibus, perigoniis termiualibus capitatis pro planta 
inajusculis . — aii J. hippurioides varietas ? J. dispar, Montague in Voy. au Pole Sud, Bot. Gryptog. (ined.) 
Hab. Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island ; on the ground. 

49. Jungermannia Ziippwrioides, Hook. fil. et Tayl. ; minima, laxe ceespitosa, caule procumbente ra- 
moso, foliis subimbricatis patentibus obovatis bi-trifidis basi angustis, segmentis linearibus subacutis, stipulis 
minutis valde inconspicuis erectis appressis trifidis. (Tab. LXV. Kg. VII.) 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; on decayed bark, and at the roots of grasses and ferns in wet places. 

Catspites per innovatioiiibus vagis intertexti, pallide olivacei. Caules vix imciales, irregulariter pinnati, una ciun 
foliis densis crassiusculi. Folia conferta, imbricata, patentia, quasi verticillata, profunde bi-trifida rarius quadrifida, 
laciniis celhdosis inarticulatis. Stipules valde ineonspicuae, cauli latiori arete appressse, plerurnque in segmenta 
tria divisae. 

A very distinct little species, though not easily characterized ; the figure will give the best idea of its habit and 
peculiarities. It is most nearly allied to the /. tetradactyla, nobis, (vid. ante) from which it may be recognized 
by its shorter and more patent leaves, which, as well as the stipules, are usually trifid. 

Plate LXV. Fig Nil. — 1, specimen of the natural size; 2, portion of branch ; 3, stipules; magnified. 

50. Jtjngekmannia albula, Hook. fil. et Tayl. ; niajuscula, caulibus subimplexis erectis ramosis, foliis 
dense et arete imbricatis erecto-patentibus concavis late et oblique ovato-rotundatis fimbriato-laceris laciniis 
plerisque profunde bifidis, stipulis concavis majusculis rotundatis sex- ad decemfidis laciniis bifidis. (Tab. 
LXV. Fig. VI.) 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; creeping through tufts of Gottscliea Lehmanniana. 

Caules rage dispersi, palhde albido-virescentes, subpinnatim v. dichotome ramosi, |~1 unc. longi, sub a lin. 
lati, rands breviuscidis sa;pe dichotomis, innovationibus flagelliformibus interdum instructis. Folia latissima, concava, 
basi semi-amplexicaidia, dense imbricata, sese amplectentia, laxe cellulosa, membranacea, pellucida, margine ante- 
riore basin versus dentata, casterum in lacinias curvatas bifidas partita. Stipula -i- magnitudine folh, imbricatse, con- 
spicuse, margmibus lacimatis. 

This is a very beautiful plant, much larger and of a different aspect from any of the former. 

Plate LXV. Fig. VI. — 1, a specimen of the natural size ; 2, lower, and 3, upper view of a portion of a branch ; 
4, leaf; 5, stipule : — Magnified. 

(11. Mastigobrytjm, Nees.) 

51. Juxgermanxia Novcb Holhuulice, Nees; caule prostrato ramoso subtus flagellifero divaricatirn ra- 
moso, ramis patentibus plerisque recurvis, foliis arete imbricatis oblongo-aciuaciformibus curvatis concavis 
abrupte truncatis apice eroso bi-tridentato stijmlis caide latioribus remformi-rotundatis margimbus recurvis 
dentatis v. multifidis. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; common in the woods, creeping amongst mosses and other Jlepatiea. 

52. Jungermannia involuta; Herpetium involutum, Mont, in Voy. an Pole Sud, Bot. Crypt, t. 18. 
fig. 2. et in Ann. Sc. Nat. 1843. p. 253. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; common in the woods, forming large tufts. 

A very handsome species, variable in size ; of a much larger and more erect habit, and with broader leaves 
than the /. Nova Hollandiee, the latter have larger cells also. 


53. Jungermannia atro-virens, Hook. fil. et Tayl. ; caule gracili erecto disperso ramoso subtus fla- 
gellifero, foliis parvis patentibus subdistantibus triaugulari-rotundatis apice inaequaliter bifidis segmentis 
acutis integerrirnis, cellulis parvis punctiformibus rnargiueni versus inferiorem inajoribus, stipulis niinutis 
transversis semi-rotundatis tripartitis segmentis acutis. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; creeping througli tufts of Bicrana and other mosses, in the woods and 
on the lulls, not uncommon. 

Caules 1-2 unciales, graciles, saepe solitarii, vage ramosi, rigidi, erecti, interdum subflexuosi, crassiusculi, oli- 
vaceo-brunnei. Folia pro niagnitudine caidis parva, vix imbricata, verticabter patentia, oblique ovato-rotundata v. 
subtriangularia, bifida v. bidentata, segmento inferiore majore, apicibus plerumque inciuvis, palhde brunnea v. flavo- 
fusca, subopaca, densa ; cellulis rnanifeste punctiformibus. Stipulce tridentatae, dentibus acutis v. obtusis. 

A very distinct species, which can scarcely be confounded with any other, of a wiry habit though particularly 
graceful and slender ; this character, together with the great disproportion between the breadth of the leaves and 
stem, and the unequal cellules which are so large towards the inferior margin as almost to resemble a nerve, will 
readily distinguish it from any other. A similar disposition of the cellules is seen in M. inaquilaterum, Nees. 

54. Jungermannia nutans, Hook. fil. et Tayl. ; caulibus crassiusculis caespitosis subsimplicibus erectis 
incurvis apicibus saepe nutantibus, foliis deusis arete inibricatis patentibus valde concavis late ovatis apice 
inaequaliter bifidis margine subintegris camosiusculis laxe cellulosis, stipulis erectis late ovato-rotundatis 
apice bifidis v. subdentatis, stolonibus subbasilaribus ascendentibus ad apices demivm foliosis. (Tab. LXV. 
Fig. VIII.) 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; in moist places on the ground, and at the roots of trees. 

Caules caaspitosi, simplices, erecti, incurvi v. nutantes, ut in /. tenaci, Grev., crassiusculi, caraosuli, cellidosi, 
albidi v. pallide vh'escentes, ad apices siccitate sagpe nigricantes, sidjunciales. Folia valde concava, bifida, segmento 
inferiore minore, cellulis saepe margines versus prominulis aquosis, ad medium folii majoribus. 

Very imlike any of the other species of this genus, though in some respects approaching the J. tenax, Grev., 
in which the stems are branched and the leaves midtifid. The whole plant is of a singularly flaccid or flabby con- 
sistence, formed of watery or fleshy cells, a good deal s imil ar to those of/, notopliylla, nobis (vid. ante). 

Plate LXV. Fig. VIII. — 1, specimen of the natural size; 2, portion of branch; 3, stipule: — magnified. 

(12. Schisma, Bumort.) 

55. Jukgeemaknia Scolopenclra, Hook. ; Muse. Exot. t. 40. Scliisma Scolopeudra, Nees et auct. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island; on the hills, abundant; often resembling a 
Racomitrium in its habit of growth. 

(13. Mastigophora, Nees.) 

56. Jungermannia hirsuta, Nees. 

Hab. Campbell's Island. 

This we have compared and found to agree with authentic specimens of /. hirsuta, Nees, but we are not aware 
where that species is published. 

(14. Trichocolea, Nees.) 

57. Jtjngermannia mottissima, Hook. fil. et Tayl.; laxe caespitosa, implexa, caule ascendente bipin- 
natim ramosissimo, foliis confertis alteruis patentibus e basi lata dichotoma multifichs laciniis capillaribus sti- 

Campbell's Islands.'] FLORA ANTARCTICA. 161 

pulis bifitlis dichotome laciniatis, calyce ex parte inferiore caulis obovato clavato bilabiate- undique squamis 
liueari-lanceolatis laciniatis tecto. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island; abundant on moist rocks on the hills, on trunks 
of trees in the woods, &c. 

Caspites plani, molles, albidi, juniores pallide virides. Caules 4-6 imc. lorigi et ultra, teretes ; rami divari- 
cati, conferti, per totam longitudinem caulis subaequilongi, hinc caidis subpectinatus. Folia basi patentia, sursum 
erecta, apicibus incui'vis. Stipules foliis conformes sed minores. Calyx sub 2 lin. longus, lateralis ; pedicello fere 
-5- unc. longo ; capsula oblonga. 

This very beautiful plant is nearly allied to /. tomentella, Ekr., from which it differs in the more procumbent 
or prostrate mode of growth, in the more crowded cylindrical (not compressed) branches, in the stipules and leaves 
being broader at the base and dichotomously divided, and in the calyx bearing elongated linear-lanceolate scales. 
It is also a native of New Zealand. 

58. Jungerjiannia polyacantha, Hook. fil. et Tayl. ; caulibus subcaespitosis erectis ramosis spiculosis, 
foliis laxe imbricatis patentibus stipulisque basi angustis quadrifidis laciniis multifidis ramosis ultimis 
spiculaeformibus articulatis, calyce terminali majore lineari-obovato superne turnido subquadridentato hispido. 
(Tab. LXV. Kg. IX.) 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; in woods near the sea. 

Caules tenues, graciles, laxi, inter Muscos Hepaticasque alias dispersi, v. csespitosi, pallide flavi, flaccidi, debiles, 
vix \ unc. longi, parce ramosi, apicibus plerumque e foliis plurimis confertis incrassati, spiculis articulatis obsiti. 
Folia basi semiamplexicaulia. Stipules concava?. Calyx vere terminalis, pro planta maximus, squamis foliaceis obo- 
vatis multifidis hispidus. 

A very curious and distinct little species. The stems and branches have a peculiarly hispid and squarrose ap- 
pearance, from the acicular scales and apices of the leaves which beset them and point in all directions. In some 
respects it resembles /. tetradacfyla, nobis, and in others the /. setacea and J. trichophylla, from all of which it is 
abundantly distinguished by the compound segments of the leaves. From /. tomentella, its nearest ally, it differs 
in its much smaller size and different habit, in the rigid and fragde texture of its more deeply divided leaves, which 
appear hardly to possess any base or lamina, and in the crenate mouth of the calyx. 

Plate LXV. Fig. IX. — 1, specimen of the natural size ; 2, leaf; 3, calyx: — magnified. 

(15. Radtjla, Dumort.) 

59. Jungermamjia complanata, L. ; Syst. Nat. vol. ii. p. 706. Hook. Brit. Jungerm. t. 81. 
Hab. Campbell's Island ; upon the bark of trees. 

60. Juxgermajtnia pliysoloba, Mont., caulibus csespitosis prostratis subpinnatim ramosis, ramis com- 
planatis, foliis suberectis imbricatis convexis integerrimis lobo superiore obovato-rotundato margine recurvo, 
pericluetialibus oblongis transversis deflexis, calyce elongato obconico compresso truncato integerrimo. Ra- 
dula physoloba, Mont, in Voy. au Pole Slid, Bot. Crypt, t. 17. fig. 4. et in Ann. Sc. Nat. 1814. p. 255. J. 
complanata, var. /3, Hook. Brit. Jungerm. t. 81. f. 17. J. Aquilegia, nobis, in Lorul. Journ. of Botany, 
vol. iii. p. 291. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; growing mixed with mosses on wet rocks. 


162 FLORA ANTARCTICA. {Auckland and 

Caspites lati, appressi, plaiii, olivaceo-brumiei. Caules 1-4 una longi, irregulariter pinnati, ramis divaricatis. 
Folia basi angusta, concava ; lobo inferiore basi tumido, superiori obtuse angidato arete appresso. 

Found abundantly in Ireland, and according to Lindenberg in Switzerland ; in the former locality, as in its 
southern habitat, preferring wet rocks. It may be distinguished from /. complanata, L., by its smaller size, more 
convex leaves, thin texture and brown colour, by the lesser lobe being tumid at the base and not sharply reflected on 
the larger or upper, and by the deflexed perichsetial leaves ; besides these characters we may remark that the peri- 
gonia are usually terminal and not upon lateral short branches, and that the angulate portion of the lower lobe is 
shorter than in /. complanata. 

61. Jtjngermannia uvifera, Hook. fil. et Tayl. ; canJe implexo procumbente pinnatim ramoso, foliis 
imbricatis patentibus integerrirnis, lobo superiore majore convexo late oblongo-rotundato apice recurvo basi 
rotundato, inferiore superne truncato v. rotundato ovato-oblongo obtuso inferne subtumido apice lobo supe- 
riori appresso, perigoniis lateralibus filiforinibus sub foliis latentibus, calyce obovato-oblongo valde compresso 
subcochleariforrni utrinque marginibus acutis subalatis lateribus basi ad medium 4-5 costatis, ore truncato 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; on the bark of trees, &c, abundant. 

CcBspites plamusculi v. tumidi, late extensi, olivaceo-brunnei, implexi. Caules 1-2 unc. longi, crassiusculi, 
valde ramosi, foliis convexis undique imbricati, apicem versus saepe purpurascentes. Folia subrecivrva, late obovato- 
rotundata ; lobo superiore nunc deorsum in auxiculam producto, nunc angustiore, lobo inferiore \ magnitudine su- 
perioris, superne eo arete appresso inferne tumido, forma varia, substantia opaca laete sed pallide flavo-brunnea. 
Innovationes infra folia plurimi, breves, parvi, perigoniis saepe alternantes. Perigoma omnino inter folia occlusa, 
minuta, filiformia, fohis 8-10 urceolatis arete imbricata. Perichatium e foliis duobus erectis constans, apicibus la- 
tis rotundatis, lobo inferiore subinvoluto. 

This species is closely allied to the R. pectinate, Nees, but the upper lobes of the leaves are more elongated 
and the lower are broad at the apex, the perigoma also are shorter. The calyx is here remarkable for the compressed 
margins being almost winged and the two sides furnished with several elevated costse. The smaller lobe of the 
leaf is at first very tumid, more appressed when older. 

(16. Madotheca, Dmnort.) 

62. Jungekmannia elegantida. Madotheca elegantula, Mont, in Voy. au Pole Sud, Bot. Crypt, t. 18. 
f. 3. et in Ann. Sc. Nat. 1843. p. 255. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; on trunks of trees in the woods. 

Very closely allied to the European /. platyphylla, differing chiefly in the less decidedly pinnate ramification, 
in the more distant branches, in the frequent toothing of the lower lobe (not shown in Montague's figure), and in the 
plane margins of the stipules, which are recurved only at the tips ; the capsule also is split down to the very base 
into four valves. Montague compares it with M. mibsquarrosa, Nees and Mont., from Juan Fernandez. 

(17. Frullania, Nees.) 

63. Jungermannia Magellamca, Lamarck, Encycl. Bot. vol. iii. p. 28. Hook. Muse. Exot. t. 115. 

Hab. Campbell's Island; on alpine rocks. 

The foliage is paler in colour and more lax than in the specimens figured in the ' Musci Exotici.' It is also a 
native of Tasmania, from whence we have specimens with fully formed calyces. 

Campbell's Islands.] FLOE A ANTARCTICA. 163 

64. Jungermannia clavigera, Hook., Muse. Exot. t. 70. 

Has. Campbell's Island ; on rocks, and on the trunks of trees. 

These specimens vary much in colour, in general they are of a richer brown, and less olivaceous than in the 
figure quoted, at other times they are nearly black. 

65. Jungermannia ptycliant/ia. Frullania ptychantha, Mont, hi Toy. au Pole Slid Bot. Crypt. 1. 19. 
f. 3. et in Ann. So. Nat. 1843. p. 257. J. Myosota, nobis in Bond. Journ. of Bot. v. 3. p. 393. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island; on tlie trunks of trees, and on rocks on the lulls, 

The periehaetial leaves in this species are three, closely embracing the base of the calyx ; the two lateral entire, 
obovate, having a strap-shaped acute curved inner lobe with reflexed sides ; the third or stipular lobe is oblong, 
deeply divided into recurved linear segments, whose margins are uneven but not toothed. Calyx cybndrical and 
smooth for \ way up, then ovate-rotundate, exserted, laciniated ; in the young state it appears terminated by a short 

This species may be known from all others by the minute, divergent auricles below the leaves, and more par- 
ticularly by the plicate calyx. Montague compares it with F. gracilis, nodulosa and integristipula, and adds that besides 
the difference in the calyx, the first of these has the involucral leaves serrated, and in the two others the stipules are 

66. Jungermannia attophylla, Hook. fil. et Tayl. ; cauhbus laxe dispersis flaccidis graeilibus flexuosis 
subramosis, foliis distantibus erecto-patentibus patulisve late ovatis obtusis acutisve mtegriusculis laxe reti- 
culatis, auriculis anguste oblongo-pyriforrnibus clavatisve incurvis a folio divergentibus, stipulis minutis bihdis 
segmentis lanceolatis saepius clavatis. (Tab. LXVI. Fig. I.) 

Hab. Campbell's Island ; on the hills, rare, growing with other Jungermannia. 

Caules 2-3 lin. lougi, parce ramosi; rami alterni, siccitate subatri, madore lsete sanguineo-purpurei. Folia 
forma sat varia, inferiora longiora, late ovata v. elliptica, obtusa v. rarius acuminata, integerrima v. bi-tridentata, 
cellulis pro planta maximis, auriculis pedicellatis majusculis erectis interdmn deflexis. 

A beautiful little species and one of the smallest that is known of this subgenus ; as in /. clavigera the lobes 
of the stipides are often replaced by club-shaped amides. 

Plate LXVI. Fig. I. — 1, a specimen of the natural size ; 2 and 3, front and back view of leaves ; magnified. 

67. Jungermannia rostrata, Hook. fil. et Tayl.; caule exiguo repente subpinnathn ramoso, foliis subap- 
proximatis patcntibus rotundatis subapiculatis integerrhnis lobo inferiore oblongo-lanceolato appenchculato, 
stipulis minutis rotundatis bifidis integerrhnis, perigoniis obovatis rotundatis, periclnetiis oblongo-rotundatis, 
calyce obovato apice tubuloso basi angusto lineari. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; on Parmelia enteromorpha, Ach. 

Caspites 1-2 unc. lati, rufo-brunnei. Caules minuti, graciles. Folia rotundata, lobulo inferiore \ magnitutUne 
superioris ; perichatialia oblonga, apiculata, incurva, marginibus lobuh inferioris refiexis. Calyx perichaetio bis longior. 

The present species bears much general resemblance to J. lobulata, Hook., differing from it in the smaller size, 
the narrow base of the calyx, which is of a different and less trigonous form, being wider above, and in the acute 
or apiculate leaves of the perichcetium. It is as small as the previous species. 

68. Jungermannia reticulata, Hook. fil. et Tayl. ; cauhbus implexis prostratis subpinnatim ramosis, 

164 FLORA ANTAECTICA. [Auckland and 

ramis brevibus, foliis distichis imbricatis patentibus concavis late rotuiidatis apice recurvis superioribus late 
ovatis grosse dentatis, aurieulis interdurn nullis superioribus nunc bifidis seginento exteriore clavato interiore 
subulato, stipulis bi-quadripartitis. (Tab. LXVI. Tig. II.) 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; rocks on the mountains. 

Ceespites 2-3 unc. lati, planiusculi, rupibus appressi, intertexti, nigrescentes, nunc pallidiores, innovationibus 
laete purpureis. Canles sub 2 unc. longi, interdurn elongati, ramis plerumque brevibus. Folia tenerrima, valde pel- 
lucida, areolis majusculis, inferiora integerrima, ssepe lobulo intus aucta. Stipula concavse, profunde partitas, non- 
nullis v. omnibus clavatis. 

This is a very beautiful microscopic object, and though allied to /. clavigera is very distinct from it. The lower 
leaves are sometimes nearly reniform, with no auricle whatever, but the most remarkable differential character lies in 
the very lax reticulation of its cells 

Plate LXVI. Fig. II. — 1, a specimen of the natural size; 2 and 3, leaves; 4, 5 and 6, stipules; magnified. 

69. Jungermannia aterrima, Hook. fil. et Tayl.j pusilla, caule implexo procumbente vage ramoso, foliis 
imbricatis patentibus convexis rotundato-oblongis integerrirnis marginibus recurvis, aurieulis late oblongo- 
pyriforrnibus inflatis, stipulis minutis ovatis bipartitis segmeutis lanceolatis basi extus unidentatis, perigoniis 
rotundatis, foliis perichsetialibus integerrirnis incurvis. (Tab. LXVI. Tig. III.) 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; on alpine rocks, mixed with Andrecea and other mosses. 

Ceespites nigri, apicibus nitidis rarius purpurascentibus ; ramis subsolitariis. Folia rotundata v. late et oblique 
ovata. Stipula bipartite, integrae v. utrinque dente majusculo extus aucto et hinc quadrifidfe. Planta plerumque 
monoica. Perigonia breviter pedunculata, arete imbricata, rotundata, superne longitudinaliter sidcata, marginibus 
foliorum valde incurvis. Periclicetii foKia tria, secunda, valde concava, corpora tria rotundata referentes. 

This has some points of affinity with the /. fragilifoUa, Tayl., a species lately observed in Ireland and Swit- 
zerland, which is equally minute but not so uniformly black and sliining, and has the leaves less densely cellular, and 
the perichfetial ones dentate. 

Plate LXVI. Fig. III. — 1, a specimen of the natural size; 2, 3 and 4, leaves; 5 and 6, stipules; 7, perichse- 
tial leaf; magnified. 

70. Jtjxgermannia congesta, Hook. fil. et Tayl.; csespitosa, caule procumbente ramoso, foliis imbri- 
catis patentibus hitegerrimis late ovatis rotmidatisve subapiculatis, auricula inflata oblongo-pyriformi, stipulis 
minutis ovato-rotundatis bifidis integerrirnis, foliis perichaetialibus oblongis apiculatis integerrirnis albidis. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; on rocks and on the bark of trees. 

CcBspites extensi, sub 2 unc. lati, pahide flavo-brunnei. Caules gracdes, sub 2 unciales, pinnatim ramosi ; ramis 
erecto-patentibus, ssepe ascendentibus v. sursum curvatis. Folia valde convexa, plerumque apiculata, 'auricula caule 
remota infra marginem foKi extensa. Stipula integerrirnae, caule vix latiores, apicem versus bifida, segmentis acutis. 
Folia perichcetialia erecta, integerrima, acuminata, duobus lateralibus oblongis lobulo inferiore margine inflexo, 
stipulari in segmenta duo lanceolata apiculata integerrima fissa. 

Very similar to the /. ptgehantha, Mont., but the whole plant much smaller, the auricles occupy a different 
position, and the perichfetial leaves are of a different form. The barren perichaetia which have roimded summits, are 
probably modified in the perfect plant. Prom J. aterrima, to which it is in some respects allied, it may be known by 
the larger size, pale colour, acute perichaetial leaves, and, above all, by the entire stipules. 

CampbelTs Islands] FLORA ANTARCTICA. 165 

71. Jungermannia scandens. Frullania scandens, Mont, in Toy. au Pole Sud, Bot. Crypt. 1. 19. f. 2. 
et in Annal. des Sc. Nat. 1S43, p. 258. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group; on branches of trees (MM. Hombron et Jacquinot). 

This species was not found during the stay of the Antarctic Expedition in Lord Auckland's group. Monta°-ne 
compares it with F. Mans, ornithocepkala, and obscura, Nees. 

(18. Lejeunia, Lib.) 

72. Jungermannia implexieaulis, Hook. fil. et Tayl. ; caulibus cajspitosis suberectis ramosis, foliis 
laxe imbricatis suberectis patentibus vnlde concavis ovatis obtusis apicibus marginibusque incurvis areolis 
punctiformibus, lobulis anguste ovatis tuniidis inflexis, stipulis rotundatis caule latioribus apice fissis seg- 
mentis suberectis. 

Has. Campbell's Island; creeping through tufts of mosses in rocky places. 

Caules -j-1 unc. longi, inter muscos dispersi v. crespites plus rninusve confertos formautes, olivaceo-vh'ides, vage 
ramosi, ramis erectis. Folia valde concava, hinc oculo nudo rami moniliformes apparent, subdecurrentia, lobulo 
cauli proximo, areolis minimis punctiformibus. Stipulce fere orbiculares, primo visu integrse, sed fissse segmentis 
approximatis v. imbricatis. 

Very nearly allied to the /. serpyUifolia, Dicks. ; it has, however, a different aspect, owing to the erect leaves, 
which are not plane but very concave, and instead of being loosely cellular are formed of a very compact tissue, the 
cells of which require a high power to be distinguished, the leaves themselves also are twisted forwards and not pa- 
tent. The stipules appear undivided, except wheu the segments are forced asunder ; whdst in /. serpyUifolia they 
diverge and often have a very rounded sinus between them. 

73. Jungermannia Mimosa, Hook. fil. et Tayl.; caulibus implexis repentibus ramosis, foliis imbrica- 
tis patentibus concavis oblique obovato-oblongis subcurvatis v. acinaciformibus apicibus patentibus recurvis 
integerrimis, lobulis ovatis involutis, stipulis late ovatis acute bifidis, calyce late elliptico-ovato pentggono 
ore contracto subtubuloso. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; on moist alpine rocks. 

Cxspites parvi, fusco-olivacei. Caules sub \ unc. longi, irregulariter vage ramosi, ascendentes. Folia subincurva, 
ut in J. serpyUifolia, sed prsesertim apices versus latiora et ad latus curvata, hinc subacinacifonnia, lobulo erecto- 
patente ; substantia crassiuscida, areolis parvis. Stipiilrr caule vix latiores, apice fissee, segmentis subdistantibus 
erectis, sinu obtuso. Folia perickalialia late oblongo-rotundata, integra, concava, apicibus recurvis, tertio stipulse 
conformi sed magis concavo. Periyouia lateralia, spicata ; foliis arete imbricatis, brevibus, rotundatis, tumidis. 
Calyx basi angustatus, obovatus v. obovato-ellipticus, pentagonus v. sub 5-alatus, ore minuto tubuloso. 

The chief points of distinction between this and the .7. serpyUifolia, Dicks., reside in the denser structure of 
the leaves, then- tops being recurved"; the larger calyx, which tapers towards the narrower base, and the rounder more 
concave perichstial leaves. From /. iii/plexicaulis it may be known by the more cellular and planer leaves, their 
very different direction, and the remote segments of the stipules. 

74. Jungermannia primordialis, Hook. fil. et Tayl. ; caulibus exilibus implexis vage ramosis, ramis 
subpatentibus, foliis laxis suberectis anguste obovatis apicibus rotundatis concavis integerrimis lobo inferiore 
ovato iuvoluto, stipulis minimis emarginato-bifidis segmentis linearibus subobtusis divaricatis. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; on a species of Sticta in the woods. 

2 K 

166 FLORA ANTARCTICA. [Auckland and 

Caspiies parvi, pallide olivaceo-virides. Caules sub J- unc. longi, ramis divaricatis. Folia remota, suberecta, 
anguste obovata, lobo inferiore extus ad inflexionem dento obtuso aucto. 

The miimte size, more erect, narrow and more distant leaves, will readily distinguish this species from small 
states of /. serpyllifolia, even in the absence of fructification. 

75. Jungermannia albo-virens, Hook. fil. et Tayl. ; minima, caulibus implexis prostratis rainosis, foliis 
laxis patentibus valde concavis oblongis apice rotimdatis integerrimis, lobulis involutis ovatis tumidis, stipu- 
lis exiguis oblongis bifidis segmentis obtusis acutisve, calyce in ramo brevi proprio terminali obovato-elongato 
basi angustato apice quadriplicate tubuloso. (Tab. LXVI. Fig. IV.) 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; on rocks at the summits of the mountains, mixed with other J anger - 

Laxe cellulosa. Caules per plantas alias dispersi, non csespitosi, pallide flavo-olivacei, 2-3 lin. longi, siccitate 
fragiles, irregulariter ramosi, ramis remotis. Folia basi semiamplexicaulia et subsaccata, superne oblonga et rotun- 
data, apicibus plerumque reeurvis, cellulis majusculis aquosis. Stipula cauli arete appressse, inconspicuse, oblonga?, 
caule vix latiores. Ferichatii foliola tria, lateralibus erectis concavis obtusis lobulo acuto intus auctis, tertio v sti- 
pulari oblongo bifido stipulis omnino conforrni sed majore. Calyx apice tubulosus, demum in lacunas quatuor de- 
hiscens. Capsula spherica, pallide brimnea, valvis basi coadunatis. Senium majuscula, pauca, angulata ; filis spira- 
libus paucis, diametro \ seminiun. 

Very nearly allied to the J. ulicina, Tayl. (./. minutisshna, Brit. Jung.), preferring also wet mosses on which to grow. 
The British plant may be distinguished by its smaller size, the larger cells of the leaves, which are not so concave 
and subacute, whilst then lobulus has a sharp process or tooth at the point of involution, also by the more divided 
stipules, whose segments are acuter, and by the recurved perichsetial leaves. 

Plate LXVI. Fig. IV. — a specimen of the natural size ; 2, portion of branch ; 3, leaf, and -4, stipule : magnified. 

76. Jungermannia latitans, Hook. fil. et Tayl. ; minima, caule tenuissimo prostrato ramoso, foliis 
remotiusculis suberectis celluloso-crenulatis ovatis acutis apicibus seepe incurvis, lobulis ovatis involutis, sti- 
pulis inconspicuis bifidis segmentis lanceolatis obtusis, foliis perichsetialibus late obovato-cuneatis acuminatis. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group; mixed with other Hejiaticce. 

Cellulosa, minima. Caspites laxi, dispersi, planiuscub, pallide virescentes. Folia remotiuscula, longitudine 
varia, acuta v. acuminata, cellulis preecipue versus margines majusculis tumidis et prominentibus, hinc folia subcre- 
nata, lobulo a latitudine folii. Stipula valde inconspicure, caule vix latiores. Perichatii foliola ramis anni pnece- 
dentis terminalia, erecta, obovata, acuminata, lateralia incurva, tertio oblongo concavo bifido. 

Closely resembling the /. kamatifolia, Hook. ; but the leaves are much broader. From /. echinata, Tayl., it 
may be known by the presence of stipules ; from /. albo-virens, by its smaller size, more cellular texture, and acute 

77. Ju>*GERMAKNiA plicatiloba , Hook. fil. et Tayl.; caulibus implexis procumbentibus vage ramosis, 
foliis laxis erecto-patentibus valde concavis rotundato-quadratis subtruueatis integerrimis, lobo inferiore in- 
curvo apice angidato superiori subrequali basi tumido appresso, stipulis exiguis emarginato-bifidis segmentis 
linearibus subincur\is. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; on Parmelia intestiniformis, Acli. 

Caspites minuti, laxi, pallidi. Caules vix \ unc. longi. Folia remota. Stipulce minima;. 

Campbell's Islands.'] FLORA ANTARCTICA. 107 

The shoots of this species appear like rows of the minutest beads, so small is the whole plant, and the stem 
is all but imperceptible, even with a tolerable lens. The position of the lobe on the lower part of the leaf resem- 
bles that of a Radula. 

(19. Symphiogyna, Nees.) 

78. Jungermannia Thyttantkus, Hook., Muse. Exot. t. 95. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; in the shaded woods, abundant but barren. 

79. Jtjngermaxxia flabellata, Lab., Fl. Nov. Hott. vol.ii. p.109. t. 254. f. 1. Hook. Muse. Exot. t. ] 8. 
Hab. Lord Auckland's group; with the former, but also barren. 

(20. Aneura, Nees.) 

80. Jungeruannia mnltifda, L. Hook. Brit. Jungerm. t. 45. 

Var. /3, incisa ; frondibus atro-viridibus carnosis inciso-ramosis, lobis pinnatis apice bilobis subdecurvis. 
J. incisa, nobis, in Hook. Loud. Journ. of Bot. vol. iv. p. 93. 

Var.? y, minima ; caespitosa, frondibus vix i lin. latis. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island ; var. /3, in the former locality only ; var. y, Lord 
Auckland's group. (Dr. Lyall.) 

Of this widely diffused and highly variable plant we have noticed what appear to be the most striking varieties ; 
all of them are destitute of any trace of fructification, and some may be improperly included under this species, or 
even genus ; there are, however, no grounds for removing them from Aneura, and being anxious to draw attention in 
this work to all that is known of the Flora of the South, we prefer arranging such dubious plants with their nearest 
apparent allies, to passing them by unrecorded. 

(21. Metzgeria, Nees.) 

81. JuNGVVLMAzrxiAfurcata, L. Hook. Brit. Jung. t. 55. and 56. 
Var. y, aruginosa, Brit. -Jungerm. I.e. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island ; very abundant at the roots of ferns and other 
plants ; var. y, on the bark of trees. 

This plant is as variable in size in this part of the world as in others. 

, (22. Zoopsis, Hook. f I. et Tayl.) 

Perichatium e squamis paucis lanceolatis. Calyx e frondis nervo ortus, pedicellatus, obovato-oblongus, in 
lacinias plurinias fissus. — Frondes lineares, parce ramosce, e ceilidh hexagonis pro magnititdine planta majusciilis tumidis 
formatce, nervo centrali valido, marginibus crenatis interdum sinuato-repandh. Calyx maximus. — Planta anomala a 
Diplolana, Nees, differt calyce simplici, hinc, scilicet extrorsmn, squamis pericha?tialibus prsedito. 

82. Jungermaxsia argentea, Hook. fil. et Tayl.; Hook. Lond. Journ. of Botany, vol. iii. p. 400. sub 
Metzgeria. (Tab. LXVI. Fig. VI.) 

16S FLORA ANTARCTICA. [Auckland and 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; at the roots of trees, ferns, &c, growing amongst other Hepatica and 

Caspites parvi, procuinbentes, argentei, inter muscos dispersi. Frondes rigidiusculae, 2-3 lin. longae, simplicius- 
culae, gracillima;, compressa? v. complanatse, e cellulis majusculis hexagonis nemun vakdum ineludentibus formats, niar- 
ginibus e cellulis irregulariter prominentibus sinuato-repandis, rarius bine inde in lobos expansis, nervo centrali ^"iridi 
valido. Rami pauci, patentes, simplices v. rarius furcati. Calyces pro magnitudine plants maximi, e nervo centrali 
ipso orti, breviter peclicellati, urceolati v. campanulati, laxe cellidosi, in lacinias plurimas magis articulatas minusve 
profunde fissi, basi squarois paucis (periehastio) muniti. 

A verj' singular plant, closely allied to none in the Order Hepatica ; it forms pale silvery patches at the roots 
of ferns, &c., in the woods, but has only been found fruiting in New Zealand, where, as in Tasmania also, it is pro- 
bably abundant. In the specimens from Lord Auckland's group the fronds are hardly sinuated at the margins and 
often formed of only one or two series of cells surrounding the axis ; in those from more Northern Latitudes other 
series of cells are superadded, the fronds are more compressed, and their margins so sinuated from the irregularly 
placed cells as to resemble the rudiments of leaves. Though the walls of the cells are exceedingly delicate, the whole 
plant is of a rigid texture, and very slowly recovers itself when moistened ; this somewhat horny consistency of the 
frond, resembling some Serttrlaria, has suggested to us the generic name. The drawing was made before the fructi- 
fication was observed, by Mr. Wilson, upon the New Zealand specimens. 

Plate LXYI. Fig. VI. — 1, a small tuft of the natural size ; 2, a frond ; 3, a section of the same, very highly 

2. HYGEOPLLA, Tayl. 

1. Hygropila dllatata, Hook. fil. et Tayl. in Hook. Lond. Journ. of 'Sot. vol. iii. p. 576. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; on the ground in damp woods. 

This is one of the numerous frondose Hepatica which cover the ground so abundantly in the humid regions of 
the South ; they evidently belong to many species, but having never been found in fructification, it is exceedingly 
difficult to distinguish the species by the form and texture of then variable fronds, and still more to determine the 
genera to which they belong. The present, of which our specimens are but imperfect, seems identical with a very 
common New Zealand plant, which abounds in moist places, and especially near cataracts. 

3. MAECHANTIA, March. 
1. Marchaxtia polt/morpha, L. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island ; abundant. 
A plant universally distributed throughout the Southern Hemisphere. 

4. AXTHOCEEOS, Michel. 
1. A>thoceros punctatus, L.? 

Hab. Campbell's Island ; on the wet ground. 

We are not assured of the identity of this plant with the European A. pimctatus, L., the specimens being very 

Di'i/i generis. 
Eiccia? cochleata, Hook. fil. et Tayl., in Hook. Lond. Journ. of Sot. vol. iv. p. 96. (Tab. LVI. Fig. V.) 

Campbell's Islands.'] FLORA ANTARCTICA. 169 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; growing in dense tufts of mosses and Hepatica, on exposed rocks to- 
wards the lull tops. 

Frondes laxe csespitosse, vix -§- uric, longse, -^ crassitudine, olivaceEe, ascendentes, lineari-oblongse, crassse, con- 
cavse, hinc inde lobatae, apicibus procumbentibus bilobis, lobis rotundatis integerrimis conniventibus, marguubus 
integria incurvis. Substantia carnosa, intus spongiosa, laxe cellulosa. 

This being quite unlike any of the hitherto described Hepatica, we attached the generic name ofRiccia from a cer- 
tain resemblance in the form of it's frond to several species of that genus, but the plant is more probably allied to some 
frondose Jungermannia, — /. epiplnjUa for instance. The concave frond with entire connivent lobes, par-takes of the 
habit of that of Collema granulation, Ach., but our plant is certainly a Hepatica. 

Plate LXVT. Fig, V. — 1, a specimen of the natural size; 2, a frond, and 3, a section of the same; magnified. 


(By the Rev. M. J. Berkeley.) 

The number of Fungi collected during the Expedition is very small, in proportion to that of other cryptogarnic 
plants, with the exception of those found in New Zealand and Van Diemen's Land. In the more southern locali- 
ties, Fungi may naturally be expected to cease, sooner than Algre, Lichens, and Mosses ; and accordingly, from 
such localities, the amount of species is trifling indeed. Even where the degree of cold is not sufficient to prevent 
the growth of Fungi, their fructification is materially affected ; and thus, in the higher forms, the hymenium will 
frequently be found barren ; while, in some hypoga;ous species, transformations of the sporophores themselves take 
place, causing the fructifying mass to assume a very anomalous appearance. Some species indeed, as Pilobolus 
crystallinus and Hydropliora stercorea, seem to flourish most in the frosty nights of autumn, and the species of the 
genus Chatonypha and Lanosa nivalis thrive either beneath or upon the surface of the snow ; but I know of uo other 
exceptions to the more general habit of these species, and in these cases, the temperature either does not descend 
below the freezing point, or, as in the case of the CJiatonypha, vegetation takes place only when the surface of the 
snow is just melting under the influence of the sun. 

Amongst the more northern islands visited by the Expedition it is probable that some interesting forms, had 
time allowed, would have rewarded further research ; though, indeed, constant attention was directed, even to the 
obscurest forms of vegetation, wherever circumstances woidd permit. As it is, there is a considerable number of 
new species to describe, and some of them possess much interest, especially a new Cyttaria from Cape Horn, the 
specimens of which are so numerous as to afford an excellent opportunity of examining the structure of this curious 
genus ; which, like Fodisoma and Gymnosporangium, which infest certain species of Juniper, developes itself on the 
living branchlets of the deciduous-leaved Beech. Some of the species, like those of other Cryptogams, are identical 
with plants of the Northern Hemisphere ; and this is especially observable in New Zealand, where the identity is 
not confined to those families in which it is more usual. 


1. Agabicus pyx'ulatus, Bulliard, tab. bQS.fig. 2. 

Var. /3, hepaticus, Fries Epicr. p. 122. Ag. subhepaticus, Batsch El., fig. 211. 
Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; in the woods near the sea. 

A plant, so far as can be judged from the specimens, which were much damaged by insects before being 

2 L 

170 FLORA ANTARCTICA. [AucMafrd and 

gathered,' belongs to 'the species quoted above. The stem is either equal or attenuated upwards, generally, smooth, 
except towards the base, where it is at times clothed with cottony filaments which spread over the soil. 


1. Cladosporitjii herbarum, Link, 06s. II. p. 37. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island; on the leaves of Carer appressa, B^. w nvtg :V , 

This fungus originates beneath the cuticle, in slender dull black parallel lines ; it afterwards forces i itself through 
to the surface and resembles some Puccinia. No characters exist to distinguish it- as a species,: though its haWteJs 
very peculiar. . , , , 


1. Hendersonia microsticta, Berk.; peritlieciis sparsis punctiformibus atris globosis minutis, sporis 
lanceolatis acutis triseptatis. (Tab. LXVLlL Fig. I.) 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island ; on the withered stems of Chrysobactron Bossii 
of the previous year's growth. 

Perithecia parva, epidermide tecta, subprominula, atra, globosa. Spores pellucida?, irregulares v. r lanceqlatae. 
utrinque acuta?, triseptatae, quandoque breyiter pedicellatse ; endochromio cellulis conformi. 

There are no external characters by which this maybe discriminated from several other black punetiform.FV«y<'. 
The structure of the spores indicates a total want of affinity with Splueria ; theses, under a low power, appear, .nuilti- 
septate or triguttate ; but, with a higher lens and well adjusted light, each is seen to be furnished with three trans- 
parent septa : their shape is that of Neottiospora. 

Plate LXVIII. Fig. I. — 1, stem of Chrysobactron with fungus of the natural size ; 2, a portion Of the same', 


4. UEEDO, Pers. , - . , v „ . a 

1. Uredo antarctica, Berk. ; amphigena, maculis oppositis purpureis, soris bullatis, sporis majusculis 
laevibus late obovatis fuscis. (Tab. LXVIII. Fig. II.) 

Hab. Campbell's Island ; on leaves of Luzula crhiita. 

Amphigena ; maculis parvis, oppositis, subrotundatis, purpureis, subtus pallidioribus. Sori bullati. .Spores 
obsoletissinise, pedicellate, obovatae v. subglobosa?, laeves, guttula centrak' oleosa prsediti. 

External appearance very closely resembling the Cceoma Luzida, Libert., but the form of the spores is quite 
different, and also like Credo oblongata, which likewise grows upon Luzula, but is a very different parasite. 

Plate LXVIII. Tig. II. — 1, leaf of Luzula with fungus of natural size ; 2, portion of ditto, magnified ; 3, spores 
very highly magnified. 

5. SPILEMA, Hall. 

I. Sph^eria herbarum, Pers. Synops. p. 79. {quoad var. y, tectam), Fr. Syst. Myc. vol. ii. p. 511. Notaris 
in Act. Acad. Turin, vol. vii. p. 30. cum analyst optima. (Tab. LXVIII. Fig. III.) 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island ; on the scapes of Chry'sobactroto Bossii with Hen- 
derson ia m icrosticta . 

Campbelts Islands. .] FLORA ANTARCTICA. 171 

Fries says of this plant, or rather of what have been referred to it, " Farrago specierum mhiimarum" and un- 
der it two very different productions are given in the ' Scleromycetes Suecicae,' (no. 38). Of one of these, both a 
larger and smaller form occur ; the other is identical with what has been published as a small state of Spkana com- 
planata. I have given, at nos. 267 and 288, of my British 'Fungi' (Fasc. 4th), the latter as Fries' s var. minor of 
Sp. herbanim and Sp. eomplttnata intending to illustrate his views, and with no idea that it would prove identical 
with any of the larger or normal species, which are well distinguished by then- sporidia. These, in the true S. her- 
barum, are oblong, with several longitudinal and transverse dissepiments, like what are seen in Sp/iaria Lab/trni, in 
the specimens before me from Auckland Island and in the larger English form. The plant published in my ' Fasciculi' 
is destitute of asci, which is the case with S. acuta, Iloffni. The analysis of the latter plant as given by Greville, 
belongs to S. coniformis which often occurs on the same stem. It is not properly a Sp/iaria but either a Spheeronema 
or a Septoria, as extended by Desinazieres, or finally, if Splimria be remodelled according to the plan upon which De 
Notaris has revised the Italian species, it will come under some new generic name. 

On carefully removing the cuticle of the Clirysobactron, I find that in the snecimens before me the nerithera'a 


Page 171-2 issued with Vol. I. is to be cancelled and the present 
leaf substituted in place of it. 

The volumes should be lettered as follows : — 






VOL. I. 








. , — — «^..^ j JU . .«o iJun^Lnvjiiiica uiimiicuiao cjuuucua, suu t^ucujue luauuia periuiecium mmutum 

globosum ostiolo subprominulo punctiformi latitat. Asci prinium breves, sporidiis pellucidis elliptieis biseriabbus 
demum lineares, sporidiis fuscis breviter cymbiformibus uniserialibus, uucleo magno globoso. 

I know of no species at all resembling the present. The change in the form of the asci and sporidia is very 
instructive and confirms me in my opinion, that Sp/iaria Iterbarum and its accompanying uniseptate state belong to 
the same species (vid. supra). It is worthy of observation, that the sporidia exhibit these changes whilst still 
colourless. Septa are however sometimes formed as in the genus Diplodia after the spores have acquired their 

Plate LXVIII. Fig. IV. — 1, leaf and fungus of the natural size ; 2, portion of the same, magnified; 3, an 
immature and mature ascus : 4, sporidia : — all magnified. 

170 FLORA ANTARCTICA. .. [Auckland and 

gathered, 1 belongs' to-the species quoted above. The stem is either equal or attenuated upwards, generally- smooth, 
except towards the base, where it is at times clothed with cottony filaments which spread over the soil. 


1. Cladosporium herbarum, Link. Obs. II. p. 37. 

1 , .in.-.* art* jrj- 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island; on the leaves of Carex qppresm, ,%. ,,, 

This fungus originates" beneath the cuticle, iu slender dull black parallel lines ; it afterwards forces' itself through 
to the surface and resembles some Puccinia. Xo characters exist to distinguish it- as a species,: thongh its habifera 
very peculiar. ■ ■ 


Plate LXVIII. Fig. II. — 1, leaf of Lamia with fungus of natural size ; 2, portion of ditto, magnified ; 3, spores 
very highly magnified. 

5. SPILERIA, Hall. 

1. Spbleria herbarum, Pers. Synops. p. 79. (quoad var. y, teetam), Fr. Syst. Myc. vol. ii. p. 511. Notaru 
in Act. Acad. Turin, vol. vii. p. 30. cum analyst optima. (Tab. LXVIII. Fig. III.) v "- 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island; on the scapes of Ckry'sobactron Rossii with Hen- 
derson ia microsticta. 

Campbell's Islands.] FLORA ANTARCTICA. 171 

Fries says of this plant, or rather of what have been referred to it, " Farrago specierum rnhiimarnm" and un- 
der it two very different productions are given in the ' Scleromycetes Suecicas,' (no. 38). Of one of these, both a 
larger and smaller form occur ; the other is identical with what has been published as a small state of Spharia com- 
planuta. I have given, at nos. 267 and 288, of my British 'Fungi' (Fasc. 4th), the latter as Fries's var. minor of 
Sp. herbarum and Sp. complanata intending to illustrate his views, and with no idea that it woidd prove identical 
with any of the larger or normal species, which are well distinguished by their sporidia. These, in the true S. her- 
barum, are oblong, with several longitudinal and transverse dissepiments, bke what are seen in Spharia Labunii, in 
the specimens before me from Auckland Island and in the larger English form. The plant published in my ' Fasciculi' 
is destitute of asci, which is the case with S. acuta, Hoffni. The analysis of the latter plant as given by Greville, 
belongs to S. coniformis which often occurs on the same stem. It is not properly a Spharia but either a Spharonema 
or a Septoria, as extended by Desmazieres, or finally, if Spharia be remodelled according to the plan upon which De 
Notaris has revised the Itahan species, it will come under some new generic name. 

On carefully removing the cuticle of the Cliry&obactrou, I find that in the specimens before me the perithecia 
give out a few stout filaments which creep for a short distance ; this I believe to be a common occurrence with 
the subcuticular species. On the same stalks, individuals having the same external characters occur, in which the 
sporidia are uniseptate. This form I at first believed to be a distinct species, but am now satisfied that it is an 
imperfect state of S. herbarum ; especially since three septa are sometimes visible. 

Plate LXVIII. Fig. III. — 1, stem of Chrysobactrou with fungus of natural size; 2, portion of ditto, magnified; 
3, ascus of S. herbarum ; 4, the same, of an immature specimen ; 5, sporidia of ditto : — highly magnified. 

2. Spileria nebuhsa, Pers. ? Synops. Fung.]). 31. 
Hab. With the former. 

Very imperfect ; as are also the published descriptions of S. nebuhsa itself. 

3. SPHiBRiA nigrella, Fries? Si/st. Mycol. v. ii. p. 512. 
Hab. With the two former. 

Specimens, unfortunately without fructification and therefore scarcely determinable. 

4. Spileria plueosticta, Berk. ; gregaria, peritheciis globosis atris epidermide fusco-maculato tectis, 
ostiolo prominulo punctiformi, ascis liiiearibus, sporidiis uniserialibus fuscis breviter cymbiformibus. (Tab. 
LXVIII. Fig. IV.) 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island; on the dead leaves of Hierochloe Bnnonis. 

Gregaria, ocido nudo maeulas parvas punctiformes brunneolas exhibens, sub quaque macula perithecium minutum 
globosum ostiolo subprominulo punctiformi latitat. Asci prirnum breves, sporidiis pellucidis ellipticis biserialibus 
demum lineares, sporidiis fuscis breviter cymbiformibus uniserialibus, nucleo magno globoso. 

I know of no species at all resembling the present. The change in the form of the asci and sporidia is very 
instructive and confirms me in my opinion, that Spharia herbarum and its accompanying uniseptate state belong to 
the same species (vid. supra). It is worthy of observation, that the sporidia exhibit these changes whilst still 
colourless. Septa are however sometimes formed as in the genus Diplodia after the sjoores have acquired their 

Plate LXVIII. Fig. TV. — 1, leaf and fungus of the natural size; 2, portion of the same, magnified; 3, an 
immature and mature ascus ; 4, sporidia : — all magnified. 

172 FLOEA ANTARCTICA. [Auckland and 

5. Sphjeria (foliicolae) depressa, Berk; gregaria, minor, atra, peritheciis tectis subglobosis lsevibus 
collo destitutis siccitate depressis, sporidiis lanceolatis. (Tab. LXVIII. Fig. V.) 

Hab. Campbell's Island ; on the dead leaves of Luzula crinita. 

Gregaria, epidermide atro-punctato omnino tecta. Perithecia minora, subglobosa, collo destituta, siccitate 
depressa. Asci lineares, paraphysibus tenuioribus imnrixti. Sporidia biseriata, lanceolata, endochromio bipartito 
sed non septato. 

The only species with which the present can be compared are S. duplex and S. Scirpicola ; from both these 
it will be found to differ by the external characters given above, and, from the latter in particular, by the simple 
pellucid and neither triseptate nor yellowish sporidia. 

Plate LXVIII. Fig. V. — 1, leaf and fungus of the natural size; 2, portion of the same, magnified; 3, asci 
and paraphyses ; 4, sporidia, shewing the endochrome collected at either extremity ; magnified. 

6. DOTHIDEA* Fries. 

1. Dothidea hemispherica, Berk ; hypogena, solitaria, erumpens, macula subeffusa epiphylla nigra, stro- 
mate hemispherico carbonaceo, cellulis ellipticis obtusiusculis, ascis breviusculis, sporidiis nniseptatis oblongis. 
(Tab. LXVLT. Fig. II.) 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; on the leaves of Veronica odora. 

* I take the present opportunity of describing two new species of Dothidea, contained in the Herbarium of Sir 
W. J. Hooker. 

1. Dothidea circumscripta, Berk. ; innata, gregaria, maculis suborbicularibus irregularibus depressis nigris 
nitidis circumscriptis, cellulis paucis magnis depresso-globosis, collo brevi, ostiolo papillseformi, ascis clavatis, sporidiis 
oblongo-lanceolatis. (Tab. LXVIII. Fig. VI.) 

Hab. Andes of Columbia {Jameson). Chacapoyas, Peru {Mathews) ; on various species of Vaccinium 

Hypophylla, rarissime epiphylla, innata. Macula % liu. lata?, suborbiculares v. confluentes, irregulares, depressa?, 
nigra?, nitidae, quandoque leviter undulata?, minutissime granulates, ostiolis paucis, papilkeformibus notata?, bnea nigra 
plus minusve evidenter circumscripta?, demum omnino fatiscentes, et scutellam epidennide rnarginatam exhibentes. 
Cellules fructifera? paucissimse, magna?, globosa?, depressa?, collo brevi, ostiolo papilkeformi. Asci clavati. Sporidia 
octona, oblonga, hinc acuminata, 

A very pretty species, remarkable for the small number of fructifying cells and the dark line enclosing the stroma, 
which is especially evident when the latter is abortive ; beyond this line there is sometimes a coloured ring. The 
sporidia are almost of the same shape with those figured by Corda, in Rhytisma Fugeniacearum ; when young they 
are filled with distinct granules which become less evident as they are more developed. In age the stroma com- 
pletely decays and falls out, leaving a scutellum surrounded by the cuticle. This follows from the dark line indi- 
cating a harder substance than that of the stroma, which is not always externally visible, but will be found on making 
a vertical section. 

Plate LXVIII. Fig. VI. — 1, a branch of Vaccinium and fungus of the natural size ; 2, a section, slightly mag- 
nified; 3, asci, slightly magnified; 4, sporidia, highly magnified. 

2. Dothidea bullata, Berk. ; epiphylla, bullata, suborbicularis, nigra, superficialis, crassiuscula, rugosa, granu- 
lata, intus nigra, cellulis ellipticis, ostiolo papilla?formi, ascis oblongis, sporidiis oblongis nniseptatis. 

Hab. Peru ; on the leaves of a resinous shrub. {Matheics.) 

Epiphylla, submarginalis, superficialis. Macula \ imc. lata?, suborbiculares, crassiuscula?, depresso-bullatse, 

Campbell's Islands.'] FLORA ANTARCTICA. 171 

Fries says of this plant, or rather of what have been referred to it, " Fan-ago speeierum minimarum " and un- 
der it two very different species are given in the ' Scleroniycetes Suecicae,' (no. 38). Of one of these, both a larger 
and smaller form occur ; the other is identical with what has been published as a small state of Splueria complanata. 
I have given, at nos. 267 and 288, of my ' British Fungi' (Fasc. 4th), the same plant, in two different stages of 
growth, as Sp. herbarum and Sp. complanata ; these are intended to illustrate the views of Fries, and with no idea 
that either would prove identical with any of the larger or normal species, which are well distinguished by their 
sporidia. These, in the true S. herbarum, are oblong; with several longitudinal and transverse dissepiments, like 
what are seen in Splueria Laburni, in the specimens before me from Auckland Island and in the larger English 
form. The plant published in my ' Fasciculi ' is destitute of asci, which is the case with S. acuta, Hoffm. The 
analysis of the latter plant, given by Greville, belongs to S. coniformis (which often occurs on the same stem), and 
does not therefore properly refer to Spharia at all ; but either to the Sphceronema or to the genus Septoria, as ex- 
tended by Desmazieres, or finally, if Spharia be remodelled according to the plan upon which De Notaris has 
revised the Italian species, it will come under a new generic name. 

On carefully removing the cuticle of the Chrysobactron, I find that in the specimens before me the perithecia 
give out a few straight filaments which creep for a short distance ; this I believe to be a common occurrence with 
the subcuticular species '. On the same stalks individuals having the same external characters occur, in Which the 
sporidia are uniseptate. This form I at first believed to be a distinct species, but am now satisfied that it is' an 
imperfect state of S. herbarum ; especially since three septa are at times seen. 

Plate LXVIII. Fig. III. — 1, stem of Chrysobactron with fungus of natural size ; 2, portion of ditto, magnified j 
3, ascus of S. herbarum j 4, the same, .of an 'immature specimen ; 5, sporidia of ditto ; — highly magnified. 

2. Spharia nebulosa, Pers. ? SpwjJs.Fung.^.2>\. 
Hab. With the former. 

Very imperfect ; as are also the published descriptions of S. nebulosa itself. 

3. Sph^rta nigrella, Fries? Si/st. Myeol. v. 2. p. 512. 
Hab. With the two former. 

Specimens, unfortunately without fructification and therefore undeterminable. 

4. Spharia pkceosticta, Berk. ; gregaria, peritheciis globosis atris epidermide fusco-maculato tectis, 
ostiolo prominulo punctiformi, ascis linearibus, sporidiis uniserialibus fuscis breviter cymbiformibus. (Tab. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island ; on the dead leaves of Hierochloe Brunonis. 

Gregaria, ocido nudo maculas parvas punctifonnes bruuneolas exhibens, sub quaque macula perithecium minus 
globosum ostiolo subproniinulo punctiformi latitat. Asci primum breves, sporidiis pellucidis ellipticis biseriahbus, 
demum lineares, sporidiis fuscis breviter cymbiformibus uniseriabbus, nucleo magno globoso. 

I know of no species at all resembling the present. The change in the form of the asci and sporidia is very 
instructive and confirms me in my opinion, that Spharia herbarum and its accompanying uniseptate state belong to 
the same species (vid. supra). It is worthy of observation, that the sporidia exhibit these changes whilst still co- 
lourless. Diplodia presents a somewhat analogous case to this, septa being sometimes formed in that genus after 
the spores have acquired their colour. 

Plate LXVIII. Fig. IV. — 1, leaf and fungus of the natural size ; 2, portion of the same, magnified ; 3, an 
immature and mature ascus ; 4, sporidia : — all magnified. 

172 FLORA ANTARCTICA. [Auckland and 

5. Sp&sria (foliicola?) depressa, Berk.; gregarea, minor, atra, peritheciis tectis subglobosis lsevibus 
callo destitutis siccitate depressis, sporidiis lanceolatis. (Tab. LXYIII. Fig. V.) 

Hab. Campbell's Island ; on the dead leaves of Luzula crinita. 

Gregaria, epidermide atro-punctato omnino tecta. Perithecia minora, subglobosa, callo destituta, siccitate depressa. 
Asci lineares, paraphysibus tenuioribus imm ix ti. Sporidia biseriata, lanceolata, endochromio bipartito sed non septato. 

The only species with which the present can be compared are the S. duplex and S. saxifricola ; from both these 
it will be found to differ by the external characters given above, and, from the latter in particular, by the simple 
pellucid and neither triseptate nor yellowish sporidia. 

Plate LXVIII. Fig. V. — 1, leaf and fungus of the natural size; 2, portion of the same, magnified; 3, asci 
and paraphyses ; 4, sporidia, shewing the endochrome collected at either extremity ; magnified. 

6. DOTHIDEA* Fries. 

1. Dothidea hemhpherica, Berk.; hypogena, solitaria, erumpens, macula subeffusa epiphylla nigra, stro- 
mate hemispnerico carbonaceo, cellulis ellipticis obtusiusculis, ascis breviusculis, sporidiis uniseptatis oblongis. 
(Tab. LXVII. Fig. II. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; on the leaves of Veronica odora. 

* I take the present opportunity of describing two new species of Dothidea, contained in the Herbarium of Sir 
\Y. J. Hooker. 

1. Dothidea circumscripta, Berk.; innata, gregaria, maculis suborbicularibus irregularibus depressis nigris 
nitidis circurnscriptis, cellulis paucis niagnis depresso-globosis, collo brevi, ostiolo papillseformi, ascis clavatis, sporidiis 
oblongo-lanceolatis. (Tab. LXVIII. Fig. YI.) 

Hab. Andes of Columbia (Jameson). Chacapoyas, Peru (Mathews); on various species of Vaccinium. 

Hypophylla, rarissime epiphylla, innata. Maculee f lin. lata?, suborbicidares v. confluentes, irregulares, depressae, 
nigrse, nitidae, quandoque leviter undulata?, minutissime granulata?, ostiolis paucis papillaeformibus notatse, linea nigra 
plus minusve evidenter circmnscriptae, demiun oinnino fatiscentes, et scutellam epidermide marginatam exhibentes. 
CellulcB fructiferae paucissima?, magna?, globosse, depressae, collo brevi, ostiolo papillaeformi. Asci clavati. Sporidia 
octona, oblonga, hinc acuminata. 

A very pretty species, remarkable for the small number of fructifying cells and the dark Une enclosing the stroma, 
which is especially evident when the latter is abortive ; beyond this line there is sometimes a coloured ring. The 
sporidia are almost of the same shape with those figured by Corda, in Eliytisma Eugeniacearum ; when young they 
are filled with distinct granules which become less evident as they are more developed. In age the stroma com- 
pletely decays and falls out, leaving a scutellum surrounded by the cuticle. This follows from the dark fine indi- 
cating a harder substance than that of the stroma, which is not always externally risible, but will be found on making 
a vertical section. 

Plate LXVIII. Fig. VI. — 1, a branch of Vaccinium and fungus of the natural size; 2, a section, slightly mag- 
nified; 3, asci, slightly magnified; 4, sporidia, highly magnified. 

2. Dothidea bullata, Berk.; epiphylla, bullata, suborbicularis, nigra, superficialis, crassiuscula, rugosa, granu- 
lata, intus nigra, cellulis ellipticis, ostiolo papillaeformi, ascis oblongis, sporidiis oblongis uniseptatis. 

Hab. Peru; on the leaves of a resinous shrub. (Mathews.) 

Epiphylla, submarginalis, superficialis. Macula i unc. lata?, suborbicidares, crassiusculse, depresso-bullatae, 

Campbell's Islands.] FLOEA ANTARCTICA. 173 

Hypogena, nigra, maculam nigrani subeffusam superne stromatis indicern exhibens, una tanturn niacula in sin- 
gulo folio ut videtur evoluta. Stroma -§—1 lin. latum, hemisphericmn, carbonaceurn, extus scabriusculum, neo evidenter 
papillato-granulosum, demum fatiscens : intus carbonaceum, superne reticulatim cellulosum, sub lente atro-caeruleum 
vel demum viridi-fuscum constans, basi in floccos abeunte. CeUulte fructifem oblongo-eUiptica>, periphericse, obtusi- 
usculae, vix apiculatse. Asci breviusculi. Sporidia octona, oblonga, uniseptata, medio constricta. 

This species has much more the habit of a Spkaria than most Dothidea, being of a carbonaceous texture, 
like the Spharia fragiformis ; but though, on making a delicate vertical section, a thin stratum of tissue, consisting 
of only a single layer of cells, occasionally appears, no trace of this is seen on the sides of the cavities distinct from 
the neighbouring tissue. The specimens procured are not numerous, in no instance does more than one individual 
appear upon a single leaf, the latter being probably of too small a size to support more than a solitary stroma of such 
high organization. Like some other species indicated by Montague in his ' Fungi of Cuba,' this is probably originally 
produced between the layers of the cuticle, for some of the latter is found beneath the stroma. The cells of the stroma 
pass at the base iuto a mass of reticulated filaments, without any membrane being attached to the meshes. 

Plate LXVII. Fig. II. — 1, a sprig of Veronica odora, with the fungus of the natural size ; 2, a section of the 
fungus; 3, a portion of the same, more highly magnified; 4, an ascus; 5, sporidia; 6, a section shewing the loose 
cellular tissue of the centre, the pentagonal tissue about the base of the cells, and the elongated tissue between 
them : — all magnified. 

2. Dothidea spilomea, Berk.; gregaria, kypophylla, maculis epipliyllis nullis v. obsoletissimis, subinnata, 
depressa, tenuis, orbicularis, ssepe confluens, minutissime granulosa, nitida, cellulis globosis, ascis clavatis, 
sporidiis oblongis uniseptatis medio constrictis. (Tab. LXYII. Kg. I.) 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island ; on the leaves of Veronica elliptica, Forst. 

Hypogena, nigra, nitida ; maculis \-\ lin. latis, gregariis, orbicularibus, quandoque confluentibus, depressis, 
subinnatis, tenuibus, minutissime granulatis. Stroma tenue, subtus cum parenchymate confusum. Cellulee fructifem 
globosae, ostiolo punetiformi. Asci clavati. Sporidia oblonga, quandoque curvata, uniseptata, medio constricta. 

In some leaves the spots are very numerous, in others they are but few and of a larger size. The species is 
most allied to the D. amphimelana, Mont., and D. ZoUingeri, B. and M., although not very near either ; it exhibits, 
also, some affinity with D. granulosa, Hook, et Am. Externally it strongly resembles the punctiform variety of 
Rhytisma salicinum. The spots are of a shining black, and are very minutely granulated under a lens. 

Plate LXVII. Fig. I. — 1, a sprig of Veronica elliptica, covered with the parasite, of the natural size; 2, a 
section, slightly magnified; 3, ditto, more highly magnified; 4, asci; 5, sporidia : magnified. 

7. ASTEKOMA, Dec. 

1. Asteroma dilatatum, Berk.; superficiale, maculis riccia^formibus, lobis dilatatis e filamentis serpen- 
tibus approximatis in membranam-congestis. (Tab. LXVIII. Fig. VII.) 

nigrse, non tamen nitidae, rugosiuscula;, granulatee, intus nigra?, substantia sub lente fusca. Cellules fructiferce ellip- 
tica;, albo-farctee, ostiolo papill<eformi. Asci oblongi, basin versus latiores. Sporidia oblonga, uniseptata. 

A very fine species, allied to D. amphimelana, Mont., D. Rutce and JD. puccin hides. The first of these is more 
regular and innate, besides having a spot on the imder side opposite to that on the upper ; whereas, in the present 
species, in consequence of the superficial mode of growth, there is no such spot. I). amphimelana has no evident 
border to the stroma. B. Btetts has uuiseptate sporidia, but they are short and brown ; in which respect also D. 
bullata differs from D. puccinioides, and in several other characters from both, as its much larger size. 

2 M 

174 FLOEA ANTARCTICA. [Auckland and 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; on the leaves of Panax simplex, Forst. 

Macula omnino superficiales, orbiculares, epiphylte, 2 lin. latse, opacse, olivaceo-nigrce, Lichenem parvum Fu- 
cumve referentes, lobatfe, lobis apice dilatatis e filamentis approximatis constantibus. 

This pretty species, which was unfortunately not found in fruit, resembles somewhat Rhytisma quercinum, 
Rudolph, for which I am indebted to Dr. Montague. That species, however, originates beneath the cuticle, while 
this is, I believe, entirely superficial. The ramification is different, the tips of the branches being dilated in a fla- 
bellate form. The stroma, also, consists of approximated threads, not of an irregular cellular membrane. This struc- 
ture is almost identical with that of Myrionema punctiforme, Harv., except that the filaments are there much branched, 
which I do not find to be the case here. 

This species is accompanied with another in a very imperfect state, and which may be a species of Dothidea. 

Plate LXVIII. Fig. VII. — 1, leaf of Panax, with fungus, of the natural size ; 2, portion of the same, magni- 
fied; 3, filaments, very highly magnified. 


1. Hysterium breve, Berk.; peritheciis brevibus ellipticis nigris prominulis, rima angustissima, ascis 
linearibus elongatis. (Tab. LXVIII. Fig. VIII.) 

Hab. Campbell's Island ; on the dead leaves of Uncinia Hookeri, Boott. 

Perithecia minuta, nigra, nitida, prominula, breviter elliptica, raro utrinque apiculata, rima angustissima. Asci 
elongati, liueares, paraphysibus filiformibus rectiuscidis immixti, sporidiis fibformibus. 

This species is manifestly different from the small form of H. culmigenum, and the nature of the asci and para- 
physes are further distinct, being in the latter plant shorter and of a different form, with the apices of the paraphyses 
curved or curled. The apiculate extremities may not prove to be a constant character, though the probability is that 
it will, at least in full grown specimens. 

Plate LXVIII. Fig. VIII. — 1, leaf and fungus of the natural size; 2, portion of the same; 3, peritheeium 
shewing the contained asci ; 4, ascus ; all more or less magnified. 


1. Aylogeaphuh Bromi, Berk.; peritheciis simplicibus filis arachnoideis comitatis, sporidiis oblongis 
uniseptatis medio constrictis. (Tab. LXVIII. Fig. IX.) 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; on the leaves of Bromus antarcticus. 

Mycelium arachnoideum, fuscum, quandoque abundantius et sterile, in maculis autem fertilibus parcum. Peri- 
thecia minima, oblonga, brevia, recta v. curvata, simplicia, atra, nitida. Asci brevissimi, obovati, tenerrimi. Sports 
octonae, oblongo-ellipticse, medio constricts, uniseptatse. 

The species of this genus, which has principally been investigated by Madame Libert, resemble extremely mi- 
nute Opegrapha. The present individual approaches the A. junceum, but differs from it and from all others by the 
septate sporidia. The peritheeium easily breaks up into its elemental cells, and such I find to be also the case with 
some of Madame Libert's species ; while, in others, the cellular structure is more permanent and forms a beautiful 
microscopic object. 

Plate LXVIII. Fig. IX. — 1, a portion of leaf and fungus, of the natural size ; 2, peritheeium, magnified, showing 
the contained asci ; 3, ascus ; and 4, sporidia : — highly magnified. 

Campbell's Islands.] FLORA ANTARCTICA. 175 

10. ANTENNARIA, Link. 

1. Antennaria scoriadea, Berk.; spongiosa, floccis fasciculatis sursum lateraliter connexis, peridiis 
subellipticis irregularibus. (Tab. LXVII. Fig. III.) 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island ; on the branches and twigs of several shrubs and 
trees, but especially of Dracophyllum longifolium. 

Spongiosa, ramos incrustans. Flocci \-\ una longi, fasciculati, superne processibus brevibus lateralibus more 
Zygnematis connexi, subtus e membrana reticulata vel mycelio repente nascenti, filamentis tenuioribus immixti, erecti, 
irregulariter ramosi. Articuli moniliformes vel praesertmi in filamentis ultimis continui, laeves, nucleo globoso so- 
litario. Perithecia subelliptica, irregularia. 

A very singular substance, which must strike the traveller through the woods especially of New Zealand or of 
Lord Auckland's group, in both which localities it is very abundant, resembling charcoal, and sometimes so widely 
diffused that the branches look as if burnt. The colonists of the former islands call it " the black moss." Distin- 
guished from A. pannosa and A. Robiimonii by its long fasciculate threads, giving it exactly the habit of Scorias 
spongiosa. The finest specimens have a rigid bristly appearance, quite different from that of any other species of 
the genus. This has been also gathered in Valparaiso by Mr. Bridges, and at the Swan River by Mr. Drummond. 
I have not been able to trace the developement of the peridia in the Auckland Island specimens, but it would ap- 
pear that, as in M. Robinsouii, M. and B., they arise either from a swollen articulation or from a process given off by an 
articulation, in either case they are dependent on a simple metamorphosis of the latter. 

Plate LXVII. Fig. III. — 1, a plant of the natural size ; 2, flocci from the base of the tufts, with a portion of 
the cellular matrix ; 3, flocci from the summits of the tufts, laterally aggregated ; 4, sporangia ; 5, portions of the 
filaments in various states : — all more or less highly magnified. 


1. Sclerotium durum, Pers. Synops. Fung. p. 121. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; on the capsules of Gentiana concinna. 

This production is enumerated here because it has hitherto appeared in the works of Mycologists, but I am 
decidedly of Leveille's opinion that it should be expunged. 


By W. H. Harvey, Esq., M.D., and J. D. Hooker. 

1. MARGIN ARIA, A. Rich. 

Radix ramosa. Frons plana, linearis, sursum flabellato-pinnata ; pinnis coriaceo-membranaceis, spinuloso-denta- 
tis, enerviis, dichotome fissis ; margiue superiore vesiculas petiolatas receptaculaque gerente. Conceptacula recep- 
tacubs semi-immersa, globosa, poro pertusa. " Sports magnae, obovato-pyriformes, perisporio initio inclusae, mox 
nudse, e cellulis parietabbus oriundaj, paraphysibus immixtse, in M. Boryana vero e morphosi idtimi articuli filoruni 
ut videtur ortse, forsan hinc minutae et tautum ut gemma? habendas." — Mont. 

Obs. The genera Marginaria, A. Rich., Carpophyllum, Grev., Scytothalia, Grev., and Seirococcus, Grev., are all 
very closely related to each other, and to Sargaasum. From the latter they differ more by possessing a frondose, 
imperfectly leafy mode of growth, than by any very decided structural character ; and habit alone will scarcely se- 
parate some of them from the decurrent species of that genus, S. decurrens, Feronii, Boryi, &c. These last have 

176 FLORA ANTARCTICA. [Auckland and 

lately been erected into a distinct genus, by Kiitzing, under the name of Plerocaulon, and on grounds equally valid 
with those which separate some of the above groups. Seirococcus was distinguished from Scytothalia by Dr. 
Greville, by having moniliform instead of oblong or lanceolate receptacles ; but the genera have been reunited by 
Montague, who has added a new species (Scyt. Jacquinotii) , and this last approximates so closely to Marginaria, 
as to reduce the clearly appreciable differences between Scytothalia, Mont., and Marginaria, to the former having 
entire and the latter spinuloso-dentate margins, — a circumstance of very minor importance, and perhaps of specific 
value only. Carpopliyllum, may be distinguished by the position of its vesicles and the clustering of its receptacles 
from Fucus ; on the other hand it approaches Sargamim through S. Boryi, Ag. Marginaria contains but two 
species, of which Kiitzing in his late work constitutes as many genera. A. Richard, on the contrary, struck with 
the slight characters on which he had established Marginaria, afterwards combined it with Sargassum. 

The paraphyses, so carefully described by Montagne in the generic character as occuring mixed with the spores, 
answer well to the antheridia observed lately by MM. Decaisne and Thuret in Fucus, whence this species would be 
regarded by these authors as hermaphrodite. 

1. Mahginapia Urvilleana, A. Rich.; Montagne Prodr. P/tycear. in itin. ad Polum Antarct. p. 10. 
Voy. an Pole Sud, Pot. Crypt, p. 60. t. 3. f. 1. A. Rich. Fl. Nov. Zel. p. 10. t. 3. Sargassum Urvilleanum, 
A. Rich. Serf. Astrolab. p. 138. A. Cunn. in Hook. Comp. to Pot. Mag. vol. ii. p. 327. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; very abundant in shallow water. 

Pinna 12-18 unc. longee, £-1 unc. lata?, coriaceo-membranacese, nigro-fusca3j plana?, laeves, enerves, argute 
serratae, obtusae, basi sensim attenuates, subpetiolatas, irregulariter dichotome fissae, ramis superioribus plerumque 
simplicibus, inferioribus divisis, sinubus angustis rotundatis, laciniis erecto-patentibus. Vesicula sphaericae, 4-8 lin. 
latae, muticse, petiolo inconspicuo piano 1 lin. longo suffultae, margine pinnulamm superiori affixae. Receptacula 
breviter peduncidata, 2-3 lin. longa, ad basin frondis secus marginem superiorem in serie elongata inserta, divaricata, 
lanceolata, obtusa, compressa, torulosa. Conceptacula globosa, receptaculis immersa, demum plus minusve convexa, 
poro pertusa. Spora exemplaribus nostris immaturaa. 

Dr. Montagne enumerates Blossevillea retorta, Mont., and B. retrofiexa, Kiitz., as natives of Lord Auckland's 
sjroup, and also the Carpopliyllum macrophyllum, Mont. 

2. D'URYLLLEA, Pory. 

1. D'Urvillea utilis, Bory in Duperrey Voy. Pot. Crypt, p. 65. 1. 1 and 2. f. 2. If Urville, Fl. Ins. Mai. 
in Mem. Soc. Linn. Paris, vol. iv. p. 594. Montagne, Crypt. Poliv. et in Voy. au Pole Sud, Pot. Crypt. 
p. 23. Decaisne in Arcldv. 3Ius. vol. iv. p. 153. t. 5. f. 1-6. Postels et Rnppr., Illust. Alg. t. 1. Fucus 
antarcticus, Ckamisso in Choris, Toy. Pittor. t. 7. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island, and in the open sea for ten degrees southward 
of these groups. 

The distribution of this species will be considered with that of the genus Macrocystis in the second portion of 
the Flora Antarctica. 


Frons olivacea, linearis, compresso-plana, coriacea, dichotome ramosa. Vesicida nullae. Conceptacula per totam 
frondem sparsa, ramis immersa, tuberculiformia, poro pertusa, intus naturae diversae ; altera sporas obovatas, nigro- 
fuscas, demum quadripartitas, limbo hyalino cinctas, parietibus affixas, sessiles ; altera fasciculos filorum ramosorum, 
articulatorum, apicibus turgidis et demum in corpuscula granulis repleta (antheridia vel gemmas) mutatos foventia. 

We fullv agree with our excellent friend Montagne in the propriety of establishing the present genus, and 

Campbell's Islands.] FLORA ANTARCTICA. 177 

for the several reasons adduced by him in his memoir, in the ' Annates des Sciences Naturelles^ Oct. 1842. He must 
allow us, however, to claim for La Billardiere, not only the discovery of the plant, but that of its fruit also ; for, 
though the description of that author be imperfect, there can exist no doubt that the tubercles immersed in the 
frond, which he notices, are what we now know to be fructification. We further enter our protest a»ainst the 
system of changing the specific name from gladiatus, which is quite unexceptionable, to Billardieri. In the general 
character we have described the spores as finally divided into four, more or less unequal parts, when they resemble the 
tetraspores of several Floridece, which doubtless, as demonstrated by M. Decaisne and Thuret in other Fucacea, form 
together but a single spore. Young, and even nearly mature, seeds exhibit no traces of this internal division ; 
while those that are fully grown and have assumed a dark colour, are divided by very clear lines and even spaces. 
" With regard to other organs in the Fucacea, which M. Montagne calls gemma? or acrospenns, we incline to con- 
sider them analogous to what are termed antheridia in some other families." * 

1. Xiphophoea Billardieri, Mont. Prodr. Nov. Pliyc. in itin. adPolum Ant a ret. p. 12. Voy. au Pole 
Sud, Bot. Crypt, p. 55. t. 7. f. 1. Fucus gladiatus, Labill. PL Nov. Roll. II. p. 3. t. 256. Encycl. Met/i. 
Bot. Si/j>j)l. V. p. 439. Lamouronx in Mem. dii Mm. d'Hist. Nat. XX. p. 36. Turner, Hist. Fiu: t. 240. 
Berkeley in Ann. Nat. Hist, for 1843, p. 57. Ctenodus, Kiitzing. (Tab. LXIX. Fig. III.) 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; on rocks in the sea, very abundant. 

Conceptacula per totam frondis longitudinem praeeipue apicem versus sparsa, immersa, tuberculiformia, leviter 
eouvexa, poro pertusa, externe consimilia, interne nucleis diversis instructa. Altera sporas obovatas v. pyrifornies. 
Sporte magna?, sessiles, e cellulis parietalibus ortae, perisporio hyalino circumdatse, nucleo priuium simplici demum 
quadripartito nigro-fusco donatse, cum paraphysibus simplicibus articulatis filiformibus achromaticis coninrixtas. 
Altera contra filis ramosissimis tenuibus hyalinis articulatis farciuntur, quorum externi turgidi materie granulosa 
repleta evadunt. 

Plate LXIX. Fig. III. — Divided spores of Xipkop/iora (called erroneously tetraspores on the plate). 

1. Laminaria, (sp.)? 
Hab. Campbell's Island. (Br. Lyall.) 
A fragment of a young frond, too imperfect for description or determination of the species. 

* The remark in inverted commas was made by Dr. Harvey. — The division of the spores of Fucacea was observed 
while examining the 2)' Urvillea utilis in a fresh state, when they were considered as tetraspores, and again by Dr. 
Montagne and by myself, in dried specimens of XJphophora. More recently, and since the above was written, the 
interesting paper of MM. Decaisne and Thuret has appeared, in the 'A/males des Sc. Nat.' (Series 3. vol. iii. p. 1.) 
It is there shown that this structure exists in five species of Fucus abundant on our shores ; F. nodosus, serratus, 
vesiculosus, canaliculatus and tuberculatus : also in Himanthalia, which I have elsewhere allied to V Urvillea (London 
Journ. of Botany, vol. ii. p. 325), and the mode of division in the original spores is excellently followed and illus- 
trated, as also their germination, a most important point. I cannot omit here an allusion to two of the most re- 
markable recent discoveries in modern Botanical Science, made by those observers, and published in the same paper : 
— that of organs, in every respect analogous to the antheridia of mosses (of whose nature my coadjutor, Mr. Harvev, 
had formed the same idea), existing in all the above-mentioned Fuci; and these antheridia being wholly filled, be- 
fore bursting, with bodies endowed with rapid motion and apparent volition, and which, though thus proved to 
be truly of vegetable origin, have hitherto been ranked in the a nim al kingdom. I am indebted to the friendship 
of M. Decaisne for a demonstration of these curious phenomena in living Alga', and for the original drawings from 
which the plates that accompany his interesting paper in the 'Annates ' are executed. — J. D. H. 

2 N 

178 FLORA ANTARCTICA. [Auckland and 


1. Microcystis pyrifera, Agardh, Sp. vol. i. p. 47. Nov. Act. Nat. Cur. vol. xix. p. 297. t. 26. f. 1. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group, Campbell's Island, and in the open sea to the south as far as the 65th degree. 

The observations on this genus and its distribution, are reserved for the Cryptogamie portion of the other 
Antarctic Islands. 

6. DESMARESTIA, Lamour. 

] . Desmakestia viridis, Lamour.; fronde cartilaginea basi subcompressa, supra cylindracea decomposito- 
pinnata, piimis pinnulisque exacte oppositis nliformibus ultimis capillaribus. D. viridis, Lamo/ir. in Ann. 
Mus. xx. 25. Endl. Gen. PI. Suppl. vol. iii. p. 28. Kiitz. Phyc. Gen. p. 344. Dichloria viridis, Grev. Alg. 
Brit. p. 36. t. 6. Sporochnus viridis, Ag. Spec. Alg. vol. i. p. 154. Syst. p. 259. Eucus viridis, Ft. l)an. 
t. 886. Turn. Hist. Fug. t. 97. Engl. Bot. 1. 1 669. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group. {Br. Byall.) 

We defer our remarks on this plant, and on the genus Desmarestia in general, to a future portion of this work. 
The present species was found abundantly at Christinas Harbour in Kerguelen's Land, Berkeley Sound, and Port 
William in the Falkland Islands, and at Cape Horn ; and will, therefore, come more properly along with some new 
species into the flora of those regions. 


Obs. The following species differs in some points from this genus, being of a thicker substance and denser 
structure, and with the walls composed of a greater number of rows of cells, which are themselves very much smaller. 
The surface of the frond is, therefore, not in the least reticulated. Still the fructification is so identical with that of 
Dictyosiphon, that we are unwilling to separate it, especially since the habit is not dissimilar. 

1. Dictyosiphon 1 fascicidatus, Hook. fil. et Harv. ; caule filiformi subindiviso, ramis abbreviatis 
pluries ramosis quadrifariis raro oppositis ssepissime fasciculatis alternis vel secundis omnibus ramulisque 
basi attenuatis acutis, sporis densissime per ramulos sparsis serni-immersis. (Tab. LXIX. Fig. I.) 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; on rocks in the sea. 

Radix pusilla? Frondes circumscriptione lanceolatas, csespitosas, 4-8 unc. longse, fusco-olivacea;, membranacea;, 
vix coriaceae, cylindracese, v. subcompressse, primo filis articulatis laxe repletse, mox tubulosse et cavae, e cellulis mi- 
nutis coloratis rotundis 3-4 serialibus interioribus majoribus formatae. Caulis indivisus vel basi in ramos elon- 
gatos simplices partitus, inferne setaceus, supra sensim latior, medio i-1 lin. latus, apicem versus attenuatus, 
per totam longitudinem ramis plurimis pateutibus vestitus. Rami breves, 1-2 unc. longi, nunc brevissimi, utrinque 
attenuate, irregulariter inserti, mine quadrifarii, nunc subdistichi, saepissimc fascicidati, alterni vel secundi, rarius 
oppositi ; ramulis conformibus setaceis, gracilibus, erectis, alternis, oppositis v. fasciculatis, simplicibus, basi attenuatis 
apice subulatis. AjcUI/p acutse. Sjiora olivacea; v. nigrae, ovales, per totam frondem sparsas, nee in soros aggre- 
gate, limbo tenui hyalino cinctee, semi-immersae, demum prominulae. 

A single specimen of this plant, which seems to be common in Lord Auckland's group, was picked up by 
Dr. Lyall in Berkeley Sound, Falkland Islands. It was more bushy than the Auckland Island specimen, with longer 
branches ; the outline is ovate and not lanceolate ; the main branches chiefly are crowded and fasciculate, the minor 
ones of the ramuli more frequently distichous, often opposite and rather patent. In fact, part of the plant exhibits the 
bushy aspect of Dictyosiphon and part resembles Striaria ; the scattered fruit distinguishing it from the latter genus. 

Plate LXIX. Fig. I. — 1, a specimen of the natural size ; 2, branch ; 3, section of ditto ; — magnified. 

Campbell's Islands] FLORA ANTARCTICA. 179 

8. CHORDA, Stackh. 

From tubulosa, filiforuiis, simplex, intus transversim septata, extus fills minutis clavatis horizontalibus omnino 
velata. Fructus : spora pyriformes filis periphericis immersae. 

1. Choeda lomentaria, Lyngb., Hydr. Ban. p. 74. t. 18. Grev. Alg. Brit. p. 48. Hook. Br. Fl. 
vol. ii. p. 276. Harv. Br. Alg. p. 35. Wyatt, Alg. Banm. no. 6. Scytosiphon Filum, var. y. Ag. Sp. Alg. 
vol. i. p. 162. Ag. Syst. p. 257. C. riniosa, Mont.t Prod. Plryc. Antarct. p. 12. Voy. an Pole Sud, Bot. 
C'rypL p. 44. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; on rocks in the sea. 

Radio; scutata. From (in exemplaribus Aucklandicis) pedalis, 2 lin. lata, basi tenuissima, longe setaceo-fili- 
formis, sursum seusim latior, apicem versus subattenuata vel acuminata, remote septata, constricta, interdum sub- 
continua et aequalis. Color sordide badius v. fusco-okvaceus. Superficies tola filis clavatis minutissimis sporis 
immixtis velata. — Charta? arete adkseret. 

These specimens differ sbghtly from the European form of the species, in having the constrictions less obvious 
and at much wider intervals. In some individuals scarcely any constriction occurs, and then it is not easy at first 
sight to distinguish them from a common state of Asperococcus ecliinatus. In others, again, they are evident, and 
microscopical examination proves that they do not belong to Asperococcus. At the Falkland Islands this plant was 
also found, and the specimens from that locality are identical with the common European appearance. 

9. ADENOCYSTIS, Hook.Jil. et Harv. 

Radix scutata. From membranacea, saccata, intus cava, aqua repleta, foveis convexis opacis fila arachnoidea 
emittentibus conspersa, filis minutis clavatis omnino velata. Fructus : spora pyriformes filis periphericis immersae. 

Obs. This genus differs from Asperococcus in having its fructification spread over the entire surface, as in 
Chorda, and not confined to distinct sori ; and from the latter in being destitute of septa, and in possessing innumer- 
able pale depressions, composed of radiating filaments with very short coloured joints, emitting from their apices 
tufts of colourless, long, jointed, byssoid fibres. These appear afterwards to fall away, leaving depressions and often 
punctures of the membrane in their place. The tufts of arachnoid fibres do not expand well after having been 
dried, though they may always be found in the damaged state, by carefully scraping away the surface of the frond. 

1. Adenocystis Lessoni, Hook. fil. et Harv.; Asperococcus Lessoni, Bory, in Buperrey Voy. p. 199. 
t. 11. f. 2. Grev. Syri. p. xlii. Midi. Gen.. Supp. vol. iii. p. 26. ( 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; on rocks left by the tide, abundant. 

Radix scutata, exigua. Frondes 1^ unc. longa?, -t lata?, csespitosas, e stipite setaceo-filiforrni 1 lin. longo orta;, 
ellipticas vel obovatee, infiatae, aqua semper repleta?, obtusissimae, membranacea?, vix reticulata?, cellubs minutissimis 
constituta?, glandulis superficiariis v. subimmersis convexis dense conspersa?. Glandules hemisphaerica?, e filis minutis 
l-adiantibus brevissime articulatis atro-fuscis formatae, fibrillas penicillatas longe articulatas hyalinas arachnoideas 
apice gerentes, demum concava?. Superficies frondis filis coloratis (endochromaticis) minutissime clavatis erectis in 
strato tenuissimo connexis induta. Sport? obovata?, nigro-fusca?, limbo hyalino cincta?, per totam frondem sparsae, 
filis periphericis immersae, sessiles. Color fusco-olivaceus, sordidus. Substantia mollis. — Chartae adhaeret. 

Our plant strongly resembles the Fncus saccatus of Turner, {Bumontia saccata), especially specimens from 
Nootka Sound ; a close microscopic examination being necessary to distinguish them. Possibly the plant, alluded 
fo by Turner, in his description of F. saccatus, as having been sent to him from New Holland by Mr. Brown, and 

180 FLORA ANTAECTICA. [Auckland and 

which that author regarded as a species of Asperococeus, may be identical with the present, it being very abundant 
throughout the Antarctic Islands, even so far as 64° south, where it inhabits the Icy Sea. 

Plate LXIX. Fig. II. — 1, a portion of the frond, in an old state, exhibiting a depression from which the fila- 
ments are given off; 2, 3, and 4, spores which cover the whole surface of the frond; 5, full formed spore : — all 
highly magnified. 

10. ASPEROCOCCUS, Lamour. 

1. AsPEROCOCcrs echinatus, Grev., Alg. Brit. p. 49. t. 9. A. rugosus, Lamour. Essai, p. 62. En- 
cseliiim echinatum, Ag. Sp. Alg. vol. i. p. 145. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; on rocks in the sea, very common- 

11. CHORD ARIA, Agardh. 

1. Chordama flagelliformis ; Ag. Sp. Alg. vol. i. p. 166. Syst. p. 256. Lpigb. Hydr. Ban. t. 13. 
Hook. Br. Fl. vol. ii. p. 275. Grev. Alg. Brit. p. 45. t. 7. Harv. Man. p. 45. Wyatt, Alg. Bantu, no. 57. 
Fucus flagelliformis, Turner, Hist. Fuc. t. 85. Engl. Bot. t, 1222. 

Hab. Campbell's Island. {Br. Lyall.) 
Apparently identical with the British plant. 

12. SPHACELARIA, Lyngl. 

1 . Sphacelaria funicularis, Mont. ; fronde basi stuposa in ramis paucis crassis ramulis densissime 
vestitis apice flabellatim partitis divisa, ramis ultimis fasciculatis elongatis fastigiatis circumscriptione ob- 
ovatis ramulis elongatis articulatis dichotome pinnatis obsessis. S. funicularis, Motif. Prodr. Phyc, fyc, 
p. 13. Toy. au Pole Sud, Bot. Crypt, p. 38. 1. 14. f. 1. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; on rocks left by the tide, very abundant. 

Radix magna, fills brunneis ramosis intricatis vel stupa obtecta. C'aulis 3-4 unc. longus, 1 lin. diam. sub- 
dichotome in ramos paucos divisus, totus densissime ramulis quadrifariis abbreviatis pinnulatis vestitus. Rami apice 
flabellatim fastigiati ; minores graciles, erecti, simpbces, ramulis dimorphis quadrifariis obsiti, aliis abbreviatis 
subappressis simplicibus subidatis, alteris elongatis dichotome pinnatis, pinnulis alteme furcatis vel sub-bipinnatis, 
pinnis pinnulisque elongatis remotis. Apices nunc acuti, nunc sphacelati, massam sporarum includentes. Color 
olivaceus. Substantia rigida, dura. 

Nearly allied to S. scoparia, Lyngb. 


1. Rhodomela glomerulata, Mont.; "fronde tereti filiformi siccitate longitrorsum striata ramosissima, 
ramis circumscriptione corymbosis iterum ramosis, ramentis lateraHbus simplicibus aut bifidis corniformibus 
fasciculum sessilem sticlndiorum oblongorum vel ovato-lanceolatorum sinu foventibus." Mont. Prodr. Pltyc. 
Antarct. p. 4. Toy. au Pole Sud, Bot. Crypt, p. 141. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group. (Admiral 17 Urville.) 

The R. Gaimardi, Gaud.? of Montague is certainly our Polgsiphonia botryocarpa. 

13. POLYZONIA, Suhr. 

1. Polyzonia cuneifolia, Mont. ; surculo articulato polysiphonio repente, caulibus erectis filiformibus 

CampbelTs Islands] FLORA ANTARCTICA. 181 

articulatis alternatim ramosissimis, ramis ramulisque patentibus simplicibus elongatis, foliis distichis breve 
petiolatis trapeziformibus basi cuneatis apice abrupte truncatis, margine inferiore integerrimo superiore in- 
ciso-dentato v. lobato, stichicliis spicatis supra-axillaribus lanceolatis dentatis, eeramidiis axillaribus sessilibus 
solitariis ovatis v. suburceolatis. P. cuneifolia, Mont. Prodr. Phyc. Antarct. p. 4. Toy. an Pole Sud, Pot. 
Crypt, p. 143. (Tab. LXXVI.) 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island ; abundant on the stems of the larger Alga. 

Frondes primordiales repentes, caulibus ahjarum radicibus disciformibus seriatim affixse, multistriatse, foliis dis- 
tichis ornatae. Caules e surcidis repentibus orti, erecti, setacei, 4-5 unc. longi, distiche fohosi, articulati, indivisi ; 
ramis pliuiniis, patentibus, elongatis, simplicibus, distiche alternis vel secimdis ; ramulis conformibus, alternis v. 
secundis. Folia patentia, disticha, 1. Un. longa, breve petiolata, ssepissime trapezoidea, rarius subrotundata, apice 
tnmcata, basi late cuneata v. deltoidea; margine inferiore stricto, integerrimo, superiore lacero-dentato, v. 4-5- 
lobato, lobis serratis. Ceramidia ovato-urceolata, in sinu folii profunde fissi sessilia, sporarum fasciculum pyriforme 
foventia. Stichidia in spicis supra-axillaribus foliosis (v. bracteatis) ordinata, sessilia, lanceolata, dentata, sphaero- 
sporarum seriem solitariam iucludentia. Sphrerospora magnae, atro-rubescentes. Color amaene roseus, siccitate vix et 
ne vix nigricans. Substantia membranacea. — Chartae laxe adhasret. 

Most of the numerous specimens of this truly beautiful plant are covered with fructification, chiefly stichidia, 
the ceramidia being, as is the case with many of the Rhodomelea, much more rarely produced. 

Plate LXXVI. Fig. 1, a leaf ; 2, a branch bearing stichidia; 3, a stichidiuni ; 4, a branch with ceramidia; 
5, a ceramidium ; 6, spores from the same : — magnified. 


1. Polysiphon'ia botryocarpa, Hook. fil. et Harv. ; caule inarticulato valido elongato flexuoso, ramis 
alterne ramosissimis, ramulis erecto-patentibus alternis secundis sensim attenuatis ultimis subulatis articulatis, 
articulis multistriatis diametro aequantibus, capsulis minutissimis ovatis in glomerulis parvis pedicellatis den- 
sissime congestis, stichidiis seriatim affixis lanceolatis. Rhodom. Gaimardi, Gaud. ? Montague, Voy. an 
Pole Sud, Bot. Crypt, p. 140. (Tab. LXX.) 

Var. a, crassior ; caule alternatim et angulatim flexuoso, ramulis crebrioribus. 

Var. ft tenuior ; caule curvato, ramulis elongatis minus divisis. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; both varieties abundant on the roots of large Alga, &c. 

Radix scutella parva, fibris suppeditata. Caulis 8-14 unc. longus, basi -i Un. diam. sursum attenuatus, carti- 
lagineus, opacus, venis anastomosantibus reticulatus, alternatim flexuosus, nunc genicidatus, nunc curvatus v. 
alterne arcuatus, subsimplex vel e basi parce divisus. Rami alterni, cauli conformes, inter se circumscriptione late 
ovati, plus minusve decompositi, alterne v. secunde partiti, non vere dichotomi. Ramuli ultimi alterni v. dichotomi, 
subulati, erecti v. erecto-patentes, simpbces, articulati, articubs 4-5-striatis, diametro asquantibus. Sipl/ones in 
ramis majoribus septem principales tubulum centralem angustum radiatim cingentes, cellubs irregidaribus peripheriam 
versus sensim minoribus circumdati. Color atro-rubescens. Ceramidia miuutissima, ovata, in glomerulis perpusillis 
subterminabbus laterabbus v. axillaribus aggregata, in quoque glomerulo numerosissima, pecbcebata, sporarum pyri- 
formium fasciculmn includentia. Stichidia ramulis ultimis seriatun affixa, remotiuscula, sphasrosporas majusculas 
angulatas pluilseriatas includentia : — Chartse laxe adhasret. 

This species is of so large a size, such considerable diameter of filament, is so opaque and withal exhibits such 
sbght external appearance of articulation, that it seems at first sight, to possess considerable affinity with R/todomela, 
and further bears a strong resemblance to R. subfusea, which it exceeds in size, while agreeing with it in ramification. 
A careful examination, however, induces us to place it in Polysiphonia, and in the section to which P . fruticulosa 


182 FLOKA ANTARCTICA. {Auckland and 

belongs. The internal structure of the stem is similar to that of P.fruticulosa, but there are fewer radiating fibres, 
and is quite unlike that of Mod. subfusca. There are two varieties, one more robust, flexuous and densely branched 
than the other ; but they do not appear specifically distinct. Both bear capsidar fruit, of a peculiarly clustered 
character, different from that of any other Polysiphonia, and we regard it as the principal distinction on which the 
species rests. The capsules are farther remarkable for their minuteness in proportion to the plant producing them. 
Their number, however, compensates for size, thirty or forty occupying a space not greater than that of a capsule 
of the dimensions usual in this genus. 

Plate LXX. Fig. 1, portion of a stem of the natural size; 2, branch and ceramidia ; 3, ceramidium; 4, lon- 
gitudinal section of the same ; 5, spores; 6, branch and stichidia ; 7, stichidium ; 8, sphaerospores : — magnified. 

%. Polysiphonia Lyallil, Hook. fil. et Harv.; caule cartilagineo setaceo inarticulato alterne vel vage 
ramoso, ramis elongatis simplicibus inarticulatis ramulis brevibus articulatis quadrifariis multifidis densis- 
sime vestitis, ramulorum articulis diametro aequalibus 3-5 veuosis. (Tab. LXXFV. Fig. I.) 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group. (Dr. Li/all.) 

Caulis erectus, 4-5 unc. longus, validus, simplex v. basi divisus ; ramis paucis, elongatis, alternis v. secundis, 
simplicibus ; caulis et rami inarticulati, densissime e basi ad apicern ramulis brevibus 1 lin. longis obsiti. Ramuli 
articidati, quadrifarii, patentissimi irregulariter multifidi, nunc fere dichotomi, alterne v. secunde partiti ; ultimi 
subulati, acuta, patentes v. recurvi. Articuli 3-5-striati, diametro subaequales v. vix longiores. Color intense 
fusco-ruber. Fructus . . . . ? Siphones in ramis majoribus quatuor, magni, tubulum centralem angustum cruciatim 
cingentes, cellulis irregidaribus peripheriam versus sensim miuoribus cireumdati. 

We have much pleasure in naming this very distinctly marked and beautiful species after its discoverer, Dr. Lyall. 

Plate LXXIV. Fig.l. — 1, plant of the natural size ; 2, branch; 3, portion of stem ; 4, ditto of branch : — magnified. 

3. Polysiphonia dumosa, Hook. fil. et Harv.; caule erecto rigido flabellatim ramoso inarticulato, ramis 
patentibus alternis v. subdichotomis elongatis, ramulis distantibus aequalibus brevibus patentissimis sub- 
distichis laxe pimiatis subulatis, articulis ramulorum brevissiniis. (Tab. LXXV. Fig. I.) 

Hab. Campbell's Island ; parasitic on the stems of large Alga. 

Caules caespitosi, 1-3 unc. longi, erecti, cylindracei, basi simplices, sursum flabellatim ramosi v. irregulariter 
dichotome v. alterne clivisi. Rami simplices v. divisi, per totam longitudinem ramulis 1-2 lin. longis, horizontali- 
patentibus subdistichis laxe pinnatis obsiti. Pinnulis patentes, subulatae, acutae, strictae, curvatae v. tortae. Arti- 
culi in ramulis tantum manifesti, brevissimi, 3-5-striati. Siphones ramidini quatuor, niagni, tubulum centralem 
angustum cruciatim cingentes, cellulis irregularibus peripheriam versus sensim miuoribus cireumdati. Color badius, 
apices versus fusco-ruber. Substantia rigida. — Chartae vix adhaeret. 

Allied to P. Lyallii, but much smaller in all its parts ; of a duller colour and more rigid substance, dift'erently 
branched and with less dense ramuli, which are nearly, though not strictly, distichous. In aspect, it somewhat 
resembles P. ceratoclada, though quite unlike that species in internal structure. 

Plate LXXV. Fig. I. — 1, portion of a branch ; 2, stem and branch ; 3, section of stem : — magnified. 

4. Polysiphonia punicea, Mont. ; punicea, caule vage ramoso articulato setaceo flexuoso, ramis alternis 
v. secundis subremotis, ramulis alternis remotiuscuhs flabellato-dicliotomis abbreviatis patentissimis ultimis 
subulatis recurvis, articulis ramorum diainetro 3-4-plo longioribus 3-5-venosis ramulorum subquadratis 
biveniis pellucidis apicibus acutis, " capsulis subsessiHbus ovato-acumiuatis " (Mont.), sticludiis lanceolatis 
sphaerosporas pluriseriatas includentibus, ceramidiis sessilibus solitariis urceolatis, ore contracto porrecto. P. 
punicea, Mont. Prodr. Fhyc. Antarct. p. 6. Yoy. au Pole Sud, Pot. Cryjrt. p. 128. t. 5. f. 3. 

Campbell's Islands] FLOE A ANTARCTICA. 183 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; on the roots and stems of sea-weeds. 

Caulis 4-8 una longus, setam porcinam diam. asquans, sursum attenuatus, subangulatim flexuosus, vage ramo- 
sus, nunc subsimplex, ramis lateralibus instructus, nunc e parte inferiore subdichotorne divisus, articulatus, Rami 
inferiores longiores, superiores sensim abbreviati, simplices v. ramosi, patentes v. divaricati ; ramulis abbreviatis, fla- 
bellatis, dichotomis, patentissimis, laxe quadrifariam insertis, ultimis subulatis divaricatis v. recurvis. Articuli 
caulis et ramorum majorum diam. 3-4-plo longiores, 4-5-striati, medio pellucide coccinei v. punicei, ad geniculos 
cellulis minutis superficialibus donati liinc opaci ; ramulorum diam. vix longiores v. sequales, 2-3-striati. Siphones 
in ramis majoribus novem, tubulum centralem amplum radiatim cingentes, cellulis externis nullis; caides hinc 
sulcati. Ceramidia non visa. Stichidia lanceolata, spheerosporas magnas quadripartitas pluriseriatas includentia. 
Substantia tenera. — Chartse adhaeret. 

Slightly variable in some minor characters, yet a distinctly marked and easily recognized species. Main branches 
irregular, being imperfectly dichotomous or having a simple stem furnished with lateral branches. The most striking 
specific character consists in the dichotomously multifid fan-like ramuli, which are set rather laxly along the branches. 
We have not seen ceramidia ; several of our specimens produce stichidia, of the shape described by Montagne ; but 
the sphaerospores are in a double and occasionally a triple row, as in Basya. In one individual, the ceramidia are 
replaced (by disease) with a cluster of sphasrical bodies, forming a mass which resembles the favella of a Callitham- 
nion, and, from which, fascicles of ramuli are given off in a proliferous manner. These call to mind the capsules of 
P. botryocarpa, and though their structure be very irregular, they suggest a doubt whether the remarkable fructifi- 
cation of the latter plant is not abnormal. 

5. Polysiphonia rudis, Hook. fil. et Harv. ; pusilla, fills caespitosis rigidis tenacibus gracilibus subfas- 
tigiatis ramosis, ramis alternis apicem versus crebrioribus inferioribus filiformibus nudis elongatis superio- 
ribus basi nudis apice pinnatis, pinnulis subulatis elongatis erectis, articulis ramorum diametro 2-3-plo 
ramulorum sesqui-longioribus 3-4-striatis. (Tab. LXXIV. Fig. II.) 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; parasitic on larger Alga. 

Caides dense csespitosi, e filis intertextis orti, 1-1^ una longi, siccitate rigidi, madore tenaces, atro-fusci, vix 
rubescentes, indivisi. Rami inferiores erecti, elongati, simplices, filiformes, nudi ; superiores sensim breviores, apices 
versus breviores, inferne nudi, superne pinnati, pinnis subulatis erectis inferioribus longioribus, hinc ramulis corym- 
bosis. Circumscriptio ramorum obovata. Articuli per totam plantain manifesti, ramorum diametro 2-3-plo longi- 
oribus pauci-striatis, ramulorum sesqui-longioribus. 

Plate LXXIV. Fig. II. — I, a specimen of the natural size ; 2, lower portion of branch and stichidia ; 3, upper 
ditto; 4, a stichidium; 5, sphaerospores : — magnified. 

6. Polysiphonia ceratoclada, Mont. ; filo primario repente, caulibus erectis compressis indivisis demum 
ramos alternos emittentibus, ramis ramulisque brevibus subulatis patentissimis v. recurvis vestitis, ceramidiis 
sessilibus ovatis suburceolatisve, articulis brevissimis. P. ceratoclada, Mont. Prodr.Phyc. Ant. p. 6. Toy. 
au Pole Sud, Pot. Crypt, p. 130. t. 5. f. 2. (Tab. LXXVI. Pig. II.) 

Var. ft secundata; ramis incurvis, ramulis plerumque secundis. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; both varieties generally parasitical on Laurencia pinnatifida. 

Tota raniulis subulatis obsita. Caides e filis repentibus Algas alias infest antibus, erecti, 1-4 una alti, eom- 
pressi, in exemplaribus minoribus simplices, in majoribus ramis alternis cauli similibus donati. Ceramidia solitaria, 
ovata, lateralia, sessilia. Stichidia subulata, attenuata, sphaerosporas uniseriatas foventia. Substantia rigidula. 
Color fusco-ruber. — Chartse laxe adhaeret. 

The habit of this plant is precisely that of a Polyzonia ; Montague's specimens are in a young state, in which 

184 FLORA ANTARCTICA. [Auckland and 

simple stems, destitute of branches, and merely clothed with patent subulate ramuli, rise from creeping filaments ; 
such individuals are from -i-l inch high. But, when larger, lateral branches begin to be developed, in every respect 
similar to the main stem. In one specimen, i\ inches long, which alone is in fructification, the branches are 1-1-j 
inch in length. The variety /3 is a remarkable one, and possibly a distinct species, it is smaller and slenderer, with 
the branches much curved and the ramuli very generally secund. 

Plate LXXVI. Fig. II. — 1, portion of a branch; 2, the same with ceramidia; 3, section of stem; 4, cerami- 
clium ; 5, spores : magnified. 

7. Polysiphonia decipiens, Mont. ; " csespitosa, fragilissima, filis cylindraceis subcontinuis fusco-nigris 
irregulariter virgato-ramosissimis, ramuJis erectis, spinis subulatis spiraliter alternis strictis, articulis diametro 
multoties brevioribus ex siccatione collapsis 3-5-venosis; fructu .... ?" Mont. Prodr. Phyc. Antarct. p. 5. 
Voy. au Pole Sud, Bot. Crypt, p. 131. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group. {Admiral JJfUrville.) 

8. Polysiphonia cladosfephis, Mont. ; " filo primario articulato polysiphonio vage ramosissimo fusco- 
purpureo nigrescente, ramis conformibus e geniculis ramellos verticillatos dichotomos monosiphonios dense 
imbricatos emittentibus, fructu .... ? " Mont, in Ann. des Sc. Nat. (Nov. 1843), p. 39. Toy. au Pole Sud, 
Bot. Crypt, p. 132. t. 13. f. 4. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group. (Admiral If Urville.) 

Apparently nearly related to P. byssoides, Grev., and still more closely to P. byssoclados, Harv. (Griffithsia 
australis, Ag.) 

15. JANIA, Lamour. 

1. Jania Hombronii, Mont., Voy. an Pole Sud, Bot. Crypt, p. 146. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; on rocks in the sea, abundant. 

What we take for Montagne's plant much resembles the Corallina officinalis, L.; we are not, however, well 
versed in these vegetables, which have only recently been skilfully investigated by Decaisne. 

16. LAURENCIA, Lamour. 

1. IjA.v~KESCiA.pinnatifida, Lamour.; var. y, angusta. Fucus Turn. Hist. Fuc. vol. i. p. 40. 
Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; on rocks in the sea. 

17. DELESSERIA, Lamour. 

1. Delesseria crassinervia, Mont.; caule alato ramoso, foliis lineari-lanceolatis e costa valida proliferis, 
capsulis in costa sessilibus, soris spheerosporarum bnearibus costee parallelis. D. crassinervia, Mont. Prodr. 
Phyc. Ant. p. 1. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island. 

We have some doubts as to the validity of this species, which differs from B. Hypoglossum only in the com- 
parative breadth of its costa; a somewhat inconstant character, being, at times, excessively broad, covering nearly 
the whole lamina, at others, nearly, if not quite, as narrow as in D. Hypoglossum. These intermediate forms do not 
exist among our Campbell's Island individuals, but in those from the Falklands. 

2. Delesseria dichotoma, Hook, Harv.; costa crassa dichotoma frondem cuneatam obtusam v. 
emarginatam dernurn bifido-laciniatam percurrente infra apicem evamda, frondibus e costa denudata orien- 

CampbelVs Islands.'] FLORA ANTARCTICA. 1S5 

tibus oblongis cuneatis rariusve clliptico-lanceolatis costa furcata, soris rotundatis rnaculatis, eoccidiis costa- 
libus v. sparsis. (Tab. LXXI. Fig. II.) 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island. (Br. Lyall.) 

Frons junior, folium obovatum, obtusum v. emarginatum, demum bilobum ; costa furcata, demum repetito- 
dichotoma, deorsum crassa, sursiun attenuata, sub apicem evanida. Frondes adultas caulk furcatus v. dichotomus, 
2-3 unc. longus, setae porcinse crassitie, nudus v. interruptim alatus, supeme in frondes cimeatas v. dichotomas 
abeuns j inferne denudatus v. frondibus novis primordiali conformibus sed angustioribus minusque cuneatis ornatus, 
hie 1-j unc. lougse, costis supra medium furcatis fructiferis. Coccidia in laminam rarius in costam sita, sphaerica, 
sparsa, granulis cuneatis repleta. Sori sph<erosporarum rotundati, supra laminam dispersi. Substantia membranacea. 
Color purpureo-roseus v. sanguineus. — Chartae adhaeret. 

When fully grown, this species resembles a very broad and luxuriant state of D. alata, found in the north of 
Ireland, but differs essentially from it in its mode of growth. Judging by young specimens, it appears to originate 
in a broadly ovate or cuneate leaf, traversed by a forked, or, as the frond advances, repeatedly dichotomous midrib, 
which, though gradually evanescent, is obvious for nearly the whole length of the lamina, and thus differs from the 
imperfectly branching veins of the Nitophylla. In old and battered specimens, however, this character can only be 
detected in the young parts ; in them, the costa of the first formed leaf becomes denuded, considerably thickened 
and converted into a dichotomous stem, irregularly winged in portions, and only preserving, on the upper part, the 
remains of its former character ; while, all along its denuded portions, spring numerous new fronds, narrower than 
that which forms the principal one, and less cuneate, but in other respects simdar. 

Plate LXXI. Fig. II. — 1, 2, and 3, specimens in different states, of the natural size; 4 and 5, coccidia; 
G and 7, sphaerospores : — magnified. 


1. Nitophyllum crispatwm, Hook. fil. et Harv.j fronde basi nervosa cuneata latissime expansa v. 
oblonga dicliotoma v. laciniata margine crispata, nervis rarnosis, laciniis cuneatis apicibus axillisque obtusis, 
soris minutis rotundatis coccidiisque sparsis. (Tajb. LXXI. Kg. I.) 

Hab. Campbell's Island ; dredged up in three fathoms water. 

Two specimens, one with capsular, the other with granular fruit, we refer to this species. The capsuliferous 
specimen bears a very great resemblance to the north of Ireland variety of N. laceratum ; the gramdiferous, again, 
has more the oblong form of N. punctatum. Both agree in being traversed, especially in the lower part, with obscure 
dichotomous nerves, in having the margin crisped, and exhibiting a tendency to dichotomous division. The scat- 
tered granular fructification essentially distinguishes it from N. laciniatum, and the form and size of the spots, from 
N. punctatum. 

Plate LXXI. Fig. I. — 1, 2, and 3, specimens of the natural size ; 4, coccidia ; 5, sphaerospores : — magnified. 

2. Nitophyllum punctatum'? Grev. Alg. Brit. p. 79. t. 12. Agardh, Species Alg. vol. i. p. 186. 
Aglaophyllum, Montague in Plant Cell. Canar. p. 150. 

Hab. Campbell's Island ; with the former. 

Decayed fragments, which appear to belong to this species, are all that were procured. 

19. PLOCAMIUM, Byngb. 
Obs. The genera Thamnophora and Flocamium appear to differ in no respect from each other, and so perfectly 

186 FLOEA ANTARCTICA. [Auckland and 

do they agree in habit, that plants regarded by the elder Agardh as varieties of PL coccineum (/3 and y) are considered 
by his son as distinct species of Tkamnophora* . 

1. Plocamium coccineum, Lyrigb. ; Hyd/r. Ban. p. 39. t. 9. Grev. Alg. Brit. p. 12. t. 98. Hook. 
Brit. Fl. vol. ii. p. 293. P. vulgare, Bamottr. PI. coccineum, fenestratum, Lyugbyanum, et Binderianum, 
Kiitz. Phyc. Gen. p. 449 and 450. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island ; abundant. 

This is the only species of the genus found in the northern hemisphere and is apparently common, especially 
in all temperate regions of the globe. 

20. BHODOMENIA, Grev. 

1. Bhodomexia Hombroniana, Mont.; " fronde cartilagineo-inembranacea plana e basi substipitata 
dichotoma pinnatifissa, pinnis ob axiUas obtusas patenti-erectis obtusis, margine fimbriate seu ramenta den- 
tata conceptaeulifera etnittente, conceptaculis bemisphericis papillula instructis." Mont. Prodr. Phyc. An- 
tarct. p. 1. Toy. au Pole Sud, Bot. Crypt, p.157 . t. 1. f. 2. (Tab. LXXII. Fig. II.) 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; on the stems of large Alga. 

Our specimens of this plant are young, and as they differ from the more advanced state in form and in colour, 
we have added a figure; the colour in this state is of a beautiful red purple, sometimes inclining to violet. When 
fully developed, the species assumes the appearance represented by Dr. Montague in the plate quoted above. We 
are indebted for magnificent specimens, collected at Akaroa, to M. Kaoul. 

Plate LXXII. Fig. LT. — 1. a young specimen, of the natural size; 2, 3 and 4, marginal leaflets bearing the 
fructification ; 5, section of the same : — magnified. 

2. Khodomenia ornata, Mont.; " fronde carnoso-membranacea oblongo-lanceolata latissima plana vivide 
purpurea utrincjue margine prolifera, foliis s. pinnulis obovatis substipitatis tandem cuneatis maximis palma- 
tifissis, conceptaculis per totam frondem sparsis." Mont. Prodr. Phye. Antarct. p. 1. Toy. cm Pole Sud, 
Bot. Crypt, p. 160. t. 11. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group. (Admiral B'Urville.) 

The plant, from which the magnificent plate given by Montagne was executed, is marked by the lamented 
D'Urville as a native of Lord Auckland's Island, where, we regret to say, it was not collected by the Antarctic Ex- 

3. Bhodomexia dic/iotoma, Hook. fil. et Harv.; fronde membranacea rosea basi cuneata latissima dicho- 
toma, axillis rotundatis, laciniis patentibus linearibus v. cuneatis obtusis demum emarginatis et bifidis. 
(Tab. LXXII. Fig. I. 

Hab. Campbell's Island ; on rocks in the sea. 

* I had long supposed that the sphaerospores of these genera were different ; but after a complete examination 
of the fruit of T. corallorhiza, costata, angusta, Mertensii, procera, CunningJiamii, Telfairia and cornnta, and compa- 
rison with that of PL coccineum, I have been obliged to abandon this idea. In all, the spharospores are cylindrical, 
divided into four by three transverse striae. Kiitzing separates PL cornutum under the generic name of Thamnocarpus, 
but I am at a loss to conceive upon what grounds. — TA r . H. H. 

Campbell's Islands.] FLOKA ANTARCTICA. 1S7 

From flabellatim expansa, 4-7 unc. lata, basi cuueata, pluries dichotoma, laciniis linearibus cimeatisve, \-\ 
una latis et ultra, patentibus, apicibus obtusis emarginatis bifidisve. Substantia tenuis, membranacea, e cellulis super- 
ficiem versus minimis coloratis formata, interioribus rnagnis hyalinis. — Chartse non adhaeret. 

Our specimens of tins plant are unfortunately barren, it resembles in outline the Phyllophora obtusa, but is of a 
very different consistence. Its nearest ally is the R. Pahnetta, to gigantic specimens of which it may be compared. 

Plate LXXII. Fig. I. — 1. a specimen of the natural size; 2, lacinia of a specimen with narrower fronds, also 
of the natural size. 

Dr. Montagne adds R. corallina, Grev., R. variegata (Halymenia, Bory), and R. bifida, Grev., as natives of Lord 
Auckland's group, but the specimens are imperfect and they may belong to some of the former. 

21. HYPXEA, Lamour. 

1. Hypxea multicomu, Mont.; "fronde filiformi tereti compressa inordinate corvmboso-rarnosissirnaj 
ramis ultimis subdistichis alternis aut subsecundis furcatis, ramnlis patenti-recurvis liamulosis, plui'ibus apice 
coivformi incrassatis sporoplioris." Mont. Pole Siul,Bot. Crypt, p. 153. t. 9. f. 1. Rhodomela, Mont. 
Prodr. Pliyc. Antarct. p. 4. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group. (Admiral jyUrville.) 

22. GRATELOUPIA, Agardlt. 

1. Geateloupia ? Aucklandica, Mont.; "fronde cartilaginea filiformi tereti vage raniosissima, rands 
ramentisque confertis faseiculatisque subcompressis basi attenuatis saepius ex insigni frondis tuberculo sin- 
gulis pluribusve enatis, fruetu .... ? " Mont. Prodr. Pltyc. Antarct. p. 7. Toy. an Pole Slid, Bot. Cryjjf. 
p. 15. t, 10. f. 1. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group. (Admiral & Urville.) 


1. Phyllophora obtusa, Grev.; fronde corneo-rnembranacea stipitata basi longe cuneata enervi flabeUi 
forrni subdieliotome laciniata, laciniis latissimis valde obtusis axillis acutis, coccidiis stipitatis sporophyllisque 
e frondis pagina ortis aggregatis. P. obtusaj Grev. in Wern. Trans. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; on shells, Src, in the sea. 

Radix scutata, parva, parce fibrosa. Frondes aggregatae, 6-14 unc. longa?, basi cuneatae, in stipitem filiformem 
attenuatae, 1-1-g- unc. longa;, alterne dichotome fissae v. palmatas, simplices v. furcatse, valde obtusa?, axillis angustis 
acutis. Coccidia pedicellata, in soros elongatos laciniarum paginam oecupantes aggregata, globosa, pedieello filiformi 
v. foliaceo. Sporophylla aggregata, rotundata, sphserosporas minutas foventia. Substantia siccitate rigide membra- 
nacea v. cornea, subtransluceus. Color amasne roseus. 

The Auckland's group specimens are small and barren, but agree entirely with those of the Cape of Good Hope, 
from which in part the preceding description has been prepared. 

21. GIGARTINA, Lamour. 

1. Gigartina divaricata, Hook. fil. et Harv.; caule cartilagineo-caruoso compresso Lineari subdieliotome 
diviso, ramis disticliis pinnatis subpinnatisve, ramulis pateutissimis linearibus subatteimatis. 

Hab. Campbell's Island ; tluown up on the beach. 

138 FLORA ANTARCTICA. [Auckland and 

Caulis 4-6 unc. longus, subdichotome divisus, 1-2 lin. latus, compressus, strietus, ramis subquadrifariis distichisve 
dense obsitus. Rami divaricati, stricti, coinpressi, rugulosi, nudi, parce pinnati v. subbipinnati, apicibus longe nudis. 
Pinnules horizontals, breves, simplices v. furcatae, lineares, acuta?, nunc abbreviates et spiniformes. Color lividus v. 
nigro-rubescens, ad apices ramulomm pallidior purpurascens. Substantia cartilagineo-earnosa, ftrma, elastica, siecitate 
valde contracta. — Chartae non adhaeret. 

Our specimens are imperfect and barren, but sufficient to prove them to be a very distinct species of Gigartina. 
The whole plant is very elastic, shrinking much in drying ; internally it is composed of a dense body of anastomosing 
filaments, radiating towards the circumference through a firm gelatine. 

G.pistillata, Lam., is also enumerated in Montague's account of Lord Auckland's Island. 

25. NOTHOGENIA, Mont. 

1. Nothogexia variolosa, Mont, in Ann. Sc. Nat. Series 2. vol. xx. p. 302. t. 10. f. 3. Chondrus vario- 
losa, Mont. Prodr. Phyc. Antarct. p. 6. Toy. au Pole Bad, Pot. Crypt, p. 110. 
Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; on rocks in tbe sea, abundant. 

Frondes caespitosae, 4-5-unciales, anguste bneares, 1-1^ Un. lata?, compressse, plana; v. subcanaUculata?, basi 
cuneatae, superne pluries dichotoma?, laciniis basi angustatis, ultimis elongatis obtusis v. emarginatis -j- 1 unc. longis. 
Conceptacula per totam laciniarum supremarum, immersa, convexa, vermcaeformia, poro pertusa, utraque frondis 
pagina sparsa. Substantia cartdaginea. Color fusco-ruber, purpurascens. — Chartae laxe adhaeret. 

2G. CHONDRUS, Stach 

1. Chondrus tuberculosus, Hook. fil. et Harv. ; fronde cartilaginea basi cuneata late lineari furcata v. 
ter quaterve dichotoma plana v. canaliculata, laciniis patentibus obtusis, axillis rotundatis, verrucis sphae- 
roideis pagina frondis superiore extantibus medio depressis demum pertusis massam densam sporarum rose- 
arum includentibus. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; on rocks in the sea. 

Frons 2-uncialis, basi simplex, superne plus minusve furcata, margine simpbei pinnulisve ornata. Lacinia 
planae v. pagina superiore canabculata, patentes v. divaricatae, sm'sum latiores, obtusae. Coccidia v. verruca nurne- 
rosissima, magnitudine seminis Brassicae, globosa, latere concavo frondis sita, extantia, rarius pagina frondis immersa, 
basi constricta, apice depressa v. umbilicata, siecitate apotheciam Lichenis referentia, demum pertusa. Sporce mi- 
nutae. Substantia crassa, carnoso-cartilaginea, siecitate valde contracta. Color Hvidus. — Chartae laxe adhaeret. 

Apparently a distinct species. Smaller than Not h. variolosa, but broader, less frequently dichotomous and with 
very different fructification. The coccidia? are situated on one side of the frond, prominent, constricted at the base 
and contain a large dense spherical mass of spondes, similar to those of the differently shaped warts of Chondrus 
crispus. The shape of the fruit is that of Iridcea Radula or stiriata, and when dried under pressure it resembles the 
apothecia of a Collenia. 

27. IRLTLEA, Pory. 

1. Iuidma Pad ul a, Bory, in Paper rey Toy. Pot. Crypt, p. 107. Grev. Alg. Brit. p. 61. Sphaerococcus 
Radula, Agarih, Sp. Alg. vol. i. 268. Fucus Radula, lib. Panics, Esper, t. 113. Fucus bracteatus, Gmel., 
Turn. t. 25. Mastocarpus Radula, et Cliondrodictyon Capense, Klitz. Phyc. Gen. p. 396 and 398. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island ; very abundant on rocks in the sea. 

Radix scutata, fibris comitata. Caulis 1-2 unc. longus, basi cylindraceus, crassitie pennae corvinae, mox com- 
pressus, superne dilatatus, divisus v. ramosus. Frondes basi rotundatae, cuneatae v. attenuatae, eUipticae lanceolatseve, 

Campbell's Islands.] FLORA ANTARCTICA. 1S9 

6-20 una longee, rarius bi-tripedales, crassse, simplices v. fiircatee v. ad basin bipartite, nunc margine frondes acces- 
sorias ernittentes, interdum poris perplurimis pertusee. Superficies frondis kevis, lucida, adulta papillosa ; papillis 
creberrimis, tandem totam f'rondeni utrinque vestientibus, apice fructiferis, favellidia immersa poro pertusa gerentibus. 
Sjwra minutse, rosea?, densisshne aggregate. Spl/arospora frondibus papillarum destitutes immersa;, substrato eor- 
ticali sitre, in globulis minutis punctiformibus aggregata;, totam frondem pustulantes. Substantia crassa, carnosa. 
Color lividus, rubescens purpurascensve, raro atro-sangnineus. 

There is scarcely a maritime rock on the Antarctic coasts, that does not abound with, this most protean species 
in all stages of growth, and bearing fronds with every variety of outline. It is much eaten by marine animals, and 
from this or other causes, amongst which may be reckoned the fall of the fructiferous papilla;, the plant is frequently 
found more or less perforated with round holes, sometimes so regularly as to resemble coarse lace : this state has 
been described by Kiitzing, under the name of Ckondrodictyon Capense, and by Decaisne as Iridoea clathrata (Ann. 
Se. Nat. Ser. III. vol. ii. p. 236). More puzzling is the form of the secondary fructification or spha;rospores, which 
is so like a primary fruit, that had not both Mr. Harvey and myself seen this plant growing on its native rocks, we 
should have supposed the individuals producing them to belong to a different species. The secondary fruit of 
/. stiriata is of the same nature. 

The I. micans, Bory, volans, Grev., and, Bory, enumerated by Montagne as natives of Lord 
Auckland's group, are probably states of this. 

28. HALYMENIA, Agardh. 

1. Halymexia hidssima, Hook. fil. et Harv.; fronde plana tenui gelatinoso-membrauacea latissime ovato- 
lanceolata sirnplici bifida v. margine laciniato-pinnatifida, laciniis ovato-lanceolatis acutis. (Tab. LXXIII.) 

Var. /3, bifida • fronde lanceolata basi attenuata bifida v. bifurcata, laciniis lanceolatis erectis. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island ; both varieties abundant on rocks in the sea. 
Frondes 2-1-1 una longse, 4-6 latse, tenues, basi cuneatae, late lanceolata; v. ovato-oblongse, acuta;, simplices 
v. furcatse, margine piano sirnplici integerrimo v. laciniis plurimis subpinnatifido. Substantia gelatiuosa. Favellidia 
numerosissima, per totam frondem sparsa, cellulis medullaribus immersa. Color amasne roseus. 

We offer this as a new species with some doubt, the varieties of H. ligulata approaching it. The fronds are 
so broad and thin, that the favellidia form convexities on its surface, which are more or less obliterated when moist. 

Plate LXXIII. Fig. 1, portion of the surface of the frond ; 2, section of the same ; 3, spores : — all magnified. 

29. DUMONTIA, Lamour. 

1. DuiioXTiA fil "iformis, Grev., Alg. Brit. p. 165. t. 17. Halymenia, Agcirdh Sjyec.Alg. vol. i. p. 214. 
Hab. Campbell's Island. (Dr. Lyall.) 

Identical with the European plant. Found also at the Cape of Good Hope and in other widely separated localities. 

2. Dumontia cornuta, Hook. fil. et Harv.; fronde tubulosa hie ilh'c inflata clivisa, parte inferiore nu- 
diuscula superiore rarnis confertis fasciculatisve quacirifarhs vestita, rarnis furcatis patentibus flexuosis alter- 
natim rarnulosis, ramulis recur\ds utrinque attenuatis apicibus acutis. 

Hab. Campbell's Island. (Br. Byall.) 

Frondes crespitosa;, 2-3 una longre, tubulosa;, irregulariter inflata;, 2 lin. lata;, vage divisa; ; rarnis intricatis, 
patentibus, flexuosis, furcatis ; ramulis fusiformibus, patentibus v. recurvis. Color fuscatus, bacbus v. rubescens. 

Our specimens of this plant are barren; we refer it to Dumontia from the tubular inflated frond, structure, and habit. 

190 FLORA ANTAECTICA. [Auckland and 

30. BALLIA, Han. 

1. Ballia Brunonis, Harv., in Hook. Journ. of Bot. vol. ii. p. 191. Sphacelaria callitricha, Agardh 
Ic. Alg. Bwrojp. t. 6. Ballia callitricha, Mont. Voy. an Pole Sitd, Bot. Crypt, p. 94. 

Var. /3, Hombroniana. B. Hombroniana, Mont. Prodr. Phyc. Anlarct. p. 9. Toy. au Pole Sud, Bot. 
Crypt, p. 95. 1. 12. f. 1. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island ; on the roots and stems of large Alga, abundant. 

Caulis in exeinplaribus Aucklandieis 2 unc. altus, seta porcina duplo crassior, Lirtus, vage ramosus, di-trichoto- 
mus ; ramis priniariis apice flabellatim ramidosis, circumscriptione rotundatis, fastigiatis, 3-5 lobatis. Hamuli bi-tri- 
pinuati, pinnulis subremotis acirtis. ArticuU pinnaruin diarnetro duplo vis triplo lougiores, ovato-oblougi, rarius 
oylindracei, apice angustati, pinnularum sesqui-lorigiores, ovati. Substantia rigida, cornea. Color purpureo-roseus. 

The Auckland's group specimens appear to belong chiefly to the B. Hombroniana of Montague, a native of 
Akaroa*, on the middle island of New Zealand; they differ from those of Tasmania and the Falklands in being 
shorter and of a denser habit, in having longer articulations to the pinnae and pinnules, and in the latter being ge- 
nerally only twice pinnated, with the ultimate pinnules separated and remote, like the teeth of a comb. Kerguelen's 
Land individuals connect these fomis. We have examined several hundreds of specimens, from seven or eight dif- 
ferent localities in the Antarctic Ocean, without being able to trace any constant specific distinction amongst them ; 
the same individual often bears both bipinnate and tripinnate fronds, with the segments remote or approximated ; 
the length of the articulations and their form, and the outline of the branches from broadly ovate to linear-lanceo- 
late are equally variable characters. We can, however, well understand Montagne's drawing a different conclusion 
from an examination of but few specimens of the extremes. 

31. PTILOTA, Agardh. 

1. Vtilota formosisshiui, Mont., caule ancipiti compresso costa articulata percurso vage ramoso de- 
composite pimiato, pinnis valde insequalibus pinnulisque alternis patentibus idtimis serratis, favelhs sessilibus, 
involucri foliis pinnatifhlis, sphserosporiis marginabbus pedicellatis. Pt. formosissinia, Mont. Prodr. Phyc. 
Ant. p. 8. Toy. au Pole Sud, Bot. Crypt, p. 98. t. 9. f. 3. (Tab. LXXVI1.) 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; abundant. 

Radix callus exiguus. Frondes aggregate, 6-10 unc. longoe, 4-6 lata;, flabelliformes. Caulis (Jugamentum 
Ag.) basi teres, mox plano-compressus, linearis v. utrinque subattenuatus, \- \\ lin. latus, distiche ramosissimus. 
Pinna \ unc. longae, alternse, pinnatse v. bipinnate ; pinnulis brevibus, alternis, patentibus, serratis v. pectinatis, apice 
subacutis. Favella sessiles, involucro quadrifotiato pectinato cinctse, sphsericae, sporis minutis angulatis farctas. 
Splicer osporm marginales, pedicellate, globosse, demum 4-pai-titae. Color amame puniceus. Substantia cartilaginea, 
firma. — Charte laxe adhseret. 

We have numerous specimens of this magnificent plant in the most perfect state of fructification. The favella?, 
involucred with four regularly pectinated bracteae, are striking objects under the lens. The stem is not strictly arti- 
culate, in our specimens at least, but traversed by a strong raised articulated mid-rib, most evident on the old frond 
and occupying one-third of the breadth of the stem. The surface cellules, like those of other parts of the frond, are 
minute, but internally divided by transverse diaphragms into a series of cells fidl of gelatiue, whose walls are formed 
of jointed fibres. 

* " Insula Leyden, Batavia," is also given as a habitat (in Voy. au Pole Sud) probably erroneously, for the 
genus has not hitherto been found to the northward of the 40th degree of south latitude. 

Campbell's Islands.] FLORA ANTARCTICA. 191 

Plate LXXVII. Fig. 1, favella in situ ; 2, the same removed with the involucre laid open ; 3, sphserospores : 
— magnified. 

82. CERAMIUM, Adams. 

1. Ceramium rabrum, var. y, secundatum, Agardh, Sp. AJg. p. 149. Cer. secundatum, Lgngb. Ilydr. 
Ban. t. 37. 

Var. f, tenue, Agardh, Sp. Alg. vol. ii. p. 119. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island ; both varieties abundant. 

2. Cerajiiuji diaphanum, Agardh, Sp. Alg. vol. ii. p. 150. 
Var. /3, AucMcmdiewm, proliferum, articuhs brevibus. 
Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; not common. 
Apparently a curious state of the C. diaphanum. 

3. Ceramium cancellatum, Agardh, Sp. Alg. vol. ii. p. 145. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; parasitic on other seaweeds, rare. 

Our specimen entirely agrees with others collected at the Cape of Good Hope, and with the description of Agardh ; 
it is doubtful, however, whether all may not be varieties of C. obsolelum, Ag., from which they differ mainly in the 
more branched and less virgate habit. One of our South African specimens is so repeatedly branched, as eminently to 
justify Agardh' s character, " ramis distichis multifidis quasi cancellatis ;" that from Lord Auckland's group is taller 
and the extreme divisions alone retain that character ; neither of these are more than four inches long ; we have, how- 
ever, much larger examples, in which it is wholly lost. The station of Agardh's C. cancellatum is dubious, and his 
comparison of it with a plant brought from the Cape of Good Hope by Gaudichaud, renders it very probable that the 
Southern Ocean is its place of growth. 

33. GEIFFITHSIA, Agardh. 

1. Griffithsia setacea, Ag.? vol. ii. p. 129. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group. 

Our young aud mutilated specimens of what we refer to G. setacea are not sufficient for a satisfactory determi- 
nation of the species. The articulations are rather narrower than in the European plant, but they do not otherwise 


1. Calithamnion gracile, Hook. fil. et Harv.; filo prirnario repente rarnoso, caulibus erectis laxe bi- 
tripinnatis, pinnis remotis valde «longatis, pinnulis brevibus alternis erecto-patentibus simplicibus v. apice 
ramulosis, articuhs primariis diametro 4-5-plo, secundariis sub 3-plo longioribus. 

Hab. Campbell's Island ; dredged up in four fathoms water. 

Fila 1-2 unc. longa, gracillima, e fibrillis repentibus ramosis orta, laxe irregulariter alterne rarius opposite pin- 
natim divisa. Spharospora sessiles, rninutas, sphasrica?. Favella ignotae. Articuli pellucicb. Color roseus. Substantia 

2. Calithamnion pectin atum, Mont.; " microscopicum, filo prirnario repente pinnis pinnulisque oppo- 

192 FLORA ANTARCTICA. {Auckland and 

sitis pntentibus, articulis cylindraceis diametro duplo longioribus aut Eequalibus, spha>rosporis axillaribus." 
Mont. Prodr. Phyc. Ant. p. 9. Toy. au Pole Slid, p. 90. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; creeping on other Alga. (Admiral If Urville.) 

3. Caltthamnion //'uium, Hook. fil. et Harv.; caulibus mgrescentibus intertextis, primariis robustis 
basi venosis continuis hirtis apice artieulatis, seciuidariis elongatis ramulis pinnatis quadrifariis densissime 
vestitis, piimulis simplicibus incurvis obtusis, articulis diametro sesqui-longioribus. (Tab. LXXVIII. Eg. II.) 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; parasitic on other seaweeds. 

Caules esespitosi, fibris intertextis basi comitati, 2-3 unc. longi, robusti, vage quadrifariam ramosi, per totam 
longitudincnx ramulis quadrifariis densissime velati. Rami cauli similes, longitudine vara; ramuli inferiores breves 
caulibus habitum liirtum funalemve impertiimt, superiores longiores et phmati evaduut ; secundarii (v. plumulse) 
pinnati, piuuis alternis erecto-patentibus elongatis obtusis incurvis, racliide flexuosa. Color atro- v. fusco-ruber. 
Spharospora sphserica?, solitaria?, latere interiore ramidi affixae, pusillae. Substantia rigidiuscula. — Chartfe adhferet. 

In liabit this approaches the C. tetricum, but after a careful comparison both with that and with C. Arbuscula, 
which it also resembles, we are convinced that it is distinct from either. The plumules are very different from those 
of the former species and larger than in the latter. It is not likely to be confounded with any other species. 

Plate LXXVIII. Fig. II — 1, a plant of the natural size; 2, branch; 3, ultimate pinnule; 4, portion of the 
same : — magnified. 

4. Calithamxiox mierojoterwm, Hook. fil. et Harv.; parvum, erectum, caule articulato parce ramoso, 
raniis distichis alternis circumscriptions obovatis obtusis bi-tripinnatis, pinnis alterne multifidis flexuosis, 
pinnulis erecto-patentibus obtusis, articulis caulis ramorumque diametro 2-3-plove longioribus, ramulorum 
diametro aquantibus, splioerosporis scssilibus solitariis cllipticis. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; parasitical on Ptilota formosimma. (Dr. Lyall.) 

Radix scutata. Caulis subsolitarius, 2-3 lin. longus, erectus, parce distiche et alterne divisus. Rami basi pinnis 
simplicibus ornati, superne bi-tripinnati, nunc pimndis alterne multifidis ut in C. tetragono. Ramuli alterui, inferiores 
simplices, superiores iterum divisi. Articuli pellucidi, rosei, venis destituti. SpJiarosporce minutfe, rainulis sparsa?, 
appressfe, ellipticfe, massam quadrifidam includentes. Color pidcherrime roseus. Substantia tenera. 

This does not belong to the parasitical section of the genus typified by C. Dariesii, but rather resembles some 
of the larger species, as C. tetragonum, to which, in the form of the joints, the disposition, shape and relative size of 
the sphasrospores, it is closely allied. 

35. CONFERVA, Agardh. 

1. Coxfeeva Pacificu, Mont., Prodr. Phijc. Antarct. p. 16. Toy. au Pole Sud, Bot. Crypt, p. 7. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; on rocks in the sea, very abundant. 

Ccespites 3-4 una longi, vage fimiculari-divisi, e filis graeilibus intricatis laete virentibus compositi. Fila ramo- 

sissima ; ramis inferioribus irregulariter ramosis, ramidos radicifomies hie illic emittentibus, superioribus vage ramosis 

dichotomis v. secundis, ramulis erectis, supremis appressis elongatis strictis. Articuli partis inferioris breves, cbametro 

2-3-plove longiores, superiores sensim elongati, ramtdonun supremorum longissinii. Color lfete viridis, nitens. 

Substantia membranacea. — Chartfe adlneret. 

This species is nearly related to the C. arc/a of Europe, to some varieties of which, especially that called 
C. centralis, it bears a very close resemblance. 

The C. virgata, Ag., is enumerated by Montague in his Flora of the ' Voy. au Pole Sud.' 

Campbell's Islands.] FLORA ANTARCTICA. 193 

2. Coxpekva verticittata, Hook. fil. et Harv.; csespitosa, filis gracillimis strictis parurn divisis, ramis 
lateralibus simplicissiinis longissimis erectis strictis oppositis ternis quateniisve, articulis fili primarii clia- 
metro multoties, ramorum quadruplo, longioribus pellucidis. 

Haw. Lord Auckland's group ; on rocks in tbe sea, very abundant. 

Fila tenuissima, 4 unc. longa, rigidula, simplicia v. parum divisa, erecta, stricta, ramis lateralibus ornata. Rami 
saepius terni quaternive, verticillati, rarius bini, rarissime alterui, longissimi, filo primario longiores, erecti, strictissimi, 
simplices, ramulis omnino destituti, apice sphacelati. Articuli fili primarii diametro 7-8-plo longiores, clavati, geni- 
culis nodosis, ramorum cylindracei diametro 3-4-plove longiores. Color siccitate luride viridis, opaca ; planta vivente 
pallida, subhyalina. — Chartse laxe adhseret. 

Very nearly allied to C. JlageUiformis, Sulir, a native of the Cape of Good Hope, agreeing with that plant in 
the remarkable ramification, but differing in the more slender habit, not being one half the diameter, and in having 
much larger articulations, especially on the main threads, which are singularly clavate with swollen joints, a character 
we do not observe in any states of C. JlageUiformis. It cannot be confounded with any other species of the genus. 

36. CODIUM, Stack. 

1. Codiuji tomentosum, Stack., Grev. Alg. Brit. p. 185. 1. 19. Hook. Br. Fl. vol. ii. p. 318. Mont. 
in Voy. an Pole Sud, Bot. Crypt, p. 35. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; very abundant. 

Equally abundant in the Antarctic as in the Northern Seas. Montague gives the C. adherens, Ag., as a native 

of this group. 

37. ULVA, L. 

1. Ulva latissima, Linn., Flor. Suec. no. 1159. Mont. Toy. au Bole Sud, Bot. Crypt, p. 33. 
Hab. Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island; most abundant. 
The U. reticulata, Forsk., is mentioned by Montague as a native of this group. 

38. POKPHYRA, Agarih. 

1. Porphyra capmsis, Kiitzing. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Islaud ; on rocks in the sea. 

This differs from the European P. vulgaris in the rigid texture of the frond, which is not always simple in the 
Cape of Good Hope specimens. The P. columbina, Mont., appears to be the same plant. 

39. SCHIZONEMA, Agardh. 

1. Schizoneiia crisjiitm, Mont.; " filis csespitosis viridibus crispatissimis apice penicillato-ramosis, 
ramis obtusis, cymbellis subparallelogrammis." Mont. Prodr. PJiyc. Antarct. p. 16. Voy. au Pole Sud, 
Bot. Crypt, p. 2. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; on the fronds of the smaller Alga. 

\\ e have observed what we take to be this species, together with an Aelinanthes and several other imperfect 
Diatomacea, upon Ptilota formosissima and some of the filamentous Alga, amongst which is probably the Acli- 
nanthes brevipes, Aa'. 

2 R 

194 FLORA ANTARCTICA. [Auckland and 


(By Dr. Thomas Taylor and J. D. Hooker.) 

1. USNEA, Ach. 

1. XJsREA.j>ticata, AcH.i 8yn. IAch. p. 305. Engl. Bot. t. 257. Sc&arer Inch. Helv. no. 401. 

Var. /3, /«>(!«, Ach. 1. c. Se/icerer, no. 399. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island ; both varieties, abundant. 

The variety /3, in Lord Auckland's group, is evidently the original plant, from which the U. hirta varies, and 
both are undoubtedly forms of U.florida ; the latter, in its ordinary fruiting state, does not attain a high northern or 
southern latitude, being replaced by the U. melaxantha, which almost reaches the limits of Antarctic vegetation. 
We have little hesitation in affirming (with the author of the British Flora) that not only all the English species 
of Usnea are different aspects of one plant ; but also that it is the only individual of the genus which we know to 
inhabit the temperate and warm parts of the globe. 

2. Usnea barbata, Ach., Spi. Lick. p. 306. 
Var. is, .mlphurea; palhde strarninea v. sulphurea. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island; the var. /3 only, but abundant. 

This differs from the European plant in no respect but its pale sulphur or lemon colour ; it is plentiful through- 
out Tasmania, Fuegia, and the Falkland Islands, and is decidedly a state of U. Idrta /3, hardly distinguishable from 
V. hirta itself, as the most casual observation in these islands will prove. It is often detached from its original place 
of growth, and, being carried by the winds over the barren Mis, is found in great abundance, sticking to low 
bushes and even to the rigid shrubby thallus of U. melaxantha, in Fuegia and the Falklands. Some of the slenderest 
states are with difficulty to be discriminated from the genus Cornicularia, the filaments being brittle and the central 
thread not very apparent. 

2. RAMALINA, Ach. 

1. Ramalina infiata, Hook. fil. et Tayl.; thallo hi cfespitem orbicularern congesto palhde flavo v. albido 
dichotome ramoso fistuloso turgido submembranaceo intus vacuo, lobis fistulosis intus stuppeis nunc fora- 
mhiulosis ultimis aeuniinatis, apothechs substipitatis concavis, disco concolore pruinoso, margine inflexo 
integerrimo. Cetraria inflata, nobis, in Hook. Loncl. Journ. of Bot. vol. iii. p. 646. (Tab. LXXIX. Fig. I.) 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; on rocks near the sea. 

Planta caasjiitosa, albida, siccitate rigidiuscula, madore flaccida, membranacea, pellucida, brunneo picta. Timlin* 
e basi subscutata ramosissima, 1-2-uncialis, cavus, iuflatus, paulo compressus ; ramis erectis, sub 3-4 lin. latis, fistu- 
losis, sublacunosis, raro pertusis, intus vacuis v. parce stuppeis, extus lsevibus, ramulis alternis angustatis. Apothecia 
lateralia v. temiinalia, oblique inserta, stipite brevi ; disco planiusculo, sub 3 lin. lato, concolori v. fusco-pruinoso ; 

* In arranging these species of a most variable Order of plants, the Synopsis of Acharius is followed, because it 
appears to us the more natural. That the precise plant referred to, under his name, may be the better understood, 
we have cited two works, which seem particidarly worthy of attention, from the discrimination which the authors 
have shewn in selecting a variety of forms ; these are the ' Lichenes Helvetica? 'of M. Schaerer, and the ' Stirpes 
Cryptogamicae Voges. Khenan.' of Mougeot and Xestler. 

Campbell's Islands.'] FLORA ANTARCTICA. 195 

exeipulo thallode crassiusculo ; margine integerrirno, primum inflexo ; sporis 4-8 in quoque asco, oblongis, utrinque 
obtusis, linea transversa medio notatis. 

Mr. Chuxchill Babington has pointed out to us the affinity of this species with the R.pusdla, Prev. (Fries, Lieh. 
Eur. p. 29), a native of the Isles Hyeres in the Mediterranean Sea. Of this plant we possess no specimens, and 
from the description the only points of difference seem to lie in the greater size of the present, which has the apo- 
thecia more separated from the thallus and are plane instead of concave. It is also a native of Tasmania. 

The R. geniculate, nob. (in Loud. Jouni. of Bot.), is allied to the present species in its fistulose thallus, but is 
much smaller and very differently branched. A third congener, or perhaps the true R. pusilla, is a native of Tas- 
mania. The other species inhabiting the southern regions, are R. ovata, verrucosa, and terebrata, all allied to, and 
perhaps varieties of, R. seopulorum itself, in many cases almost undistinguishable from R.fraxinea and fa-stigiata. 

Plate LXXIX. Fig. 1, a specimen of the natural size ; 2, an older state of the same ; 3, portion of ramulus and 
apothecium; 4, section of apotheeiuni ; 5, portion of lamina proligera ; 6, ascus ; 7, spores: — more or less magnified. 


1. Sph.erophorok tenerum, Laurer, in Linnaa, vol. ii. p. 45. t. 1. f. 4. S. australe, noils, in Hook. 
Loud. Joi/rn. of Bot. vol. iii. p. 654. 

Var. /3, curium ; S. curtum, nobis, in Lond. Joum. of Bot. vol. iii. p. 654. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island ; on the ground in turfy places ; /S, in more ele- 
vated situations. 

Laurer's description of this species is very characteristic, though drawn up from a small state of the plant, the 
apothecia not being always small, but sometimes even a line in diameter, they terminate in nearly erect, stout, solid, 
naked, terete branches, are hemispherical, broader than the branch winch bears them ; in the adult state margined 
only with the remains of a thallodal border, which afterwards falls away entirely. This is the decisive mark between 
all forms of S. tenerum and S. corallinum, for the colour varies from a rich brown to white and pink. It is an abun- 
dant Australian and Fuegian species. 

2. Sph^erophoron australe, Laurer, in Linnaa, vol. ii. p. 44. S. insigne, Laurer, 1. c. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group. 

I am indebted to Mr. Churchill Babington for an authentic specimen of this beautiful species. Irr the normal 
state it differs widely from S. compression, the whole frond being plane, branched in a palmate manner, repeatedly 
and dichotomously divided, with all the divisions divaricating and spread out like a fan, slightly convex above, there 
smooth but hardly shining, pale olive-green or yellowish ; underneath, it is plane or slightly convex, more rugose 
and white ; the ramuli of the oldest states are often transversely cracked or articulate ; others again, and especially 
the Tasmanian specimens, are membranaceous and buff-coloured, wholly unlike any other aspect hitherto observed 
in the genus. In alpine specimens, growing with Leptostomum inclination, which bear fruit abundantly, the apothecia 
are large, covered with a thin, buff-coloured membrane, fixed wholly to the underside of the frond, which appears 
prostrate and branched beyond it. From Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island we have several varieties 
of this plant; 1. The thallus quite plane, repeatedly dichotomously branched, grey above, white beneath, powdered 
with minute black soredia (or abortive apothecia), the apothecia rare, small, nearly terminal on the under surface of 
the frond. 2. Thallus short, pale yellow, densely tufted, with the ultimate branches broader and truncate ; always 
barren. 3. Thallus short, less divided especially below, white, pale greenish-yellow or pink ; ultimate branches 
very short, thin, their apices everywhere tipped with abortive apothecia. 4. Branches few, broader, stouter ; apo- 
thecia large. This is the ordinary fruiting state of the plant in these islands, and some specimens cannot be distin- 

196 FLORA ANTARCTICA. [Auckland and 

guished from the figure in English Botany of S. fragile (t. 114.), S. compressum, Ach., whence it comes to be a 
doubt whether if we consider this, the fruiting, as the ordinary state of the plant, all should not merge into S. com- 
pressum, itself a variety of S. corallinum ; against which it may be urged that the membranous Tasmanian specimens 
also produce fructification abundantly. 

3. SphyEROPhoron comjore-ssmn, Ach., Syn. Licit, p. 2S7. Lichen fragilis, Bag. Bot. t. 114. 
Hab. Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island ; on the trunks of trees. 
Under 8. auatrale, Laur., we have stated our impression that this is a state of that plant. 


1. Stereocaulon ramulo.wiii, Ach., Syn. Lich. p. 284. A. Rich. Flor. Nov. Zel. p. 34. t. 9. f. 3. S. 
inacrocarpum, A. Bich. 1. c. t. 9. f. 4. Lichen Salazinus, Bory, Voy. vol. iii. p. 10G. t. 1G. f. 3. (Tab. 
LXXX. Kg. 1.) 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island ; particularly abundant in the latter locality. 

Our specimens of this plant are truly magnificent, and this has induced us to add a figure, shewing the globose 
appendices (abortive apothecia) which are not represented in the works quoted above. Small specimens of this species, 
both from New Zealand, Tasmania and the group now under consideration, so much resemble the S.paschale, as to 
be with difficulty discriminated from it, whence we suspect the present plant may prove a remarkably luxuriant 
state of that, for it is abundant throughout many warm latitudes, to the exclusion of the S.paschale, which reappears 
in the higher latitudes of Cape Horn and Kerguelen's Land. 

Plate LXXX. Fig. I. — 1, vertical section of an apothecium; 2, portion of lamina proligera : — both magnified. 

2. Stereocaulon Argus, Hook. fil. et Tayl.; thallo erecto tereti-cylindraceo v. subcompresso fastigiatim 
ramoso albo-cinerascente, gemmis granulatis ramosis, ramulis appendicibus globosis plerumque terminatis, 
apotheciis terminalibus, excipulo thallode crasso extus rugoso, margine primum inllexo, disco brunneo con- 
cavo demum reflexo. (Tab. LXXIX. Kg. II.) 

Hab. Campbell's Island; rocks on the mountains, abundant. 

Thallns validus, 2-3 unc. altus, primum strictus, erectus, demum curvatus, elongatus. Apothecia magnitudine 
varia, semper margine thallode crasso immersa; excipuli marginibus retate per reflexionem marginis apothecii 
omnino oeclusis ; ascis oblongo-lanceolatis, granulis angidatis repletis, filamentis raris dilatatis transverse septatis 

A very distinct plant, well characterized by the thick cup into which its plane apothecia are immersed, the 
latter in age become much broader, their margins roll back carrying the border of the excipulus inwards, when it 
requires a longitudinal section to shew the true nature of the apothecium. 

Plate LXXIX. Fig. II. — 1, a specimen in the ordinary state ; 2, the same much older, both of the natural 
size ; 3, section of young apothecium ; 4, section of ripe ditto ; 5, the same when old ; 6, portion of lamina proligera ; 
7, septate filament ; 8, asci : — all more or less magnified. 

5. OENOMYCE, Ach. 

1. CjENOMyce rangiferina, Ach., Syn. Lich. p. 277. Engl. Bot. 1. 173. 
Hab. Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island ; on the ground. 

Campbell's Islands.] FLORA ANTARCTICA. 197 

2. C.EXoin'CE aggregata, Ach., Syn, Licit, p. 275. C. terebrata, Laitrer, in Linnaa, vol. ii. p. 43. (fid. 
eel. Montague.) Dufourea collodes, nobis, in Lond. Journ. Bot. vol. iii. p. 650. (Tab. LXXX. Kg. II.) 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island; on the ground, abundant. 

One of the most widely diffused species throughout the Southern Hemisphere ; though variable, its limits are 
well defined. Its nearest ally is the beautiful C. retijjora, Lab. 

Plate LXXX. Fig. II. — 1, a specimen in the ordinary state, natural size; 2, portion of the same, magnified; 
3, large, and 4, small variety, natural size ; 5, apothecium, magnified. 

3. C/EXOHYCE ecmocyna, var. gracilis, Ach. Syn. Licit, p. 2G1. Engl. Bot. t. 12S4. Scharer, Licit. 
Helv. vol. lxv. C. sarmentosa, nobis, in Lond. Journ. Bot. vol. iii. p. 651. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; on dry ground on the hills. 

4. GMNOKYCEjpyzidata, Ach., Syn, Licit, p. 252. Engl. Bot. t. 1393. Scltcerer, no. 68. 

Var. rigitla ; olivaceo-cinerea tota gemniis granulatis tecta, t hallo foliaceo, podetiis brevibus inflatis 
rigidis scaberrirnis. C. rigida, nobis, in Lond. Journ. of Bot. p. 652. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; in the woods j p, on dry turfy soil. 

5. Cenosiyce uncialis, Ach., Syn. Licit, p. 276. Engl. Bot. 1. 174. 
Hab. Lord Auckland's group. [Admiral If Urville.) 

6. PELTEDEA, Ach. 

1, Peltidea polydactyla, Ach., Syn. Licit, p. 240. Mougeot el Nestler, n. 633. 
Hab. Campbell's Island ; on the ground, abundant. 

7. STICTA, Ach. 

1. Sticta orygmma, Ach., Syn. Licit, p. 233. Montague in Toy. auPole Slid, Bot. Crypt, t. 15. f. 1. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island ; on the branches of slirubs, very abundant. 

Acharius cites " Stateu Land " as the habitat of this species ; we have never seen specimens from the American 
Continent (the Cape Horn station epioted in the ' Lond. Journ. of Bot.' being erroneous), whence it is possible that 
the author may refer to another plant ; we have, however, followed our friend Montague, who gives this name to 
his beautiful plate of our plant. 

2. Sticta foveolata, Delise, Monogr. de Sticta, p. 101. t. 8. f. 36. Mont, in Toy. au Pole Sud, Bot. 
Crypt, ined. S. linearis, nobis [in part), Lond. Journ. of Bot. vol. iii. p. 647. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; on the trunks of trees. 

Except in being of a rather larger size, this does not differ from a copious suite of specimens which we have 
examined from Tasmania. The apotheeia are variable, generally with the disk flat, but sometimes concave, and in 
these specimens very much so. In both this and the 8. Billardieri, which seems hardly distinct from it, the border 
of the apotheeia is often evanescent. 

2 s 

198 FLORA ANTAECTICA. {Auckland and 

8. Sticta Freijcinetii, Delise; thallo flavo-cinnamomeo rariusve olivaceo nudo glabro laevi piano v. eon- 
cavo rim is albidis, subtus nudo v. velutino atro v. luride brunneo, lobis linearibus concavis divaricatim ramosis, 
marginibus undulatis crenatis v. sinuato-lobatis glaberrimis v. sorediatis, cyphellis albidis, apotlieciis sparsis 
plerisque marginalibus breviter stipitatis concavis extus villosis puberulisve, disco piano rufo-fusco demum 
valde concavo, margine fimbriato crenato setate involuto. — S. Freycinetii, Delise, Monogr. de Sticta, p. 124. 
1. 1-1. f. 45. S. glabra, nobis, inLond. Journ. of Bot. vol. iii. p. 647. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island ; on the trunks of trees and on rocks in moun- 
tainous places, very abundant. 

Au exceedingly variable plant, of which we have added a character, that of Delise being imperfect. The most 
obvious specific distinction lies in the pubescent apothecia with fimbriated margins to the cups, to which may be 
added, the pale colour, and the wrinkled margins of the lobes, which are sometimes extremely concave. In alpine 
specimens the thallus is often quite smooth underneath, with the margins singularly crumpled. The colour varies, 
underneath it is of all shades, from black to a dirty yellow. Cape Horn and Falkland Island specimens are more 
plane, with the lobes and apothecia larger. 

4. Sticta cellulifera, Hook. fil. et Tayl.; thallo stellatim expanso subdichotome ramoso fusco v. flavo 
olivaceo saepe virescente glabro profunde reticulatim lacunoso rimis albidis, subtus fuliginoso tomentoso api- 
cibus loboriun flavescentibus, lobis ktiusculis rotundatis angulatisve subacutis obtusis retusisve, cyphellis 
parvis flavis, apotlieciis plurimis plerisque marginalibus, disco atro piano demum concavo, marginibus integris 
crenulatisve inflexis. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island ; on the trunks and branches of trees, abundant, 
also on the mountain rocks. 

We know of no single character by which this form, which is as variable as any of its congeners, may be recog- 
nized. In its normal state the whole frond is fully a span across, all parts of it rugose with deep lacunae ; specimens 
from the woods are of a lax habit, with lobes an inch broad, of a pale brown or yellow beneath ; those from the 
mountains, again, are deep olive green and almost black beneath, with the lobes short and round, and the cyphellae 
of a bright yellow. In many respects it is very closely aUied to the S. carpoloma, Debse, which, according to Mon- 
tagne (whose authentically named collection of Sticta is the completest I have seen), has the apothecia invariably mar- 
ginal. The present plant includes in part both S. impressa and S. cellulifera, of the ' London Journal of Botany.' 

5. Sticta Menziesii, Hook. fil. et Tayl.; thallo stipitato valde coriaceo obovato-cuneato ecostato flavo- 
fusco subtus brunneo, laciniis plamusculis lobatis retusis supra glaberrimis lsevibus subtus puberulis, cyphellis 
immersis luteis marginibus elevatis, apotlieciis sparsis atro-fuscis, disco piano demum concavo, marginibus 
tenuiter inflexis. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; on the trunks of old trees. 

Discovered by Mr. Menzies in Dusky Bay, New Zealand. Very distinct from S.filiciiia, of Acharius, in the 
ecostate frond, very thick texture, and dark coloured apothecia. Mr. Menzies' specimens have rather broader lobes, 
but do not otherwise differ from those gathered in Lord Auckland's group. The S. httifrons, A. Rich., is also eostate, 
and of a different colour, with small pale yellow-red apothecia. The present is in New Zealand probably confined 
to the southern extremity. 

6. Sticta RicJiardi, Mont., Dole Sud, ined. S. carpoloma, A. Richard, JFlor.Nbv.Zel.Tp.SQ.t. 9.f. 1. 
Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; on the trunks of trees. 

Campbell's Islands] FLORA ANTARCTICA. 199 

Dr. Montague distinguishes this from the 8. carpoloma, Delise, by its having the apothecia on the surface, as 
well as on the margins of the frond, and by its different under surface. Our specimens are in a rather imperfeet 

The S. variabilis, Ach., is also enumerated by Montague as a native of Lord Auckland's group. 

8. PARHELIA, Ach. 

1. Parhelia rubig'mosa, Ach., Syn. Lick. p. 202. Lichen affinis, Engl. Bot. t. 983. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island ; on the bark of living trees, also on the ground 
on the lulls. 

A most variable plant and a very abundant one in New Zealand and Tasmania ; on the hills the thallus is re- 
duced to a few imbricating scales, as in Squamaria, and the apothecia are strangely contorted and closed, having the 
border closely indexed ; iu this state we are inclined to suspect that it passes into the Lecanora Hypnorum of these 

2. Parhelia sphinctrina, Mont, in Toy. au Pole Sucl, Bot. Crypt. 1. 15. f. 3. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; on the bark of trees. 

This, judging from our copious suites of Tasmanian and New Holland specimens, is hardly distinct from P. ru- 
biffinosa. Montagne's figure of it is excellent. 

9. LECANORA, Ach, 

1. Lecanora Hypnorum, Ach., Syu. Lich. p. 193. 

Hab. Campbell's Island ; upon tufts of Andreaa and other mosses. 

The upright mode of growth and slender lacinias of the thallus, distinguish the present from its allies ; the spe- 
cimens are of a dusky yellow colour. 

2. Lecanora versicolor, Hook. fil. et Tayl. ;" substrato adnato tenui atro, thalli squamuhs subrotundis 
planis crenulatis albidis demum flavis confertis bevibus, apotheciis majusculis sessihbus coneavis, disco 
nigro-pruinoso, margine integerrimo subincurvo. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; on bark. 

Caspites 1 unc. latae, nigro-limitatae, substrato continuae, fuscae v. pallide virescentes. Apothecia squamis ma- 
jors, disco nigro-pruinoso, margine thallode crassiusculo. 

Allied to the L. varia, but marked by the scattered apothecia, dark discs and smooth thallodal border. 

3. Lecanora tartarea, Ach v Syn. Lich. p. 172. Engl. Bot. 1. 156 et 1634. 
Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; on the ground. 

Specimens, apparently of this plant, are iu a very imperfect state, 

4. Lecanora Parella, Ach., Syn. Lich. p. 169. Engl. Bot. t. 727. 
Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; on the lulls. 

Also in a very rudimentary state. 


10. LECIDEA, Ach. 

1. Lecidea geomcea, Taylor, m Flor. Hibem. p. 124. L. uliginosa, var. y, Ach. Syu. LicJi. p. 25. 
Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; on the ground. 

2. Lecidea incana, Hook., Br. Fl. vol. ii. p. 181. Lichen incanus, Engl. Bot. t. 1683. Biatora pa- 
chycarpa, Fries, Lich. Euro]}, p. 259. 

Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; on the ground. 

Mi'. Churchill Babington informs us, that he has proved the L. incana to be merely a deliquescent state of 
Fries's Biatora pachycarpa. 

11. PORINA, Ach. 

1. Poeixa granula ta, Hook. fil. et Tayl. ; thallo tartare'o grauulato albido, granulis subrotundis rugosis 
confertis fertilibus majoribus, poris 1-5 pertusis, nucleis pellucidis pallide lutescentibus. 
Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; bare ground on the hills. 

This plant grows mixed with young states of Lecanora Parella, from which it is with difficulty distinguished, 
it forms large pure white or pinkish patches, sometimes several inches in breadth, very convex, and often raised 
above the soil ; the apothecia are hemispherical, with a broad depression, in the centre of which again is often a co- 
nical mamilla ; there appear to be no spores in the apothecia, and the plant may be merely a rudimentary form of 
some more highly organized lichen. It is also abundant at Cape Horn and in the Falkland Islands. 


]. Theloteema /epadinum, Ach., Sj/n. Lich. p. 115. Lichen inclusus, Engl. Bot. t. 678. 
Hab. Lord Auckland's group ; on the bark of trees, abundant. 

13. OPEGRAPHA, Ach. 

1. Opegeapha atra, Pers. ; O. denigrata, Ach. Engl. Bot. t. 1753. 
Hab. Campbell's Island ; on the bark of Bracophyllum scoparium 








Acena adscendens, Yahl 10 

Sanguisorbas, Vahl 9 

Achnanthes brevipes, Ag 193 

Acianthus rivularis, A. Ciiim 71 

Adenocystis Lessoni, Harv. Tab.LXIX. 

Fig. II 179 

Agalmauthus nmbellatiis, Hombr. et Jacq 19 

Agaricus pyxidatus, Bull 169 

subliepaticus, Batsck ib. 

Aglaopligllum punctatum, Mont 185 

Agrostis Aucklandica, Hook.Jil 96 

foliata, Hook.Jil 95 

leptostachys, Hook.Jil 94 

multieaulis, Hook.Jil 95 

subulata, Hook.Jil. Tab. Ill ib. 

Alsine media, L 8 

Ancistrum anserinafolium, Forst 9 

decumbens, Gsert ib. 

diandrum, Forst ib. 

humile, Pers 10 

Sangnisorbce, Linn, fil 9 

Andreaea acutifolia, Hook.Jil. et Wils 118 

mutabilis, Hook. fil. et Wils. Tab. LVII. 

Fig. II 119 

nitida, Wils. Tab. LVII. Fig. III. 118 

subulata, Harv. Tab. LVII. Fig. 1 119 

Androstoma empetrifolia, Hook.Jil. Tab. XXX. .. 44 

Anisotome antipoda, Tab". IX.-X 17 

latifolia, Hook.Jil. Tab. VIII 16 

Ansectangiuni Huniboldti, Brid 135 

Antennaria scoriadea, Berk. Tab. LXVII. Fig. III. 175 

Anthoceros punctatus, L.? 168 

Aralia polaris, Hombr. et Jacq 19 

Ardisiajrondosa, a, 0, Banks et Sol 49 


Asperococcus Lessoni, Bory 179 

echinatus, Grev 180 

rugosus, Lam ib. 

Aspidium venusturn, Hombr. et Jacq 106 

Waikareme, Colens., MS ib. 

Aspleniuni apicidentatum, Hombr. et Jacq 108 

cliondroplujllum, Bert 106 

flaccidum, Forst 109 

obliqunm, Forst 10S 

obtusatum, Forst ib. 

scleroprium, Hombr. et Jacq 109 

Astelia linearis, Hook.Jil 76 

Aster coriaceus, Forst 36 

yracilvutus, Banks et Sol 35 

holosericens, Forst 36 

Asterome dilatatum, Berk. Tab. LXVIII. Fig.VII. 173 

Avetta p/dceoides, D'Urv 97 

Ay lograpmimBrorni, .&>•£. Tab. LXVIII. Fig.XI. 174 

Ballia Brunonis, Harv 190 

Callitricha, Mont ib. 

Hombroniana, Mont ib. 

Bartramia patens, Brid. 133 

pendula, Hook ib. 

robusta, Hook. fil. et Wils. Tab. LIX. Fig. IV. ib. 

sqxarrosa, Turn ib. 

Biatora pachgcarpa, Fries 199 

Blecluium procerum, Sw 110 

Bronius Antarcticus, Hook.Jil. Tab. LTV 97 

Bryum annulatum, Hook.Jil. et Wils. Tab. LX. 

Fig. II 134 

blandum, Hook.Jil. et Wils. Tab. LX. Fig. I. ib. 

nutans, Schreb 134 

truncorum, Brid. 134 

Wahlenbergii, Schicagr ib. 




Bulliarda moschata, D'Urv 15 

Magellanica, D.C ib. 

Caladenia sp. ? 70 

Calithamnion gracile, Hook.fil. et Harv T91 

hirturn, Hook.fil. et Harv. Tab. LXXYIII. 

Fig. II 192 

microptermri, Hook.fil. el Harv ib. 

pectinatum, Mont 191 

Calbtriebe verna, D.C 11 

Campylopus flexuosus, Brid 130 

iiitroflexus, Brid. ib. 

Cardamine coryrnbosa, Hook.fil 6 

depressa, Hook.fil ib. 

liirsuta, L 5 

stellata, Hook.fil. Tab. IV. a 7 

Carex appressa, Br 90 

aristata, D'Urv 89 

geminaia, Schk ib. 

incrassata, Banks et Sol ib. 

ternaria, Font ib. 

trifida, Cav ib. 

Catabrosa Antarctica, Hook.fil. Tab. LYI 102 

Catharinea Magellanica, Brid 132 

Ceknisia astelisefolia, Hook.fil 35 

coriacea, Hook.fil 36 

gracilenta, Hook.fil 35 

graminifolia, Hook.fil ib. 

holosericea, Hook.fil 36 

longifolia, Cass 35 

spathulata, A. Cunn ib. 

spcctabilis, Hook.fil ib. 

vernicosa, Hook.fil. Tab. XXVI.-XXVII. . 84 

Genomyce aggregata, Acli. Tab. LXXVI. Fig. II. 196 

ecmocyna, var., Ach ib. 

pyxidata, Ach 197 

rangiferina, Ach 196 

sarmentosa, Hook. fil. et Tayl ib. 

terebraia, Laurer ib. 

uneialis, Acli 197 

Ceramium cancellation, Agardh 191 

diaphamim, Agardh ib. 

rubrum, y.'Ag ib. 

secundaiiim, Lyngb ib. 


Ceratella rosvdata, Hook.fil. Tab. XYIII 25 

Ceratodon pivrpureus, Brid 131 

Cheilanthes viscosa, Carm 110 

fragilis, Carm ib. 

Cheiloglottis comuta, Hook.fil 69 

Cheiloscijphus coal it us, Gottsche 157 

fissistipus, Gottsche ib. 

sinuosus, Gottsche ib. 

Chondrodicti/on Capense, Kiitz 188 

Chondrus tuberculosus, Hook.fil. et Harv 188 

Chorda lomentaria, Lyngb 179 

riniosa, Mont ib. 

Chordaria nagelliformis, Ag 180 

Chrysobactron Bossii, Hook.fil. Tab.XLIY.-XLV. 72 

Cladosporium Herbaram, Link 170 

Colobanthus Benthatnianus, Fenzl, MS 13 

Billardieri, Fenzl 14 

muscoides, Hook.fil ib. 

subulatus, Hook.fil 13 

Conferva Paeiiica, Mont 192 

verticillata, Llook.fil. et Harv 193 

Conostomum nustrale, Sw 132 

Coprosma affinis, Hook.fil. Tab. XIV 21 

ciliata, Hook.fil 22 

cuneata, Hook.fil. Tab. XV 21 

fffitidissinia, Worst. Tab. XIII 20 

myrtillifolia, Hook.fil 21 

repens, Hook.fil. Tab. XVI 22 

Crassida moschata, Forst 15 

Ci/uthoplionim jieiiiiatitiii, Brid 143 

Delesscria crassinervis, Mont 184 

dichotoma, Hook.fil. et Harv. Tab. LX. . . ib. 

Desmarestia viridis, Lam 178 

Bichlora viridis, Grev ib. 

Dicranum Billardieri, Sc/nc 129 

fiexuosum, Hedw 130 

introflexmn, Hedw 130 

Menziesii, Tayl. Tab. LVIII. Fig. IV 128 

pungens, Hook. fil. et TFils. Tab. LIX. 

Fig. 1 129 

purpurea Hi, Hedw 131 

setosnm, Hook. fil. et ll'ih. Tab. LXYIII. 

Fig.V 129 




Dictyosiphon ? fasciculatus, Hook. fil. et Hare. 

Tab. LXXIX. Fig. 1 178 

Didymodon purpureas, Hook, et Tayl 131 

Dothidea circumscripta,^^. TAB.LXVIII.Fig. VI. 172 

bullata, Berk ib. 

hemisphaerica, Berk. Tab. LXVII. Fig. II. . ib. 

Spilomsea, Berk. Tab. LXVII. Fig. 1 173 

Dracophyllum affine, Hook.Jil 48 

attemmtum, A. Cumi. MS 49 

latifolium, A. Cunn 48 

Lessonianum, A. Rick 49 

longifolium, Br. Tab. XXXI. Fig. II 45 

recurvum, Hook.Jil 50 

robustum, Hook.Jil 49 

rosmarinifolium, Br 50 

scoparium, Hook. Ji 7. Tab. XXXIII 46 

secundum, Br 47 

squarrosum, Hook.Jil 48 

strictum, Hook.Jil ib. 

subulatum, Hook.Jil ib. 

verticillatum, Lab ib. 

Urvilleanum, A. Rick 49 

Drosera sp. ? 8 

Dryptodon crispulus, Hook.Jil. el Wils. Tab. LVII. 

Fig. IX 124 

Dufourea collodes, Hook. fil. et Tayl 196 

Dumontia comuta, Hook.Jil. et Grev 189 

nliformis, Grev ib. 

D'Urvillea utllis, Bory 176 

Epacris longifolia, Banks and Sol 48 

longifolia, Forst 45 

rosmarinifolia, Forst 50 

Epilobium confertifolium, Hook.Jil 7 10 

linnseoides, Hook.Jil. Tab. VI ib. 

nerterioides, A. Cunn 11 

Festuca foliosa, Hook.Jil. Tab. LV 99 

scoparia, Hook. fil 98 

Forstera clavigera, Hook.Jil. Tab. XXVIII 38 

Frullania ptycJtantha, Mont 163 

scandem, Mont 165 

Fitcns Antarelicus, Cham 176 

bracteatus, Gmel 188 

flagelliformu, Turn 180 


Fu-cus gladiatus, Lab 177 

Badula, Hb. Banks 188 

viridis, Fl. Dan 178 

Funaria hygrometrica, Hedw 135 

Gaimardia ciliata, Hook.Jil 85 

pallida, Hook.Jil 86 

Gentiana cerina, Hook.Jil. Tab. XXXVI 54 

concinna, Hook. fil. Tab. XXXV 53 

Geranium microphyllum, Hook.Jil. Tab. V 8 

Gigartina divaricata, Hook.Jil. et Harv 187 

Gnaplialium sp. ? 37 

Gottschea ciU'ujera, Hook, et Tayl 147 

Hombroniana, Mont 146 

Grammitis australis, Br Ill 

Billardieri, Willd ib. 

heteropkylla, Lab ib. 

humiUs, Hombr. et Jacq ib. 

riffiila, Hombr. et Jacq ib. 

Grateloupia ? Aucklandica, Mont 187 

Grimthsia setacea, At/. ? 191 

Gymnodomurn gractte, Hook 122 

Halymenia latissima, Hook.Jil. et Han. 

Tab. LXXIII 189 

filiforiiiis, Agardli ib. 

Iledwigia Hiiiuboldtii, Hook 135 

Heliclirysum prostratum, Hook.Jil. Tab. XXXI... 30 
Hendersonia microsticta, Berk. Tab. LXVIII. 

Fig. I.. 170 

Herpeiium involutum, Mont 159 

Hierochloe Banksiana, Endl 92 

Brunonis, Hook.Jil. Tab. LII 93 

redolens, Br 92 

Holcus redolens, Sol ib. 

Holomitrmm. perickmtiale , Brid 128 

Hookeria denticulata, Hook. fil. et Wils. 

Tab. LXII. Fig. II 143 

nervosa, Hook.Jil. et Wils. Tab. LXI. Fig.V. 142 

pennata, Sin. Tab. LXII. Fig. Ill 143 

\n\\che]ia,Hook.fil.etWils. Tab. LXII. Fig. I. 142 

Hygropila dilatata, Hook.Jil. et Tayl 168 

Hymenophyllum demissum, Sw 104 

nabellatum, Lab 105 

minimum, A. Rick 1 03 




Hymenophyllum midtifidum, Sio 104 

nitens, Br 105 

rarum, Br ib. 

semibivalve, Hook, et Grev ib. 

Hypnea multicoruis, Mont 187 

Hypuum aciculare, Brid 140 

acutifoUum.-ffooA./J.d/P&.TAB.LX.Fig.V. 138 

Arbuscula, Sio 139 

bifarium, Hook 137 

cHainydophyllum, Hook.fil. et Wils. 

Tab. LXI. Fig. 1 139 

cochlearifolium, Scfuo ib. 

comosum, Lab 140 

consimile, Hook.fil. et Wils. Tab . LX. Fig. IV. 137 

cupressiforrne, L 141 

densum, Sio 137 

elongatum, Hook.fil. et Wils. Tab. LX. 

Fig. Ill ib. 

-* filicinum, L 141 

flexile, Hook 139 

? fiexile, Sw ib. 

fluitans, L 141 

gracile, Hook.fil. et Wils. Tab. LXI. Fig. III. ib. 

hhiM\\m,Hookfil.etWils. Tab. LXI. Fig.II. 140 

leptorhynclium, Brief 141 

rutabulum, L 138 

scabrifolium, Hook.fil. et Wils. Tab. LX. 

Fig. VI ib. 

serpens, L ib. 

spiniforme, L 137 

Tense Novse, Brid. Tab. LXI. Fig. IT. . . . 142 

Hypojjterygium concinnum, Brid 136 

tamariscinum, Brid ib. 

Hysterium breve, Berk. Tab. LXVIII. Fig. VIII. 174 

Iridfea Radula, Bory 188 

hobolns Ounninghami ? Alph. D.C 42 

Isolepis Aucklandica, Hook.fil. Tab. L 88 

Isothecium Arbuscula, Brid 140 

bifarium, Brid 137 

comosum, Brid 140 

Jaiiia Hombroniana, Mont 184 

Juncus Antarcticus, Hook.fil. Tab. XLVI 79 

inconspicuus, D'Urv *. 80 


Juncus Magellanicus, Lam 81 

Scheuchzerioides, Gaudich 79 

Jungermannia acinaeifolia, Hook.fil. et Tayl. 

Tab. LXII. Fig. V 144 

albovirens, Hook.fil. et Tayl. Tab. LXVI. 

Fig. IT 166 

albula, Hook.fil. et Tayl. Tab. LXV. Fig. VI. 159 

allodouta, Hook.fil. et Tayl 155 

allophylla, Hook.fil. et Tayl. Tab. LXVI. 

Fig. 1 163 

Aquilegia, Hook. fil. et Tayl 161 

argentea, Hook. fil. et Tayl. Tab. LXVI. 

Fig. VI 167 

ateiiima, Hook. fil. et Tayl. Tab. LXVI. 

Fig. Ill 164 

atrovirens, Hook.fil. et Tevyl 161 

australis, Hook.fil. et Tayl. Tab. LXV. 

Fig. Ill 156 

Balfouriana, Tayl 147 

Billardieri, Scliweeg 156 

— — bispinosa, Hook.fil. et Tayl. Tab. LXIT. 

Fig. VII 153 

ciicinalis, Lehm 148 

clavigera, Hook 163 

coalita, Hook 157 

cognata, Hook. fil. et Tayl. Tab. LVIII. 

Fig. Ill 148 

colorata, Lehm 149 

congesta, Hook.fil. et Tayl 164 

eoraplanata, L 161 

complanata, p, Hook ib. 

cymbalifera, Hook.fil. et Tayl. Tab. LXIV. 

Fig. V 151 

diplopliyUa, Hook.fil. et Tayl. Tab. LXIV. 

Fig. IV 152 

dispar, Mont 158 

elegantula, Mont 162 

fascicidata, Lind 147 

fissistipa, Hook. fil. et Tayl 157 

flabeUata, Lab 167 

furcata, L ib. 

fuscella, Hook. fil. et Tayl. Tab. LXIII. 

Fig. V 149 




Jungerniannia grisea, Hook. fit. et Tayl. Tab.LXIV. 

Fig. VIII 154 

hemicardia, Hook.fil. et Tayl. Tab. LXIII. 

Fig. II 148 

Mppurioides, Hook.fil. et Tayl, Tab. LXV. 

Fig. VII 159 

hirsuta, Nees 160 

knplexieaulis, Hook.fil. et Tayl 165 

incisa, Hook 167 

mtortifolia, Hook.fil. et Tayl. Tab. LXIV. 

Fig. 1 150 

iiivoluta, Mont 159 

laevifolia, Hook.fil. et Tayl 157 

latitans, Hook.fil. et Tayl 166 

Lehmanniana, Lind 146 

lenta, Hook.fil. et Tayl 153 

leucophylla, Hook.fil. et Tayl. Tab. LXV. 

Fig. IV 157 

Magellanica, Lam 162 

Mimosa, Hook.fil. et Tayl 165 

mimita, Crcmtz 152 

moUissima, Hook.fil. et Tayl 160 

rmdticuspidata, Hook.fil. et Tayl 150 

multifida, L 167 

multipenna, Hook.fil. et Tayl 155 

myosota, Hook. fil. et Tayl 163 

notophylla, Hook.fil. et Tayl. Tab. LXIV. 

Fig. Ill 151 

Novse-Hollandia?, Nees 159 

nutans, Hook. fil. et Tayl. Tab. LXV. 

Fig. VIII 160 

ocdusa.Hookfil.etTayl.TAB.LXll.'Fig.Yin. 146 

ochrophylla, Hook.fil, et Tayl. Tab. LXII. 

Fig. VI 145 

pachyphylla, Lehm 147 

patentissima, Hook.fil. et Tayl, Tab. LXV. 

Fig.V 158 

perigonialis, Hook.fil. et Tayl. Tab. LXII. 

Fig. VII 145 

perpusilla, Hook.fil. et Tayl. Tab. LXIV. 

Fig. IX 154 

PhyUanthus, Hook 167 

— ■ — physoloba, Mont 161 

Jungermaimia pinnatifolia, Hook. Tab. LXIII. 

Fig- 1 

planiuscula, Hook. fil. et Tayl, Tab. LXV. 

rig- n 


plicatiloba, Hook.fil. et Tayl 

polyacantha, Hook.fil. et Tayl, Tab. LXV. 

Fig. IX 

primordialis, Hook.fil. et Tayl 

ptychantha, Mont 

reticulata, Hook.fil, et Tayl. Tab. LXVI. 

Fig- II • 

rostrata, Hook.fil, et Tayl 

saccata, Hook 

seandens, Mont 

schismoides, Mont 

Scolopcndra, Hook 

siauosa, Hook 

spinifera, Hook.fil. et Tayl. Tab. LXV.Fig.I. 

strongylophylla, Hook.fil, etTayl, Tab. LXII. 

Fig. IX 

stygia, Hook.fil. etTayl. Tab. LXII. Fig. IV. 

tenacifolia, Hook.fil. et Tayl. Tab. LXIV. 

Fig. VI 

tenax, Grev 

tenella, Hook. fil. et Tayl 

tetradactyla, Hook.fil. et Tayl 

turgescens, Hook.fil. et Tayl. Tab. LXIV. 

Kg- II 

Urvilleana, Mont 

uvifera, Hook.fil. et Tayl 

vertebralis, Gottsche 

Laminaria, sp. ? 

Laurencia pinnatiiida, Lam 

Lecanora Hypnoruin, Ach 

parella, Aeh 

tartarea, Ach 

versicolor, Hook.fil. et Tayl 

Lecidea geomaea, Tayl 

incana, Hook 

uliyinosa, Ach 

Leptinella lanata, Hook.fil, Tab. XIX. 
pliunosa, Hook.fil. Tab. XX. . . 























Leptinella propinqua, Hook.fil 27 

Leptostomum gracile, Br 122 

Lichen affinis, Eng. Bot 198 

Ligustkum antipodum, Hombr. et Jacq 17 

Leskea concinna, Hook 136 

flexilis, Hedw 139 

Novse Hollandiae, Schwagr 136 

Tamariscina, Hedw ib. 

Leucodon Lagurus, Hook ib. 

Lobelia angulata, Forst 43 

concolor, Br 42 

kederacea, /3. Hook, et Am 43 

immdata, A. Cunn 42 

littoralis, E. Cuim 43 

odorata, Grab ib. 

Lomaria lanceolata, Spr 110 

procera, Spr ib. 

procera, var., Hombr. et Jacq ib. 

Lophiodon strictus, WiU. Tab. LIX. 

Eig. II 130 

Luzula crinita, Hook.fil. Tab. XLVIII 84 

Lycopodium elavatum, L 113 

comans, Hook.fil 112 

filieaule, Hook.fil ib. 

Jussieui, Desv ib. 

Magellanicum, Sw 113 

pachystachyon, Desv 115 

reptans, Banks et Sol., MS 112 

scariosum, Forst ib. 

varium, Br 115 

Macrocystis pyrifera, Ag 177 

Macromitrium acutifolium, Brid 126 

longirostre, Schwcegr 126 

Madotheca elegantula, Mont 162 

Marcbantia polymorpba, L 168 

Marginaria Urvilleana, A. Rich 176 

MaMocarpus liadula, Kiitz 188 

Melaleuca lucida, Forst 12 

Metrosideros lucida, Menz ib. 

nmbellata, Cav ib. 

Milium pendulum, Sm 133 

Montia fontana, L 13 

lampronperma, Cbam ib. 


Myosotis Antarctica, Hook.fil. Tab. XXXVIIL. . 57 

capitata, Hook.fil. Tab. XXXVII 56 

Myrsine ? divaricata, A. Cunn 51 

Nertera depressa, Banks 23 

Nitophyllum crispatum, Hook. fil. et Harv. 

Tab. LXXI. Fig. 1 185 

pimctatum, Grev ib. 

Nothogeuia variolosa, Mont 1S8 

Opegrapba atra, Pers 200 

denigrata, Acb ib. 

Oi-eobolus pectinatus, Hook.fil. Tab. XLIX 87 

Ortbotricbum acutifolium, Hook, et Grev 126 

angustifolimn, Hook.fil. et Wils. Tab. LVII. 

Eig. VII 125 

crassifolium, Hook.fil. et Wils. Tab. LYII. 

Eig. VIII ib. 

longirostre, Hook 126 

Ozotbamuus Vauvilliersii, Hombr. et Jacq 29 

Panax simplex, Forst. Tab. XII 18 

Parmeba rubiginosa, Ach 198 

sphinctrina, Mont 199 

Peltidea polydactyla, Ach 197 

Philonotis peiidula, Brid 133 

Pbyllopbora obtusa, Grev 187 

rhymatodes Billardieri, Presl Ill 

Plantago Aucklandica, Hook.fil. Tab. XLII 64 

carnosa, Br. Tab. XLIII 65 

triantha, Spreng ib. 

Pleurophyllum criniferum, Hook.fil. Tab. XXIV.- 

XXV 32 

speciosum, Hook.fil. Tab. XXII.-XXIII. . . 31 

Plocamium Binderianum, Kiitz 186 

coccineum, Lyngb ib. 

fenestration, Kiitz ib. 

Lyngbyanum, Kiitz ib. 

vulgare, Lam ib. 

Poa annua, L ." 101 

breviglumis, Hook.fil ib. 

ramosissima, Hook.fil ib. 

Poly podium Billardieri, Br '. Ill 

grammitidis, Br ib. 

Phymatodes, Tticb ib. 

scandens, Lab tb. 


Polypodium villoso-viscidurn, Aub 

viscidum, Spr 

Polysiphoiiia botryocarpa, Hook.fil. et Han. 

Tab. LXX 

ceratochlada, Mont. Tab. LXXIV. Fig. II. 

cladostephus, Mont 

— — decipiens, Mont 

dumosa, Hook. fil. et Han. Tab. LXXV. 

Fig. I 

Lyallii, Hook.fil. et Han. Tab. LXXIV. 

Fig. I 

punicea, Mont 

rudis, Hook.fil. et Han. Tab. LXXIV. Fig. II. 

Polytrichiun Magellanicwn, Hedw. Tab. LIX. 

Fig. Ill 

Polyzonia cuneifolia, Mont. Tab. LXXVI 

Porina granulata, Hook.fil. et Tayl 

Porphyra Capensis, Kiitz 

coluinbiim, Mont 

Pozoa reniformis, Hook.fil. Tab. XI 

Pratia angulata, nook, fil 

arenaria, Hook.fil. Tab. XXIX 

? Boliviensis, Alph. B.C. 

Cunninghami, Hook.fil 

- elliptica, Hook.fil 

erecta, Gaudich 

hederacea, Cham 

hederacea, {}, Alph. D.C 

repens, Gaudich 

Pteris Vespertilionis, Lab 

Ptilota formosissima, Mont. Tab. LXXVII 

Racomitrium lanuginosum, Brid 

Radida physoloba, Mont 

Eamalina innata, Hook.fil. et Tayl. Tab. LXIX. 

Fig. I 

Ranunculus acaulis, Banks et Sol. Tab. II 

pinguis, Tab. I 

subscaposus, Hook.fil 

Rhizogonium Novse Hollandia?, Brid 

Rhodomela glomerulata, Mont 

multicornis, Mont 

Rhodomenia dieliotoma, Hook.fil. et Han. 

Tab. LXXII. Fi s . I 



































Rbodomenia Hombroniana, Mont. Tab. LXXII. 

Fig. II 186 

oruata, Mont ib. 

Riccia? cochleata, Hook.fil. et Tayl Tab. LVI. 

Fig. V 168 

Richea dracophylla, Br 50 

pandanifolia, Hook.fil ib. 

Rostkovia gracilis, Hook.fil. Tab. XLVII 83 

Magellanica, Hook.fil 81 

splucrocarpa, Desv 81 

Rumex cuneifolius, Campd. var 67 

Sagina muscosa, Sol 13 

subulata, D'Urv ib. 

Sargassum Urvilleanum, A. Rich. 176 

Seapania Urvilleana, Mont 153 

Schisma ScoJopendra, Nees 160 

Seliizaea australis, Gaudich Ill 

palmata, Hombr. et Jacq ib. 

Scliizonenia crispum, Mont 193 

Sehlotheimia quadrifida, Brid. Tab. LVIII. 

Fig. 1 1S6 

Sclerotium dmiun, Pers 175 

Scytosiphmi Filum, var., Ag 179 

Sieversia albiflora, Hook.fil. Tab. VII 9 

Spergida apetala, Lab 14 

Sphacelaria callitricha, Agardh 190 

funicularis, Mont 180 

Sphsria depressa, Berk. Tab. LXVIII. Fig. V. . . 172 

Herbarum, Pers. Tab. LXVIII. Fig. III. . . 170 

nebulosa, Pers. ? 171 

nigrella, Fries ? ib. 

pbfeosticta, Berk. Tab. LXVIII. Fig. IV. . ib. 

Sphcerocionium demissum, Pred 104 

Spha;ropboron australe, Laurer 195 

australe, Hook. fil. et Tayl ib. 

conipressum, Ach ib. 

• curium, Hook. fil. et Tayl ib. 

insiyne, Laurer ib. 

tenerum, Laurer ib. 

Sphagnum compact um, Brid 122 

cymbifolium, Tab. LVI. Fig. VI 121 

Splachnum octoblepharum, Hook. Tab. LVII. 

Fi S . IV 123 




Splachnurn purpurascens,]. et TTils. 

Tab. LVII. Fig. V 123 

Sporochnus viridis, Ag 178 

Sprucea perichsetialis, Hook.fil. et Wils 128 

Stegania lanceolate, Br 110 

procera, Br ib. 

Stellaria decipiens, Hook.fil 7 

media, TFith 8 

unifiora, Banks et Sol., MS 11 

Stereocaulcm Argus, Hook. fil. el Tayl. Tab.LXXIX. 

Fig. II 196 

macrocarpum, A. Rich ib. 

ramulosum, Ach. Tab. LXXX. Fig. 1 195 

Sticta cellulifera, Hook.fil. et Tayl 198 

faveolata, Belise 197 

Freycinetii, Belise ib. 

glabra, Hook. fil. et Tayl ib. 

linearis, Hook. fil. et Tayl ib. 

Menziesii, Hook.fil. et Tayl 198 

orygniaea, Ach 197 

Riehardi, Mont 198 

variabilis, Ach ib. 

Suttonia divaricata, Hook.fil. Tab.LXXXIV. .. 51 

tenuifolia, Hook.fil 52 

Tito mnopliora Ploeamium, Ag 186 

Thelotrema lepadinum, Ach 200 

Tlielymitra stenopetala, Hook.fil 69 

Thelymitra ? unifiora, Hook.fil. . . 

Tillcea moscliata, D.C 

Torresia redolens, E. et S 

TricJiostomum lanuginosum, Hedw. 
perichatiale, Hook 

Trineuron spatkulatum, Hook.fil. Tab. XXVII. 

Trisetum phlaoides, Kunth 

subspicatiun, Beam 

Ulva latissima, L 

reticulata, Forsk 

Uncinia Hookeri, Boott, Tab. LI 

Uredo Antarctica, Berk, Tab. LXVIII. Fig. II. . 

Urtica Aucklandica, Hook.fil 

australis, Hook.fil 

Usnea barbata, Ach 

Mrta, Ach 

plicata, Ach 

Veronica Benthaini, Tab. XXXIX.-XL. 

decussata, Ait 

decussata, /3, Banks et Sol 

elliptica, Forst 

odora, Hook. fil. Tab. XLI 

Weissia contecta, Hook.fil. et Wils. Tab. LVIII. 

Fig. Ill 

crispula, Ludw. Tab. LVIII. Fig. I 

Xiphophora Billardieri, Mont. Tab. LXTV. 

Fig. Ill 































IN THE YEARS 1S39— 1S43. 






t'icloriu Barrier and Land. Lat.7Sdeg. S. Mount Erebus (active Volcano), and Mount Tern 

^ubltsiljrt unto ttjc Suttjoritu of ttjc Es^jJ Commtssitonrni of flje aomtraltn. 





GTIjc Etjjijt y$anaura,blc 



My Lord, 

As First Lord of that Board of Admiralty by which 
the Antarctic Expedition was so admirably equipped; — as the steady 
patron of its interests, not only during but subsequent to your 
administration of this high office; — and as the kind friend to whose 
encouragement and advice I am indebted for most of the facilities 
which have been granted me towards the publication of the Botany 
of the Antarctic Yoyage; — I feel the exercise of the privilege you 
have accorded me, of dedicating the present Volume to your Lordship, 
to be equally an honour and a pleasure. 

Believe me to remain, 
With sentiments of the highest respect and esteem, 

Your Lordship's truly obliged and grateful servant, 


l?oyal Gardens, Kew, 
Sept. 6th, 1847. 



PART ii., 






II. ANTARCTIC REGIONS, (exclusive of Lord Auckland's Group and Campbell's Island). 

The First Part of the Botany of the Antarctic Voyage is devoted to the vegetation of a few- 
islands, containing plants so peculiar, and differing so remarkably from those of the other 
South Polar Islands as to render it advisable that they shoidd be described by themselves, 
and should form a distinct and separate Flora. A review of this Flora, now completed, shows 
the vegetation of Lord Auckland's group and Campbell's Island to be, in some measure, a 
continuation of that of New Zealand. This fact might have been inferred from the geogra- 
phical position of those islands, which are moreover the only countries known where the pecu- 
liar features of the Polynesian Flora are represented by species characteristic of an Antarctic 
climate ; such features being indicated chiefly by the paucity of Composite and predominance 
of some shrubby Rubiacece. 

The pages of the present portion of the work are destined to contain descriptions of 
all the plants ascertained to exist in what we may term the Antarctic regions, (Lord Auckland's 
and Campbell's Islands excepted), viz. Fuegia and some part of the south-west coast of Pata- 
gonia, the Falkland Islands, Palmer's Land, and the adjoining groups, as the South Shetlands, 
South Georgia, &c, and (proceeding eastward) Tristan d'Acunha and Kerguelen's Land. I 
shall preface the Flora of these widely severed, and in some cases very isolated spots, with a 
few remarks upon each, and on the general character of the whole as forming one great bota- 
nical region. 

It may appear paradoxical, at first sight, to associate the plants of Kerguelen's Laud with 


210 FLORA ANTARCTICA. \_Fuegia, the 

those of Fuegia, separated by 140 degrees of longitude, rather than with those of Lord 
Auckland's group, which is nearer by about 50 degrees. But the features of the Flora of 
Kerguelen's Land are similar to, and many of the species identical with, those of the Ame- 
rican continent, constraining me to follow the law of botanical affinity in preference to that 
of geographical position. Two alternatives presented themselves, each possessing some advan- 
tages over the course which is now adopted, of dividing the Antarctic Botany into two large 
sections : one, to consider each little island or group as a separate flora ; but this would lead 
to much repetition, and is not warranted by the amount of novelty exhibited in any of the 
groups : the other, to unite all under one head ; a plan certainly accompanied with many 
advantages, but counterbalanced by the consequent delay of the work, for it woidd have obliged 
the author to study the plants of two very different botanical regions at the same time. The 
remarkable beauty and novelty of the vegetation in Lord Auckland's and the neighbouring 
Islands also merited particular consideration. As it is, some plants described in Part I. will 
re-appear in the present ; very few, however ; so few as to excite surprise, when it is remem- 
bered that lands, far more remote from Tierra del Fuego than those to the south of New 
Zealand, possess the characteristics of the Fuegian Flora. 

A certain affinity in botanical productions has often been traced in widely severed coun- 
tries, and Professor E. Forbes* has lately brought geological causes to bear immediately upon 

* Professor E. Forbes lias connected the similarity, long known to exist between the Floras of the west of Ireland 
and Portugal, with certain geological characteristics belonging to both these now remote, but perhaps once uuited 
countries. Thus he also connects the Alpine Flora of Scotland with that of the Scandinavian Alps, and the botany of 
the Channel coasts and islands with that of France (vid. ' Report of the Meetings of the British Association in Cam- 
bridge, July 18-45 '). Uniformity of surface is generally accompanied by a similarity of vegetation throughout an 
extended region. When such a surface becomes divided we are apt to conclude that the isolation of the lesser por- 
tion preceded the migration of plants from the larger ; in short, that the identity of the Norfolk and Suffolk Flora 
with that of Holland must be due to the former having been peopled with plants by the latter, subsequently to the 
German Ocean having assumed its present position ; and not that the two together formed an equally well clothed 
and extended plain, reaching, as Humboldt beUeves, from North Brabant to the Steppes of Asia; its western portion 
having been afterwards insrdated by the influx of the North Sea. The uniformity of surface in the vast continent 
of Africa is becoming daily more evident, as the mountains of the moon recede before the intrepid explorers of the 
sources of the true Nile. It were natural to suppose that a barrier, such as they were conjectured to be, woidd ex- 
hibit changes in the vegetation, equally marked with those produced by the Cordillera, Himalayan, and other moun- 
tain chains wherever they may occur. A further proof of the suspicious nature of the reports that any very extensive 
and elevated land exists in Africa appears to me evident in the character of Abyssinian vegetation. Mr. Brown 
first showed that it possessed types of the Cape Flora, and lately I received the most ample confirmation of these 
views from M. Richard, who exhibited to me a beautiful series of drawings of Abyssinian plants, made by the late 
unfortunate French travellers, amongst which were numerous Protectee/?, Asclepiadea, Orchidea, Iridea, and Amarylli- 
deee, of forms which the Cape alone was supposed to possess. Central Eastern Africa is perhaps the most interest- 
ing spot in the world for a botanist ; it contains not merely Cape orders, but others typical of Madagascar, the Indies, Arabia, both the northern and western coasts of Africa itself, and on its high mountains those even of 
Europe. The uniformity of the surface and Flora of Australia is equally evident. 

There are, however, instances of a sudden change in the vegetation occurring, unaccompanied with any diversity 

Falkland*, etc.] FLORA ANTARCTICA. 211 

this subject. In reference to this curious topic I would adduce, as corroborative perhaps of his 
speculations, the general geographical arrangement of those islands, whose botany I am about to 
describe as that of one country. They stretch from Fuegia on the west, to Kerguelen's Land 
on the east, between the parallels 45° and 04° of south latitude. Throughout this portion 
of the world the land exhibits a manifest tendency eastward, from the extreme south of the 
American continent ; for there are no fewer than five detached groups of islands between Fuegia 
and Kerguelen's Land, but none between the latter island and the longitude of Lord Auck- 
land's group, nor between this last again and the western shores of Fuegia and Patagonia. 

Tierra del Fuego and the neighbouring southern extremity of the American continent 
appear to be the region of whose botanical peculiarities all the other Antarctic Islands, except 
those in the vicinity of New Zealand, more or less evidently partake. It presents a Flora, cha- 
racterizing isolated groups of islands extending for 5000 miles to the eastward of its own posi- 
tion ; some of these detached spots are much closer to the African and Australian continents, 
whose vegetation they do not assume, than to the American ; and they are all situated in 
latitudes and under circumstances eminently unfavourable to the migration of species, save 
that their position relatively to Fuegia is in the same direction as that of the violent and pre- 
vailing westerly winds*. 

Tierra del Fuego itself is a crowded archipelago, forming the southern extremity of 

of geological or other feature. The river Obi, in Siberia, whose direction is towards the north-west, from the latitude 
of 50° to (i7°, affords a most remarkable instance of this phenomenon, first mentioned by Gmelin and afterwards by 
Humboldt. Some of the most conspicuous trees attain either of its banks, but do not cross them, those of the regions 
to the west of this stream re-appearing only on the confines of China. I have received from Uaron Humboldt much 
highly interesting verbal information upon the distribution of organized beings in Siberia ; the disappearance of some 
animals and plants over a vast area, and their re-appearance in another, in obedience to no known law, are very 
striking facts. I must content myself with referring to the preface to Gnieliu's ' Flora Sibirica,' for copious exam- 
ples of these seeming anomalies in the distribution of vegetables. 

Many striking examples on the other hand may be instanced, of countries closely approximated in geographical 
position, but unlike in geological and other features, presenting widely different botanical aspects ; such sudden changes 
in the vegetation we may observe on the east and west flanks of the Andes and on the Himalayan ; in the Floras of St. 
Helena and Ascension, and the coast of Africa ; or of Tristan d'Acunha and the Cape ; of New Zealand and Aus- 
tralia ; of Juan Fernandez and the Galapagos and the coast of America ; of Madagascar and South Africa ; but more 
especially in the disparity that prevails between the Floras of the separate islands of the Galapagos and of the 
Sandwich group. 

* The prevalence of certain winds in favouring the migration of plants must not be overlooked, though too 
much stress has been laid by some writers upon their influence. An element that will carry particles of dust for 
hundreds of miles through the upper regions of the air, must be a powerful agent in disseminating the sporules of 
the lower orders of plants ; so much so indeed that I should unhesitatingly deny the necessity of a double creation, 
to account for the same species of Moss or Lichen inhabiting any two spots on the globe, however widely apart. 
That cru-rents of air are not equally efficacious in waiting the .seeds of the higher orders is proved by the ab- 
sence in the British Isles of many common European plants ; though when once introduced by other means 
they increase rapidly. We further see that the tide of vegetation (like the population) has, in the intertropical Pa- 
cific Islands, set in a direction contrary to the prevailing winds, namely, from the Asiatic and not from the American 

.212 FLORA ANTARCTICA. [Fuegia, the 

America ; it is of an irregularly four-sided figure, bounded on the north by the strait of 
Magalhaens, and on the east and west respectively by the South Atlantic and South Pacific 
Oceans, whilst its southern shores are washed by the Antarctic Sea ; the main body of land 
lies between the 53rd and 56th parallels of latitude and the 64th and 70th degrees of west 
longitude, and its greatest extension is from east to west, indicated by a diagonal of 500 miles. 
The general appearance of the whole has been aptly compared, by Mr. Darwin, to what woidd 
be presented by a partially submerged chain of mountains. These islands are, in fact, formed 
by the southern termination of the great Cordillera that traverses both Americas, which here 
trends to the eastward, and whose further extension is probably indicated by South Georgia 
in the same latitude ; and possibly also by Prince Edward's Island, the Crozets, and Kergue- 
len's Land still more to the east, situated though these be in another ocean. The natural 
features of Fuegia have been admirably described by various voyagers, and more particularly 
by Cook, King, Fitzroy, and Darwin, to whose writings I would refer for more particular in- 
formation. The exposed mountain-tops rise to a height of 7000 feet above the level of the 
sea, and the lower limit of perpetual snow is reckoned at 3500-4000 feet. 

The botanical features exhibited by this country are not circumscribed by its geographi- 
cal hmits ; along the north-east shores the very distinct Flora of East Patagonia accompanies 
the geological formation prolonged there from the Patagonian plains. On the south-west and 
south sides again, the vegetation is a continuation of that of West Patagonia, and is charac- 
teristic of the western flank of the Cordillera, from South Chili to Cape Horn. Thus it is that 
we find the Andes dividing two botanical regions from the North Polar almost to the Antarctic 
circle. The greater part of Fuegia is formed by the Andes alone ; but the plants of the north- 
east portion, where the granitic formation of Patagonia introduces a change in the vegetation 
foreign to that of Tierra del Fuego, will be necessarily included in the present Flora. 

The Deciduous Beech (Fat/its antarctica), is the most distinguishing botanical production 
of this country. In company with the Evergreen Beech (F. Forsteri), it covers the land, espe- 
cially on the w T est coasts, as far north as the Chonos Archipelago, in latitude 45° south. It 
is hardly seen in the north-east portions of Fuegia proper, northward of Staten Land, and 
though abundant on the west flanks of the Andes, tlnongh fourteen degrees of latitude, is 
unknown on the Atlantic side of Patagonia f. I have assumed therefore the shores of the 

shores : and again, that the botany of the North Atlantic Islands, the Azores, Madeira, and the Canaries, though 
these groups are situated in the westerly winds, contain a large proportion of European species. The \iolcnce of 
the perennial westerly gales to the southward of 45° is proverbial amongst sea-faring men; such winds carried 
H.M.S. ' Chanticleer ' from Cape Horn to the Cape of Good Hope, a distance of four thousand mdes, in twenty-seven 
days, and have enabled an oceanic fowl, the Cape pigeon, to maintain its position close to a ship during the whole of 
that distance ; but still I am not inclined to attribute the prevalence of the Fuegiaii Flora over so vast an area to 
their influence, when exerted against many other opposing agents. 

t Trees allied to these seem to have characterized the ancient or fossil flora of Fuegia, for I owe to Mr. Darwin's 
kindness impressions of the leaves of three apparently distinct species of deciduous Beech, and which are mentioned 
in that gentleman's journal. 

FalHanch, etc.] FLORA ANTARCTICA. 213 

strait of Magalhaens to be the northern limit of the Fuegian Flora eastward of Port Famine, 
and have included in, or rather added to that Flora, all the known plants of the Pacific side 
of the Andes, reaching north to the Chonos Archipelago. The latter position is peculiar, in 
the Beech being there replaced, at the level of the sea, with other trees ; by the sudden change 
in the aspect of the coast vegetation that the flora of Chiloe, immediately to the northward, 
presents ; and by its being only a few miles beyond the " glacier-bound Gulf of Pehas," where 
perennial ice descends to the level of the ocean in a latitude nearly midway between the 
Equator and the Antarctic Pole. 

The successive labours of Commersou, Banks and Solander, and of Menzies, early called 
the attention of Botanists to the singular aspect of the Fuegian Flora, apparently incompatible 
in its luxuriance with the rigour of the climate. The subsequent exertions of Captain King 
and Mr. Anderson, and of Darwin, dining the voyages of Captain Fitzroy, of D'Urville, and 
the officers of our own late Antarctic Expedition, have nearly exhausted the Phaenogamic 
productions. Much remains, however, to be done amongst the lower Orders, for the last- 
named expedition procured from a small island in the immediate vicinity of Cape Horn, more 
than twice as many Cryptogamic species as had been previously detected in the whole of 
Tierra del Fuego. These, however, hardly affect the general aspect of the vegetation, which 
may now be considered as satisfactorily known. 

The Falkland Islands rank next in botanical importance to Fuegia. Though lying to the 
northward of the main body of that country, their vegetation is so influenced by climate and by 
some other peculiarities common to these islands and the Patagonian plains, that they produce 
no tree whatever. They are situated between the parallels of 51° and 53°, and the meridians 
of 57^° and Gl|° west, and consist of an eastern and western island, nearly equal in size, and 
together forming an oval, whose axis hes east and west and extends about 160 miles. The 
general outline is jagged, like that of Fuegia, and similarly indented by deep inlets and rami- 
fying bays ; but their level or undulating surface, never rising above 2000 feet, and the geo- 
logical formation, bear no resemblance to an archipelago formed by a submerged chain of 
mountains. Altogether, the Botanical and other characters of the Falklands are allied to the 
Atlantic coast of Patagonia, opposite to the strait of Magalhaens, from whence they are only 
300 miles distant. 

The most evident causes for the absence of trees in the Falkland Islands are the disloca- 
tion or removal of that group from the main land ; then comparatively plane surface, every- 
where exposed to the violence of the westerly gales, and more especially to the rapid evapo- 
ration and sudden changes in temperature and in other meteorological phenomena. The 
southerly and westerly winds are violent, cold, and often accompanied by heavy snow-storms ; 
the easterly and northerly arrive saturated with warmer sea vapours, which, quickly condensing 
over the already chilled surface of the sod, form fogs and mists that intercept the sun's rays ; 
whilst the north-westerly winds are singularly dry and parching, from the influence of the 
Patagonian plains over which they blow. Such sudden alternations from heat to cold, and 

2 u 

214 FLOEA ANTARCTICA. \Fuegia, the 

from damp to dry, are particularly inimical to luxuriant vegetation, and no foliage but per- 
haps the coriaceous growth of Australia could endure them. The characteristics both of 
Fuegia and Patagonia may be seen mingled in the Falklands, and except Veronica elliptica 
(Part I. p. 58), which is chiefly confined to the western coasts of the western island, the plants 
of both these countries appear together, overspreading the whole surface of the islands. Few 
species are peculiar, and no genus or order predominates to any remarkable extent, unless it 
be the Graminets : the species themselves are well marked and do not run much into varieties. 
Though the want of shade is unfavourable to the fruiting of Mosses and Hepaticte, there are 
a considerable number of species of those orders, and some are identical with those of the 
American mountains and of Europe. 

Bougainville was the first voyager and man of science who noticed the vegetable produc- 
tions of the Falklands, the most remarkable of which are certainly the Tussac Grass and the 
Balsam-bog (Bolaw glebaria). The first collection of importance was formed by M. Gaudi- 
chaud, under the following very peculiar circumstances. 

M. Gaudichaud accompanied Admiral Louis de Freycinet, who sailed from France in 
the year 1817, in command of an expedition, composed of two corvettes, the ' Uranie ' and 
' Physicienne.' The objects of the voyage were entirely scientific, and the chief places visited 
were New Holland and the East Indian Islands to the north of that country, the South Sea 
Islands, Tierra del Fuego, and the Falklands. The magnetical observations, chiefly by Admiral 
Freycinet himself, were amongst the most valuable ever made in the Southern Hemisphere, pre- 
vious to the voyage of the ' Erebus ' and ' Terror,' and many other results of the expedition 
were of equal importance. After having nearly circuinnavigated the globe, the navigators 
doubled Cape Horn in 1820, and regaining the Atlantic Ocean, naturally expected that the 
dangers incident to such a voyage were over. On preparing to enter Berkeley Sound, however, 
the ' Uranie ' struck upon a hidden rock close to the shore, but on the lee-side of the island. If 
the usual wind and weather had prevailed on that occasion, the frigate must have been blown 
out to sea and probably all hands lost ; the violence of the gales and boisterous ocean incident 
to that latitude often rendering the boats unavailable when most recjuired. Providentially 
the elements allowed Admiral Freycinet's skill to be effectual in saving his ship, which he ran 
ashore in Berkeley Sound. Amongst the losses occasioned by this calamity was that of the 
greater part of the collections of the entire voyage, made by the indefatigable Gaudichaud ; 
1500 species alone escaping destruction. The probable value of the rest we may estimate 
from the excellent botanical notices of the various islands visited, which show the mate- 
rials to have been very considerable, or such knowledge coidd not have been displayed. 
Especially we must applaud the persevering zeal with which this naturalist commenced form- 
ing a collection which constituted the foundation upon which all other floras of the Falklands 
have been raised. 

The results of M. Gaudichaud' s labours were first published in the " Annales des Sci- 
ences Naturelles," and afterwards in the botanical portion of Admiral Freycinet's voyage. The 

FaWands, elc] FLOEA ANTARCTICA. 215 

late Admiral D'Urville visited these islands during Admiral Duperrey's voyage in the French 
corvette ' la Coquille,' and added some additional species to those of Gaudichaud, and these 
were described in the " Annales de la Societe Linneenne de Paris." More recently Mr. Darwin 
formed a small collection of Falkland Island plants, as did Mr. Wright, a mercantile gentle- 
man, and Captain Sulivan, now commanding H. M. S. ' Philomel,' who had previously visited 
this group during Captain Fitzroy's voyage*. The ' Erebus ' and ' Terror' remained in Berke- 
ley Sound for the five winter months of IS 4.0 ; during which year almost all the previously 
known species were gathered, with numerous others, especially Cryptogamia, by myself and 
Dr. Lyall, whose beautiful collection of the interesting Algce of this group of itself forms an 
important addition to Antarctic Botany. 

Considering the distance of the Falkland Islands from the continent, their size, the extent 
of surface covered with vegetation, and above all, their geological formation and the nature 
of their climate, the number of peculiar species is very insignificant ; such circumstances gene- 
rally accompanying or being indicative of a concomitant change in botanical features, specific 
difference itself being by some attributed wholly to the operation of these causes, and the 
immutability of species thence called in question. The Falkland Islands appear ill adapted 
to the more striking vegetation of Fuegia or of Patagonia, if we may judge from the absence 
of trees and even of such bushes as Berberis, Uscallonia, Fuchsia, Bibcs, &c, which grow in 
the former country and to all of which the changeable nature of the climate is injurious ; 
while, on the other hand, the mean temperature is too low for the Leguminosce, Mahacece, and 
other predominant Orders of Patagonia. It is more remarkable that some of the plants of 
each are seen, composing together the whole vegetation, yet appearing unchanged by a climate 
that is certainly unfavourable to the general flora of those distant regions where these very 
species most abound. To conclude by an example, Sisyrinchium and Oxalis enneaphylla wall 
not associate themselves with the Tassac and Eiiipelrum in Cape Horn, nor are Astclia and 
CaltJia appendiculata to be found in company with Nassauvia and Calceolaria Fotliergillii on 
the coast of Patagonia, though all these may be seen growing side by side in the Falklands in 
the greatest profusion. 

Immediately to the south of Cape Horn are groups of islands, and possibly a larger body of 
land. Vegetation in the Southern Hemisphere reaches the northern shores of these inhospitable 
spots, where, at a distance of no less than thirty-six degrees from the actual Pole and three 
degrees to the northward of the Antarctic circle, the flora of the south finds its extreme limit. 

The South Shetlands have been visited by an American gentleman of scientific acquire- 
ments, Dr. Eights, who detected a small species of Grass, the Aira antarctica, Hook., (Icon. 
Plant, vol. ii. t. 150), the most Antarctic flowering plant hitherto discovered. One of the 
group, Deception Island, was explored by Captain Foster in H. M. S. ' Chanticleer,' and we 

* Whilst this sheet is passing through the press I have received a collection from the Falkland Islands, con- 
taining some highly interesting plants, from W. Chartres, Esq., Surgeon of H. M. S. ' Philomel '. 

216 FLORA ANTAECTICA. [Fuegia, the 

gather from the account of Mr. Webster, the surgeon to that ship, that " no phsenogamic 
plants, only a few lichens and sea-weeds," inhabit that dreary islet, although the temperature 
of its soil is raised by subterranean heat ; its latitude is (53^° south, and longitude 60° west. 

In January 1843 I landed upon a small islet, close to the main portion of Palmer's Land, 
in latitude 64° 12' south, and longitude 57° west. It appeared to be the " ultima Thule " of 
southern vegetation ; the soil hard frozen, except on the very surface where it was thawed by a 
sun-heat which raised the temperature to 46°, while the sea was encumbered with pack-ice and 
bergs ; no flowering plants were to be seen, and only eighteen belonging to the Orders Lichenes, 
Musci, and Alga. Beyond this latitude I believe there is no terrestrial vegetation. 

The South Georgian group is situated about 1000 miles due east of Cape Horn, and 
exhibits a wholly different aspect from that land, being covered with perennial snows, and 
the harbours blocked up with everlasting glaciers ; still, Captain Cook found a scanty vege- 
tation, consisting of " a coarse strong-bladed grass, growing in tufts, wild Burnet, and a plant 
like moss, which springs from the rocks;" (vide Cook's 2nd voyage). The flora of South 
Georgia is probably intermediate in luxuriance (if such term may be used), between the Balk- 
lands and the South Shetlands, the proximity of the Antarctic Ice being influenced by that of 
the large bodies of land, it approaches nearer to South Georgia than to Buegia, and renders 
that climate unsuited to support even a moderate vegetation. 

Sandwich Land, discovered by Captain Cook, lies further south than South Georgia, 
and, like Palmer's Land, is encroached upon by the perennial ice of the Atlantic Ocean. That 
illustrious navigator mentions two hills clear of snow, and apparently covered with a green 
turf, but this is all Ave know of then productions. 

Proceeding westward from Antarctic America, the next island that requires notice, as ex- 
hibiting an Antarctic vegetation, is Tristan d'Acunha. Though only 1000 miles distant from 
the Cape of Good Hope, and 3000 from the Strait of Magalhaens, the Botany of this island is 
far more intimately allied to that of Buegia than Africa. Captain Carmichael's list (Linn. 
Trans., vol. xii. p. 483), contains twenty-eight flowering plants (I exclude Sonchus oleraceus) ; 
only one species of Pliglica, and one Pelargonium, amounting to one-fourteenth of the whole, 
are Cape forms ; whilst seven others, or one-fourth of the flora, are either natives of Buegia 
or typical of South American Botany, and the Ferns and Lgcopodia exhibit a still stronger 
affinity. There are some points in which the vegetation of Tristan d'Acunha resembles that of 
St. Helena and Ascension. Though these islands are separated from one another by nearly thirty 
degrees of latitude, they lie within eight degrees of longitude, and all are the exposed summits of 
ancient volcanoes, such as the highest peaks of the Andes might present, if that mighty chain 
were partially submerged*. The relation between the floras of Ascension and St. Helena f is 

* The conjecture of these islands being the exposed culminating peaks of a submerged chain of mountains, re- 
ceives confirmation from the circumstance of Sir James Itoss having struck soundings in 16,002 feet in lat. 33° 21' 
south, and long. 9° 4' west, that is, nearly on a line between St. Helena and Tristan d'Acunha. 

t The island of St. Helena has many claims to rank as one of the most interesting botanical stations known ; 

FalMands, etc.] FLORA ANTARCTICA. 217 

evident, though to enumerate them would be out of place here ; those between the latter island 
and Tristan d'Acunha are indicated by the genera Phi/lica and Geranium, and also by some of 
the Ferns and Lyeopodia : as, however, it is also through those genera that the botany of 
Tristan d'Acunha resembles that of the Cape, it may fairly be doubted whether the apparent 
affinity with St. Helena is not imaginary. It is a very remarkable circumstance that while 
these three islands all possess some of the features of the African Flora, the predominant ones 
are absent ; thus, whilst the St. Helena Flora is allied, and exclusively so, to that of the Cape 
in Geranium, Melhania, and Pliylica, it has no representatives of entire Orders, namely Pro- 
teacece, Putacece, Owalidece, Crassulacece, Ericece, Bestiacece, and many others, far more cha- 
racteristic of the African vegetation than are any of the plants inhabiting St. Helena, 

The other islands whose plants will find a place in this division of the ' Antarctic Flora ' 
are situated south of the Indian continent, widely apart from the American, and so far as geo- 
graphical position is concerned, belong to Africa or India ; these are, Prince Edward's and 
Marion Islands, the Crozets, Kerguelen's Land, and the Islands of Amsterdam and St. Paid. 

Of the two first-mentioned groups the vegetation is wholly unknown ; the former, Prince 
Edward's and Marion, are small contiguous islets in the 47th degree of latitude and 38th 
of east longitude ; they are of rather an undulating outline and evidently volcanic forma- 
tion, from a little distance they appeared covered with grass. The Crozets are a group of 
much larger islands, situated in the 48th degree of latitude and between the 47th and 49th 
meridian, east of London : they are bold rocky masses, rising to a height of 6000 feet; some, 
though of considerable size, are quite inaccessible, and others enveloped by eternal fogs, whence 

almost the whole of its native flowering plants and several of its genera being peculiar. Various causes have, within 
the memory of man, reduced this flora to a mere shadow of what it once was, for when the island was discovered, it is 
described as entirely clothed with forest. The greater part of this was said to be destroyed by the introduction of goats 
and pigs, and by the bark of the trees being stripped for tanning, so that the flora is consequently now very limited 
both in number of species and of individuals. During the interval that elapsed between two visits which I paid to St. 
Helena, one very peculiar native plant, the Acahjpha rubra, had disappeared, and two other handsome shrubby 
species of Melhania, with particularly showy flowers, had very recently become extinct ; whdst the existence of some 
Walileubergia, of a Pliysalk, and a few of the peculiar arborescent Composites, though thus far prolonged, is held 
upon a very precarious tenure. These plants are all well marked species, which on the destruction of the forests 
seem unable to accommodate themselves to their altered circumstances, perish, and are replaced by introduced species, 
exactly as is the case with various savage races of mankind, which do not suit themselves to the condition of the soil 
when altered by the European settler, but diminish in number and dwindle away even when violent measures have 
not been used for their extirpation. I may remark, that species in isolated islands are generally well defined; this 
is in part the natural consequence of another law which I have observed, that genera in islands bear a large proportion 
to the species, or in other words, that genera are small, seldom containing more than two or three species, and very 
frequently solitary representatives. It must be borne in mind that this well-marked character of the species in insu- 
lar localities applies equally to mountainous as to planer islands. It might seem natural to suppose that a varied 
surface would have the effect of obliterating specific distinctiou, especially in small areas, as the Pacific Islands, the 
Galapagos, St. Helena, and the like, wdiose present contour is not the residt of recent geological changes, and where 
time, the required element for developing such species as are the offspring of variation, has been granted. 

218 FLORA ANTARCTICA. [Fitegia, the 

the name of Hazy Island lias been given to one of the largest, of which the rocky summit 
alone is seen standing out in bold relief above an almost perennial fog-bank. During our 
passage from the Cape of Good Hope to Kerguelen's Land, Sir James Ross endeavoured to 
effect a landing, first upon Marion Island and afterwards upon one of the Crozets, but most 
unfortunately for the interests especially of Botany, our efforts were frustrated by the tem- 
pestuous weather. In one night, during which the ' Erebus ' was hove to for the purpose of 
landing upon Marion Island, she was blown sixty miles to leeward of it ; she then bore up 
for the Crozets, to meet a similar mishap ; on this occasion, having provisions to land for a 
party of miserable sealers, we again beat up to Possession Island, the easternmost of the 
group, and after the detention of nearly a week in the most inclement season and tempes- 
tuous ocean, only arrived at the time of the brooding of another storm, which rendered it 
highly imprudent for any boat to leave the ship in an open roadstead. The aspect of this 
island was, like all the others we sighted, dreary and inhospitable to the last degree; a 
narrow belt of green herbage skirted its shore, above a line of black basaltic cliffs, which 
formed the iron-bound coast ; while higher again rose crater-shaped barren hills of blue-grey 
or brick-red coloured rocks, utterly destitute of vegetation and alike dismal to the eye and 
mind. These were the first Antarctic Islands we had seen, and few of us will forget the feel- 
ings to which their desolate aspect gave rise ; sensations, which for intensity afford the strongest 
contrast with those which an English naturalist never fads to experience during his first ramble 
on some tropical shore. 

M. de Jussieu had the kindness to show me a small pamphlet, containing a slight account 
of the Crozets, drawn up from information received through the captains of sealing ships. 
The vegetation is described as most scanty. From the short interview which we held with 
a party of sealers who had been left upon one of the group, I gleaned but little information ; 
they told me the species were few, and the famous Cabbage of Kerguelen's Land not amongst 
them, though another " scurvy-grass " was abundant. The vegetation that our glasses 
enabled us to detect, formed, apparently, a matted carpet, extending from the shores upwards 
for a short distance, very similar to what we afterwards saw in Kerguelen's Land, though dif- 
ferent from the long grass that appeared to clothe Prince Edward's Island. These two groups 
are situated only S00 miles south-east from the Cape of Good Hope, but being placed to the 
southward of the 40th degree of latitude they partake of the climate of the Antarctic Ocean. 
Their position between Euegia and Kerguelen's Land and their formation being probably 
the same as the latter, I have httle doubt their Flora, when known, will be found to prove 
characteristic of the extreme south of America and in no degree similar to that of Africa, with 
which they are even in closer proximity than is Tristan d'Acunha. Barren and inhospitable 
as are the shores of these islands, there are no spots on the surface of the globe whose bota- 
nical productions woidd be of greater interest to science, for then- vegetation is wholly un- 
known, and is wanting to complete our otherwise pretty extensive acquaintance with the 
distribution of plants throughout the islands of the high southern latitudes. 

Falklands, etc.] FLORA ANTARCTICA. 219 

Kerguelen's Land is the eastern limit to which the Fuegian Flora extends, and though 
placed within the 50th degree its desolate nature is proverbial. The Antarctic Expedition arrived 
there in May 1 840, having been blown off its tempestuous coast twice, after approaching the land 
so nearly as to distinguish almost the nature of the vegetation which skirts the shores of the bays. 
The island presents a black and rugged mass of sterile mountains, rising by parallel steppes one 
above another in alternate slopes and precipices, terminating in frightful naked and frowning 
cliffs, which dip perpendicularly into the sea. The snow lying upon these slopes between the 
black cliffs gave a most singularly striped or banded appearance to the whole country, each 
band indicating a flow of volcanic matter, for the island is covered with, craters whose vents 
have given issue to stream upon stream of molten rock. These are worn all along the coasts 
into abrupt escarpments, rendering a landing impracticable, except at the heads of the sinuous 
bays. One bluff headland to the north end of the island is a precipice, 700 feet high, and 
exposes such numerous sections of horizontal deposits of red, black, and grey volcanic matter 
that it is difficult to count them, though overlaying one another with perfect regularity and 
uniformity. Sterile as Kerguelen's Land now is, it was not always so, vast beds of coal are 
covered by hundreds of consecutive layers of igneous and other rocks, piled to a height of 
one thousand feet and upwards, upon what was once a luxuriant forest. Throughout many 
of the lava streams are found prostrate trunks of fossil trees of no mean girth, and the 
incinerated remains of recent ones, which had been swallowed up simultaneously with the 
fossil, and these occur hi strata of various ages, so that it seems impossible to reckon the 
period of time that must have elapsed between the origin, growth, and destruction of the 
successive forests now buried in one hill. A section of such a hiU woidd display coal-beds 
and shale resting upon a blue basalt, at the level of the sea, covered again with wliinstone, 
whereon are deposited successive layers of volcanic sand, baked clay-stones, porphyries, and 
long hues of basaltic cliffs, formed of perpendicular prisms, regularly shaped like those of 
Staffa or the Giant's Causeway, and along which the traveller may walk even for a mile with- 
out ascending or descending fifty feet. To calculate the time required for the original formation 
and following silicification of one such forest, and to multiply that by the equal number of 
different superincumbent strata, containing remains similar to those displayed at the north 
end of Kerguelen's Land, would give a startling number of years, during which periods the 
island must have deserved a better name than that of " Desolation." And if to this be added 
the time requisite for the deposit of the arenaceous beds containing the impressions of Fuci, 
of the clays afterwards hardened by fire, and of the prismatic cliffs, which, with the arenaceous, 
indicate that the land was alternately submerged and exposed as often as these successive 
formations occur, such a sum would bespeak an antiquity for the flora of this isolated speck on 
the surface of our globe far beyond our powers of calculation. If from the narrow sphere of in- 
quiry that a few miles in extent and 1000 feet of elevation in Kerguelen's Land afford we deduce 
such grand results, what must be expected from the investigation of whole continents, whose 
culminant peaks reach nearly 30,000 feet, sxu'rounded by an ocean perhaps as elevated above 

220 FLORA ANTARCTICA. \Fuegia, the 

the land it rests upon, and presenting fossiliferous strata that we believe are deposited at even 
greater depths ? On the other hand, referring to the island under consideration, as it now 
appears, we may regard it as the remains of some far more extended body of land. Position 
in longitude in the Southern Hemisphere appears to determine the amount of vegeta- 
tion an island may possess. Of this we have an instance in South Georgia, and the reason 
is evident ; the extension of the great continents is in longitude, and the climate and other 
features of the islands depend upon then proximity to the land, which modifies the desolating 
influence of the icy ocean. The time we have granted for the formation of the various strata 
composing Kerguelen's Land and the forests that successively decorated them, is sufficient for 
the destruction of a large body of land to the northward of it, of which St. Paid's Island and 
Amsterdam Island may be the only remains, or for the subsidence of a chain of mountains 
running east and west, of which Prince Edward's Island, Marion, and the Crozets are the 
exposed peaks. With regard to the botanical characteristics of Kerguelen's Land, full notices 
of them have been prepared for Sir James Ross's narrative of the Antarctic voyage, and the 
subject will be further treated in a work devoted to the' distribution of vegetation in the 
southern regions. 

The Islands of St. Paul and Amsterdam, hitherto ranked under no geograpliical or bota- 
nical regions, perhaps demand notice here. Though constantly sighted by outward-bound 
Indiamen and Australian ships, they have been rarely visited, and never by scientific persons, 
except those accompanying Lord Macartney's embassy to China, and very recently by my 
former companion and zealous cooperator in all scientific pursuits, Lieut. A. Smith, R.N. 
Some confusion still exists with regard to the names of these two islands, which are situated 
north-west of Kerguelen's Land, in the longitude of 78°, and the respective latitudes of 38° 
and 39°. The names of St. Paid and Amsterdam have been applied indiscriminately by various 
navigators, the latter I continue to give to the southern island, in accordance with Sir George 
Staunton's and with the recent south circumpolar charts, where, however, the southernmost 
island is represented as the larger instead of the smaller of the two. Both are no doubt of 
volcanic origin, though only Amsterdam is in a state of activity. The latter alone has been 
visited by Sir G. Staimton, who has published an excellent account of it, and by Lieut. Smith 
who had the kindness to forward me most interesting particulars regarding it, and a collection 
of all the plants he was enabled to detect there. No one reading Sir George Staunton's ac- 
count, and especially after looking at his plans and sketches of Amsterdam Island, can fad to 
be struck with the similarity its most remarkable features present to those of Deception Island, 
one of the South Shetlands. They are of the same size ; both are annular craters, open to 
the eastward, inclosing a deep lagoon with a conical hill on each side of the entrance ; that at 
the northern end being the highest, and both are nuclei of heated matter, with a thin covering 
of soil, through which escape streams and springs of warm or boiling water. The general 
nature of the vegetation of Amsterdam Island is described by Mr. Smith to be a coarse tufted 
grass, which springing from a bed of fine black peat composed of decomposed fibrous vegetable 

FalMands, etc.] FLORA ANTARCTICA. 221 

matter, everywhere covers a soil so heated that the roots cannot descend beyond a few inches. 
Sir G. Staunton mentions that changes in the level of the land at the mouth of the cove have 
occurred since 1697, when the island was landed upon by Van Vlaming, a Dutch commander. 
Since 1793, the period of Sir G. Staimton's visit to the island, half a century has elapsed, and 
the changes, if any, have been insignificant. The land may possibly be rising, though accord- 
ing to Van Vlaming it must have sunk since his time, when there was no communication 
between the sea and the lagoon, the intermediate causeway being at least five feet high. 
Staunton states the depth of water on the bar to be eight feet at high water, and Lieut. Smith 
as 7 ft. 4 in. at the highest spring tides. Nor does the temperature of the hot springs appear to 
have altered materially during the last fifty years, it then averaged 190°, and Mr. Smith found 
one that he tried to be 182° (though there are others where the temperature rises to 212°) ; the 
latter gentleman boiled both fish and rice in one of these springs close to the ocean's edge 
and they were well cooked in twelve minutes, thus confirming Sir G. Staunton's anecdote, 
that a person who had caught fish in the cold water of the lagoon could, with a slight motion 
of his hand, let it drop into a hot adjoining spring, when it woidd be boiled in fifteen minutes 
fit for eating (McCartney's Embassy, vol. i. p. 212), an account that has been treated as 

The island of St. Paul, only fifty miles farther north, has never been visited by a natu- 
ralist ; it is mentioned by several authorities as low and undulating, covered with trees and 
shrubs, but with no traces of internal heat; Labillardiere, who passed this island in 1792, 
describes it as being in a state of combustion, but he doubts whether the fires were kindled 
by the hand of man, or were owing to subterranean heat. The former is most probably the 
case, for Mr. Smith, who lost no opportunity of gaining information about these curious 
islands, gives me the following statement, obtained from some sealers who had visited St. 
Paid's. " A variety of plants grow luxuriantly in the northern of these two islands, and trees 
several inches in diameter ; there are no hot springs there, nor is its earth at all heated ; 
vegetables may be cultivated with tolerable success ; but this island is always most difficult 
to land upon." This precisely tallies with other scattered notices of St. Paid's that I have 

I shall conclude this long digression with a notice of the vegetable productions of Amster- 
dam Island. Sir G. Staunton mentions a Zycqpodiitm, a Marchantia, and a long grass ; to 
these I can now add another species of grass, a Plantago, Colobantltus, an Azorella ? (or Ranun- 
culus?) a Cenomyce, and several species of Mosses. The Colobanthus is typical of a southern 
or Antarctic Flora ; but the grasses appear more characteristic of a warmer chmate ; from 
these materials I do not feel justified in referring the vegetation to any botanical region, but 
consider it probable that there may be a considerable proportion of forms indicative of a warm 
latitude, especially in St. Paid's. 

The number of species in the present Part precludes the introduction of lengthened 
descriptions, even were these as requisite as I deemed them in the case of the more novel 

2 Y 

222 FLORA ANTAECTICA. \Fuegia, the 

productions of Lord Auckland's group. For the future volumes of this work, I shall, in 
describing the species, follow where it is practicable the plan pursued by Mr. Bentharn, the 
excellency of whose specific descriptions is acknowledged. 

Most of the materials in this Part were amassed by myself, with the kind aid of Captain 
Sir James Ross, Lieutenant Smith, Mr. Davies, and particularly of Dr. Lyall, to whose exer- 
tions I feel constrained throughout to acknowledge my obligations. For many important addi- 
tions to the plants of Fuegia and particularly of the west coast of Patagonia, I am indebted 
to Captain King and Mr. Darwin*, both of whom most generously confided then- collections 
to me for the purpose of examination and description. Captain King's is certainly the most 
complete flora ever formed in those countries, whether in number of species or specimens of 
the flowering plants. To Dr. Lemann I owe the use of another set of the same plants, gathered 
by Mr Anderson, the gardener who accompanied Captain King, and to Commodore Sulivan, 
a collection formed by his son, Captain Sulivan, during Captain Fitzroy's voyage. With all 
these advantages the materials for a Fuegiau flora would still be incomplete, without the plants 
discovered by Menzies dining Vancouver's expedition ; and still more valuable is the access 
afforded by the kindness of Mr. Brown and Mr. Bennett, to the specimens, drawings, and 
manuscripts of Banks and Solander, who preceded all other botanists, except Commerson, in 
the investigation of Natural History in the high southern regions. 

The collections of Banks and Solander, wherever formed and under whatever difficulties, 
are lasting proofs not only of the extraordinary zeal and ability of those distinguished indivi- 
duals, but of the spirit which pervaded every member of the gallant band that Cook led in 
his path of discovery. Our knowledge of the Botany of New Zealand is still mainly due to the 
labours of the companions of Cook's first voyage, for no subsequent travellers or even residents 
in that country have made equally extensive collections ; and that their researches in Tierra del 
Fuego were no less eminently successful, the constant mention of their names in this volume 
will abundantly prove. Valuable as the dried plants are, their utility is doubly increased bjk 
the excellent descriptions and by the beautiful coloured drawings executed on the spot, which 
accompany them, and were made at Sir Joseph Banks own expense. There are daily occurring 
instances, to the honour of the British nation be it mentioned, of individuals who undertake 
and conduct scientific expeditions on their own resources, and who return richly laden to reap 
the honours that await themselves as the projectors and commanders of their several efforts ; 
but how few examples have we of men of birth and fortune, who like Banks will peril a life 
and spend a fortune as the zealous cooperator in an expedition not his own, and the main 
glory of which justly belongs to another. In scientific as in all other pursuits there are ever 
many to lead, but few who will stoop to be followers. This just tribute to the memory of 
Banks is peculiarly due from me, who owe so much to his labours in the Southern Ocean. 

* Mr. Darwin's valuable herbarium is preserved in tlie Cambridge Museum, and it is to the liberality of the 
Rev. Professor Henslow that I am more immediately indebted for their temporary transference to my care. 

FalMands, etc.] FLORA ANTARCTICA. 223 

It was during Cook's second voyage that he was accompanied by the two Forsters, men 
whose names are inseparably connected with the subject of Antarctic Botany. They visited 
New Zealand and Tierra del Fuego, making important collections at both, excellent drawings, 
and finally publishing two works, which as regards the plants of those countries, must ever 
be considered as classical ; these are the " Characteres Generum Plantarum Maris Australis," 
and the " Prodomus Florulse insidarum Australium." Sets of the plants, the drawings, and 
collections are, as well as those of Cook's thud voyage, deposited in the British Museum. 

Cook's third voyage was not accompanied by any professed naturalist ; all that we know 
of the flora of South Georgia, and, previous to the visit of the Antarctic Expedition, of the 
plants of Kerguelen's Land, we owe to Mr. Anderson, the surgeon of that expedition. 

My own Herbarium of Falkland Island plants is particularly rich, and has also received 
accessions from Mr. Darwin, Captain Sulivan, Mr. Wright, and within the last few days from 
Mr. Chartres, Surgeon of H. M. S. ' Philomel,' now surveying these islands under the com- 
mand of Captain Sulivan ; to all of whom I here tender my sincere thanks. 

1. ANEMONE, Hatter. 

1. Anemone decapetala, Linn. Want. 79. BC. Syst. Vet/, vol. i. p. 200. Prodrom. vol. i. p. 19. Hook, 
et Am. Bot. Beechey, p. 3. t. 1. Belessert. Icones, t. 16. et 1. 17. Hook, et Am. in Bot. Misc. vol. iii. p. 133. 
A. multinda, Poiref, Swppl. vol. i. p. 64. DC. Syst. Teg. vol. i. p. 209. Prodr. vol. i. p. 21. Hook. Flor. 
Bor. Am. vol. i. p. 7. Torrey and Gray, Flora of North Am. vol. i. p. 13. A. trilobata, Juss. Ann. Mus. 
vol. iii. p. 2-17. t. 21. f. 3. A. rnacrorhiza, Bombey. (fid. DC). A. triternata, Herb. Beg. Berol. (fid. Herb. 
Hook.) rum Vahl. A. bicolor, Pa?ppig. (fid. Walpers, vol. i. p. 22.). 

Hab. Strait of Magalhaens; Port Famine; Capt. King. Cape Negro and Elizabeth Island; 
C. Banvin, Esq.. 

Pilosa v. subsericea, spithamea ad \\ ped. alta. Radix tuberosa. Folia 3-5-partita ; segmentis linearibus v. 
cuneatis, crenatis incisis multifidisve. PedicelU 1-3, miico nudo, caeteris involucellatis. Petala 5-10. Recepta- 
culum globosuni, demum elongatum, cylindraceum. Aeluenia lanata, stylo lateraH filiformi. 

Rather a variable species and having a very extended range throughout the American continent. I have no 
hesitation in referring to it all the species quoted above. In North America it abounds from the Arctic circle to 
the Colombia river on the west coast, and New York on the east. The specimens, especially those from the Rocky 
Mountains and from Lake Huron, differ from those of the strait of Magalhaens only in having rather larger and 
more deeply coloured flowers. In South America this plant re-appears in Peru (Dornbey) and in Chili (Brotero) on 
the west side, and in South Brazil (Sellow) on the east, extending from each as far south as the Strait of Magalhaens. 
There are eight other South American species of Anemone described, which are — 1. A. triternata, Vahl. ; 2. A. Jiepa- 
ticifolia, Hook. Ic. Plant, t. 1 ; 3. A. Jamesoni, Hook. I.e. t. 670; 4. A. aqidnoctialis, Pceppig. ; 5. A. Antu- 
censis, Pceppig.; 6. .-/. Sellovii, Pritzil ; 7. A. Helleborifolia, DC; 8. A. sphenop/ii/lla, Pceppig.; the last is pro- 

224 FLORA ANTAECTICA. \Fuegia, the 

bably a variety of A. decapetala, judging from the description given in Walpers. As nearly allied to this genus I 
may here mention the Hamadryas audicola, Hook. (Ic. Plant, t. 136), which is the Hepatica? integrifolia, H. B. K. 
I have examined specimens of this with ripe fruit : the carpels are few, large, and turgid, slightly hairy, the style 
long and filiform : the seed large, minutely punctate, and pendulous, by a short funiculus from a point a little below 
the apex of the cell, characters which will remove it from Hamadryas. 

2. RANUNCULUS, C. Bank. 

* Hecatonia, glaberrima, folds lobatis v. dissectis. 

1. Ranunculus bitematus, Smith, in Bees Cycl. DC. Syst. Peg. vol. i. p. 236. Proclr. vol. i. p. 30. 
Beless. Icon. vol. i. t. 24. Hook. Icon. Plant, t. 497. R. exiguus, HUrv. Mem. Soc. Linn. Paris, vol. iv. 
p. 615. Gaud, in Freyc. Toy. Bot. p. 136. R. flaccidus, Banks et Sol. MSS. in Mus. Banks. 

Hab. Fuegia ; Commerson, Banks, and Solander. Darwin. Hermite Island ; /. B. H. Falkland Island ; 
HUrville, Mr. Wright, Capt. Snlivan, &c. 

Bather a variable species, especially in size, in the breadth of the segments of the leaves, and in the number of 
petals. The R. exiguus, D'Urv., is a small state of this plant, common in the Falklands. The heads of carpels are 
very large in proportion to the size of the foliage, and especially of the flower. 

2. Ranunculus crassipes, Hook. fil. ; glaberrima, crassa et carnosa, caule repente, foliis longe petio- 
latis cordato-reniformibns trifidis trilobatis tripartitisve segmentis grosse inrequaliter 3-5-crenatis, pedivnculis 
petiolo brevioribus, sepalis glaberrimis demum reflexis, petalis 4-6 obovato-spathulatis obtusis flavis, capitulo 
rnajusculo, carpellis plurimis late ovatis turgidis, stylo brevi recto. An a R. biternato distincta ? (Tab. 

Hab. Kerguelen's Land ; in moist places near tbe sea, abundant. 

Catdes spithamei, ad nodos radicantes, crassitie pennee corvinse. Petioli 1-4 unc. longi. Folia varie secta, 
pleriunque trifida v. tripartita, segmentis late cuneatis. Pedunculi axillares, validi, erecti. Flos solitarius, inconspi- 
cuus. Sepala ovata, obtusa, membranacea. Petala 4-5, calyce longiora, \\ lin. longa, 3-nervia, versus medium 
glandida opaca instructa. Capitula ut in R. biternato sed stylis strictis. 

I advance this species with much hesitation, as it may prove only a variety of R. bitematus, from the largest 
states of which it is to be distinguished by its still greater size, more succulent habit, and especially by the more 
entire leaves, with much broader segments. These are, however, variable characters in both species, and some im- 
perfect specimens of the former from Hermite Island assume a much larger size than others from the Falklands or 
from the northern parts of the Fuegia. 

Plate LXXXI. Fig. 1, a flower ; fig. 2, a petal ; fig. 3, a stamen ; fig. 4, an ovarium ; fig. 5, a ripe carpel ; 
fig. 6, the same cut open showing the seed : — all magnified. 

** Hecatonia, pilosa, foliis dissectis. 

3. Ranunculus c/iilensis, DC. Syst. Peg. vol. i. p. 286. Prodr. vol. i. p. 38. Cham, and Schlecht. 
Animadv. pt. 2. p. 27. Hook, and Am. Bot. Beechey, p. 4. t. 3. Bot. Miscell. vol. iii. p. 134. 

Hab. Cape Tres Montes and Chonos Archipelago ; C. Darwin, Esq. 

A very variable plant in habit (being either erect or creeping) and in the state of pubescence, in the size of the 
leaf and flower, and also in length of the petioles and peduncles : it is abundant throughout Chili, and possibly assumes 
a different form in a warmer latitude. In Mr. Darwin's specimens the flowers are small, scarcely 3-4 lines in dia- 

FalMands, etc.] FLORA ANTAECTICA. 225 

meter ; in others from Valdivia they are double that size, and even larger have been gathered by Mr. Cruickshanks 
near Valparaiso. It does not appear to inhabit the east coast of Patagonia ; but I have examined what I take to be 
a mutilated specimen, collected by Mr; Darwin in the central regions of that country near the river Santa Cruz, which 
flows from the Andes to the Atlantic. 

4. Ranunculus peduncularis, Sm. m Sees Cyclop. BC. Syst. Teg. vol. i. p. 294. Prodr. vol. i. p. 41. 
Deless. Icon. vol. i. t. 42. Hook, and Am. in Pot. Miscett. vol. iii. p. 134. 

Hab. Strait of Magalliaens ; in the margins of woods ; Commerson. Cape Negro ; C. Barwin, Esq. 

Closely allied to the last species, from which it seems constantly to differ in the narrow segments of the leaves, 
and the stouter and uniformly erect habit. The whole plant is more or less clothed with hairs, the Strait of 
Magalhaens specimens less so than those from more northern localities. It appears to be common in Chili on the 
western flanks of the Cordilleras, whence Dr. Gillies procured it at an altitude of 5000 feet, and Mr. Bridges 
upon the east slopes of that range, but it is not a native of the Atlantic side of South America. The R. poly- 
petalus, Gillies MSS., is quoted in the Botanical Miscellany as a state of this species ; it may be distinguished, 
perhaps specifically, by the smaller size of the leaves, which are all radical, and their segments so remote that the 
leaf is truly pinnate, the scape too is single-flowered, and it approaches more nearly to a Peruvian species. 

5. Ranunculus Maclovianus, D'Urv. ; aeaulis v. subaeaulis, appresse pilosus, foliis raclicalibus longe 
petiolatis erectis reniformi-rotundatis trifiilis trilobatisve segrnentis grosse et acute dentatis, pedunculis folio 
brevioribus e ramulis abbreviatis ortis, sepalis villosis, petalis flavis spathulatis, capitulo globoso, carpellis 
glabriusculis, stylo brevi subuncinato. R. Maclovianus, B'Urv. in Mem. Soc. Linn. Paris, vol. iv. p. 615. 
Gaud, in Freyc. Toy. Pot. p. 136. R. parvihorus, Gaud, in Ann. Sc. Nat. vol. v. p. 105. 

Hab. Falkland Islands; moist places, abundant; Gaudieliand , B'Urville, J. D. H. and Br. By all. 

Caulis nullus v. abbreviatus. Folia fere omnia radicalia ; petioli 2-6 unc. longi, graciles, suberecti ; lamina 
basi profunde cordata, -j- § imc. lata, pilis flavis sericeis utrinque tecta. Pedtinculi 3-5, rarius solitarii, a_a unc. 
longi, erecti, radicales v. e ramis abbreviatis orti. Sepala 5, ovata, obtusa, trinervia, demum subreflexa. Petala 
sepalis longiora, medio squama instructa. Carpella ovata, turgida, glabra v. laxe et sparse pilosa. 

This plant is most nearly allied to the R. ChUemis, which I have noticed as a very variable species, but the 
present is smaller and more slender in all its parts, the leaves are all radical and it never creeps. "Walpers (Eepertor. 
vol. i. p. 44), erroneously quotes, as a variety of this, the R. e.viffieus, D'Urv., which is, however, certainly a state of 
R. biternatus, Sm. 

6. Ranunculus sericocepJialus, Hook. fil. ; depressus, acaulis, totus pilis fulvis sericeis dense vestitus, 
foliis raclicalibus stellatim patentibus orbiculari-renifonnibus irregulariter 3-7-fidis lobis grosse crenato-den- 
tatis, pedunculis brevissimis, floribus parvis inconspicuis, carpellis dense sericeis. (Tab. LXXXIII.) 

Hab. Falkland Islands; on moist banks with the former; Mr. Chartres, J. B.H. and Dr. Lyall. 

Planta pusilla, depressa, valde inconspicua, tota pilis flavis sericeis patentibus tecta. Caules brevissimi v. 
nulli. Folia stellatim patentia, petiolo A unc. longo ; lamina basi cordata, plerumque 5-fida, rarius trifida v. trilo- 
bata, snbeoriacea, a unc. lata. Flares inter foha subsessiles ; pedicelh interdmn e ramis brerissimis orti. Sepala 
late ovata, intus 3-nervia, patentia. Petala angnste spathidata, obtusa, flava, versus medium squama parva instructa. 
Carpella phis patentibus obtecta ; stylo brevi uncinate 

Though in many respects closely allied to the former, this seems to me quite a different species ; while 

2 z 

226 FLORA ANTARCTICA. [Fuegia, the 

often growing together, they do not appear to pass into one another. The small size, depressed and stellate habit, 
densely fulvous silky clothing, and especially the hairy carpels always serve to distinguish the present. 

Plate LXXXIII. Fig. 1, a flower ; fig. 2, the same, laid open ; fig. 3, front, and fig. 4, back view of a petal ; 
fig. 5, young, and fig. 6, ripe carpel ; fig. 7, the same cut open showing the seed : — all magnified. 

* * * Hecatonia, foliis integris. 

7. Ranunculus liydroj>hilvs, Gaud. ; totus glaberrnnus, caule gracili repente, foliis longe petiolatis na- 
tantibus elliptico-ovatis integerrimis 3-5-nerviis, pedunculis axillaribus petiolo brevioribus, floribus parvis, 
petalis flavis spatlmlatis, carpellis paucis, stigmate subsessili. R. liydropliilus, Gaud, in Ann. So. Nat. vol. v. 
p. 105. Freycinet, Toy. Bot. p. 136 and 475. IfUrvitte in Mem. Soc. Linn. Paris, vol. iv. p. 515. 
(Tab. LXXXII. Fig. B.) 

Hab. Falkland Islands; in streams, lagoons, and pools of fresh water, abundant; Gaudic/iaud, B'Ur- 
ville, J. B. H. 

Caules 4-8 unc. longi, parce ramosi, ad axillas folionun radicantes. Folia fasciculata, tenia cpiinave, basi vagi- 
nantia ; petioli 3-5 unc. longi, erecti, crassiusculi ; lamina parva, i unc. longa, plerumque natans, plana, obtusa, 
nervis 3-7 parallelis. Pedunculi ex axillis foliorum solitarii, petiolo rnultoties breviores, sub A unc. longi. Sepala 
late ovato-rotundata, membranacea. Petala calyce breviora, 1 lin. longa, flava, spathulata, infra medium squami- 
fera, basin versus attenuata. Capitulurn parvum, globosuin. CarpeUa pauca, pallide flava, oblique oblonga, obtusa, 
vix 1 lin. longa. 

A very distinct species, both in habit and in other characters, perhaps most resembing R. humilis, Hook, 
and Am. (Bot. of Beechey's Voy. p. 4.), which is a variety of R. trisepalus, Gillies ; but the present is not branched 
upwards, the flowers are very different, and the carpels are not punctate. The leaves much resemble the upper 
floating ones of Potamogeton heterophyllus. 

Plate LXXXII. Fig. B. — Fig. 1, flower ; fig. 2, petal ; fig. 3, stamen ;fig. 4, young carpel ; fig. 5, ripe ditto ; 
fig. 6, the same cut open : — all magnified. 

8. Ranunculus trullifolius, Hook. fil. ; glaberrimus, caulibus brevissimis sarmentosis, foliis radicalibus 
natantibus obovato-cuneatis integerrimis apicibus 3-5-dentatis, petiolis elongatis incrassatis superne attenuatis, 
pedunculis petiolo brevioribus, floribus inconspicuis, sepalis late ovato-rotundatis, petalis brevibus. (Tab. 
LXXXII. Fig. A.) 

Hab. Falkland Islands ; St. Salvador Bay, in a fresh-water lagoon. 

Radix fibrosa, fibris crassis elongatis, e collo sarmenta elongata radicantia emittens. Folia omnia radiealia ; 
petioli basi longe vaginantes, 4-6 mic. longi, teretes, antice canalicidati, vahdi, crassiuscidi, superne gradatim incras- 
sati, infra laminam attenuati ; lamina \-\ unc. longa, abrupte truncata, grosse et inaequaliter 3-5-dentata, dentibus 
obtusis, 3-5-nerviis, nervis parallelis, limde viridis v. purpurascens. Flosfructusque ut in R. hjdropliilo sed paido 
majores et pedunculo crassiore. 

Certainly more nearly allied to the former than to any other species of the genus ; but quite distinct, of a larger 
size and more succident habit, with leaves of a different form, abruptly truncate and lobed at the extremity. 

Plate LXXXII. Fig. A. 

Falkland*, etc.] FLORA ANTARCTICA. 227 

3. HAMADBYAS, Comment. 

Mores abortu dioici. Sepal-a 5-6. Petala 10-12, lineari-subulata, basi squama instmcta. — Fl. Masc. Sta- 
mina plurima, filamentia filiformibus. — Fl. Fffiii. Ovaria plurima, in capitulum globosiun disposita, stylo uncinato 
terminata, uuilocularia, imiovulata ; ovulo e basi loculi erecto, funiculo brevi. CarpeUa sicca, ossea, indehiscentia. — 
Herbse Antarctica, Bamuiculo affines, plus minusve sericea. Scapi ad apices lSJlores, flore inferiore sessili. Sepala 
petalaque extus pilosa. 

1. Hajladkyas Magettanica, Lam.; plus minusve sericeo-pilosa, foliis rotundatis tripartitis lobis cune- 
atis inciso-partitis v. subintegris. H. Magellanica, Lamarck, Diet. vol. iii. p. 67. DC. Sgst. Yeg. vol. i. 
p. 226. Prodr. vol. i. p. 25. Delessert, Icon. Select, vol. i. t. 22. 

Hab. Strait of Magalhaens ; Commerson. Mount Tarn, altitude 2000 feet; Capt. King, C. Darwin, Esq. 
Staten Land, half way up the mountains ; A. Menzies, Esq. 

Var. /3, tomentosa; foliis argenteo-lanatis lobis cuneatis subintegris. H. tomentosa, DC. Si/st. Teg. 
vol. i. p. 227. Prodr. vol. i. p. 25. 

Statura et prsecipue pubescentia variat, nunc tota lana lnolk' sericea obtecta, nunc glabriuscula v .sparse pilosa. 
Scapus folio sequans v. bis longior. Sepala petalaque extus glabra v. sericea. 

These two varieties were found growing together both by Mr. Darwin and by Menzies, and are certainly not 
specifically distinct. 

De Candolle places this genus doubtfully amongst the Anemonea ; the ovules are, however, truly erect, and the 
petals being furnished with a small nectariferous scale, it ought to rank very near Ranunculus, from which it only differs 
in habit and in the numerous petals, and perhaps also in the persistent calyx. The form of the leaves seems to me 
to afford the sole tangible specific character, for the species vary in the hairiness of all then- parts. 

2. Hamadryas argentea, Hook. fil. ; dense argenteo-lanata, foliis obovato-cuneatis basi attenuatis pro- 
funde trifidis lobis 3-5-fidis. (Tab. LXXXV.) 

Hab. Falkland Islands ; amongst grass; Captain, Sulivan, Lieut. Robinson, J. D.H. 

Radix fibrosa, fibris crassis descendentibus. Folia radicalia, basi fibris petiolonim vetustorum tecta ; petioli 
graciles, erecti, 2-10 unc. longi, tomentosi; lamina 1-j- 2 unc. longa, coriacea, utrinque tomento argenteo-nitente 
vestita, segmentis obtusis. Scapus folio subsequilongus, crassitie penna? corvinaa, plantse masculae gracilior et uni- 
florus, foeminea? biflorus. Sepala ovata, acuta v. acuminata, extus villosa. Petala sepolis duplo longiora, sub 4 lin. 
longa, lineari-subulata, gradatim attenuata, basi subito contracta, quasi unguiculata, supra unguem squamam ap- 
pressam gerentia trinervia, membranacea, dorso hirsuta, pallide stramiuea. Stamina 8, filamentis fihformibus. 
Ovaria ovata, superne in stylum imcinatum attenuata. CarpeUa turgida, ossea. 

To all appearance this is a distinct species from the former, and certainly a very beautiful one ; both Mr. 
Darwin's and Mr. Menzies' specimens, however, of H. Magellanica, var. /3, are so s im ilarly covered with silky 
wool, that the form of the leaves alone serves to distinguish them. It is rare in the northern part of the islands, 
and a copious suite of specimens might exhibit varieties still more like the Fuegian species. I detected only one 
individual with male flowers, it was smaller than the females, and had slender, single-flowered peduncles. 

Plate LXXXV. Fig. 1, a male plant, of the natural size; 2, a flower of the same; 3, a petal; 4, a stamen: 
— magnified; 5, a female plant of the natural size; 6, a flower of the same; 7, an ovarium; 8, a carpel; 9, the 
same cut open longitudinally showing the erect seed : — magnified. 

228 FLOEA ANTAECTICA. {Fuegia, the 

3. Hahadryas Kingii, Hook. fil. ; foliis rotundatis 5-7-fidis v. multilobatis, lobis crenatis utrinque 

Hab. Strait of Magalliaens ; Mount Tarn ; Capt. King. 

I have seen but two specimens of this very distinct species, they are male and female, the scape of the former, 
as in H. argentea, is one-flowered, that of the female has two flowers ; the root is elongated and tuberous, throwing 
out stout fibres. 

4. CALTHA, Pers. 

1. Caltha sagittata, Cavanilles Icon. t. 414. DC. Prodr. vol. i. p. 44. Gaud, in Aim. Sc. Nat. 
vol. v. p. 105. et in Freyc. Toy. Bot. p. 136. D'Urv. in Mem. Soc. Linn. Paris, vol. iv. p. 615. Hook, 
fil. in Bot. Mag. t. 4056. C. multicapsularis, Banks et Sol. MSS. in Bill. Banks. Forster, in Trans. 
Linn. Soc. vol. viii. p. 324. 

Hab. Fuegia; Commerson, Banks and Solander. Port Famine; Cajjl. King and C. Darwin, Esq. 
Hermite Island ; /. D. H. Falkland Islands ; Gaudic/iaud, D' Urville, J. D. H., &c. 

Although placed by De Candolle in a separate section of the genus from C. palustris, this will rank more pro- 
perly with that species than with the two following, especially as in its English representative there is an evident 
tendency in the lobes of the leaf to become inflexed. The present varies exceedingly in size, according to the moisture 
of the situation where it grows ; the flowers are pale yellow, as in the following, and have a faint honey-like smell ; 
the apices of the petals are slightly incrassated. A small state of it has been gathered by Mr. Bridges in Chili, in 
rivulets on the east side of the Andes, near the Volcano of Peteroa ; it appears to be a peculiarly southern species, 
not inhabiting the level of the sea in a lower latitude than the Strait of Magalhaens. 

2. Caltha (Psyclirophila, DC.) appendiculata, Pers. ; lmmilis, dense csespitosa, dioica, foliis breviter 
petiolatis cuneatis trifidis segnientis bifidis basi appendiculis 2 linearibus instructis, pedunculo brevissimo, 
sepalis linearibus gradatiin attenuatis, carpellis paucis. C. appendiculata, Persoon, Enclt. vol. ii. p. 107. 
DC. Syst. Yeg. vol. i. p. 307. Prodr. vol. i. p. 44. D' Urville et Gaudickaud, locis citatis. C. paradoxa, 
Soland. MSS. in Bill. Banks. Worst, in Trans. Linn. Soc. vol. viii. p. 324. 

Hab. Fuegia; Banks and Solander. Port Famine; Capt. King and C. Darwin, Esq. Hermite Island, 
from tbe sea to an elevation of 1200 feet ; /. D. H. Falkland Islands ; Gaudickaud, D' Urville, J. D. H. 

Caules validi, dense crespitosi, parce ramosi, subelongati, reliquiis vaginarum foliorum obtecti, hie illic fibras 
crassas ernittentes. Folia crassa et carnosa ; petiolo sub i unc. longo ; vagina latissima, membranacea, superne 
utrinque in auricidam scariosam dilatata ; lamina basin versus biauriculata, aurieulis e pagiua superiore ortis laminae 
appressis linearibus emarginatis. Fl. Masc. — Pedunculitis infra florem incrassatus, sidcatus. Sepala 5, patentia, 
lanceolata, in caudam membranaceam attenuata, pallide flava, purpureo-marginata. Stamina plerumque 9, quorum 
4 breviora diutiusque maturata. Ovaria 5, abortiva. Fl. Fceji. — Sepala ut in mare sed erecta. Stamina rudi- 
mentaria. Ovaria 5-9, compressa, cxtus papulosa. Ovala 7-8. Semina sub 3, testa pallide brunnea nitida. 

A highly ciuious plant and different, almost generically, from the former, in the dioecious flowers, the few 
stamens and ovaria, the form of the sepals (which are thick and terminated by a long membranous apex), and espe- 
cially in having the appendices of the leaves placed on the surface of the lamina. The flowers are rather pretty, 
though small, being pale yellow and bordered with purple, they exhale a faint sweetish odour. Both this and the 
following constitute a material proportion of the bog-earth in some parts of Hermite Island, and the present alone in 
the Falklands, sometimes covering the ground in broad hard green tufts. They are eminently southern plants, not 
being found to the northward of Fuegia. 

Falkland's, etc.] FLORA ANTARCTICA. 229 

3. Caltha (Psycliroplrila, DC.) dionecefolia, Hook.; purnila, eaubbus densissime csespitosis ramosis, 
foliis orbiculari-ovatis bilobis lobis conduplicatis appendiculisque 2 appressis oblongis setoso-ciliatis papulosis, 
stipulis maximis concavis, sepalis 5 oblongo-ovatis crassis apicibus obtusis membrauaceis, stamimbus 5-7, 
ovariis 2-3. C. dionesefoba, Hook, in Loud. Journ. of Bot. vol. ii. p. 306. (Tab. LXXX1T.) 

Hab. Fuegia; Forster and C. Darwin, Esq. Hermite Island, from tbe sea to an altitude of 1500 
feet ; /. B. H. 

Caules eonferti, 2-4 nnc. longi, stipulis scariosis foliorum delapsonim tecti, ramosi, hie illic fibras crassas sim- 
plices emittentes. Petioli breves, validi, iu vaginarn maximam concavam cymbifonnem dilatati ; foliorum lamina 
vagina minor, sub 2 lin. longa, coriacea, superne lsete viridis, papulosa, subtus palb'dio, marginibus instar Dionece 
ciliatis, appendiculis lamina; appressis, extus ciliatis. Peditnculi breves, crassi, subclavati, obtuse trigoni, \ una 
longi. Flores hermaphroditi ?, stellati, stramiuei, extus flavi. Sepala 5, patentia, elliptico-ovata, carnosa, apice 
obtuso membranaceo subappendiculato, nerris plurimis. Stamina plerumque 7, filamentis crassis purpureo-notatis, 
antheris majuseulis. Ovaria 2-3, ssepissinie 2, oblique ovata, obtusa; ovulis 2-5. 

First detected, but never described, by Forster, from whose collections we have a very small specimen, intermixed 
with 0.ralis Magellanica. In the southern parts of Tierra del Fuego it is a very common plant, covering large tracts 
of ground with a carpet of deep but shining green, upon which the stellate flowers have a very pretty appearance. 
The similarity between the leaf of this and of the Dionaa muscipula, " American Fly-trap," is very striking. 

Plate LXXXIY. Fig. 1, back view, and 2, a side view of the leaf, petiole, and stipule or vagina ; 3, front 
view of lamina, showing the appendages ; 4, flower ; 5, the same when fully expanded : — all magnified. 


1. DEIMYS, Ford. 

1. Drbiys Winteri, Forst. Gen. p. 84. t. 42. Linn. Fil. Suppl. p. 269. Lamarck, Bid. vol. ii. p. 331. 
BC. Syst. Veg. vol. i. p. 443. Prodr. vol. i. p. 78. D. punctata, Lam. Bid. vol. ii. p. 330. Ilhst. t. 494. 
f. 1. Winterana aromatica, Soland. Med. Obs. vol. v. p. 46. t. 1. Wintera aromatica, Murray, Syst. 507. 
Apj). Med. vol. iv. p. 557. Humb. et Bonpl. vol. i. p. 209. 

Hab. Strait of Magalbaens and Fuegia ; first noticed by John Winter wbo accompanied Drake's voy- 
age in 1577, and since by all voyagers and collectors. 

A very abundant tree throughout the western and southern parts of Fuegia, even in Herrnite Island ascend- 
ing to 1000 feet. The natives use the stems of the young trees, rudely fashioning them into handles sometimes 
ten feet long, for then harpoons ; but the wood is too soft and supple. The bark has proved a most useful sto- 
machic and antiscorbutic to various voyagers, and especially to a portion of the crew of the ' Beagle ' during Capt. 
King's arduous surveying voyage (vide King's Voyage, vol. i. p. 234.). 

After a careful examination of a'very extensive suite of examples, I have come to the conclusion that there is 
but one South American species of this genus. There is a dissimilarity in the form of the foliage, even between the 
North and South Fuegian states, the former having longer and more membranous leaves, differing in no respect 
from specimens gathered near Valparaiso by GDUes, Cuming, and Bertero, which generally pass under the name of 
D. CMlensis, DC. From Juan Fernandez again, the plants collected by the two last-mentioned travellers belong to 
the same species : though the leaves are generally more linear, they are not so much so as in some of the continental 
states. In Brazil, the variety, called D. Granatensis, L. fil., is found over the whole of that vast empire, and equally 
occurs in New Grenada and the province of Santa Fe in Colombia. Mr. Gardner's number 5675 precisely accords 

3 A 

230 FLORA ANTARCTICA. [Fuec/ia, the 

with the Juan Fernandez plant. St. Hilaire and Canibessedes describe four and give figures of three varieties ; 
herein they differ from Martius, who considers it the same as D. Winteri, but these authors do not state their rea- 
sons (' Plantes Usuelles de Bresil,' Tab. 26-28), and neither in the plates or descriptions do any characters appear 
which are not common to some of the Chilian and Fuegian specimens : their var. sylvatica coincides with Juan Fer- 
nandez specimens ; the var. montana has smaller leaves than any found on the west coast of the continent. Chamisso 
and Schlechtendahl, in their notes upon the Mexican plant collected by Schiede and Deppe, refer it to D. Grana- 
tetisis (Linnsea, vol. v. p. 210 ; vol. vi. p. 417 ; and vol. x. p. 214.); it is identical with D. Mexicana, Mor. and Sesse, 
(PL Mex. in DC. Prodi-.), and some of the Chilian examples agree with Mexican ones. The effuse panicle and 
larger flowers are more characteristic of the northern states of the tree, but these peculiarities afford no specific 
distinction. A singular state, with small narrow leaves, remarkably revolute at the margins, has been gathered 
in Brazil by Claussen. The variations in the foliage are too gradual to admit even of the forms being grouped 
into varieties indicative of countries or of other peculiarities, and the glaucous hue of the under surface of the leaves 
is equally apt to mislead. 

I feel little doubt that this plant extends over no less than 86° of latitude, forming at the southern limit 
of its growth one of the three trees that advance the nearest to the Antarctic circle, and reaching as high a lati- 
tude as any flowering plant, save the solitary grass of the South Shetland Islands. No vegetable production of 
its size affords a parallel case to this, either in America or any other country. Such an extraordinarily extended 
range is in part obviously due to some peculiarities in the form and surface of South America, where under every 
degree of latitude there are large areas either at the level of the ocean or at an elevation where such a tree can enjoy 
a climate that is equable. To the influence of the like causes I shoidd attribute the specific identity between some 
high northern and southern species, which like the Gentiana prostrata, Trketnm subspicatmn, and other plants men- 
tioned in the former part of this work (Part i. p. 117), pass along the Andes from the northern temperate or frigid 
point to the southern extreme of America. 

The Dr'unys Winteri is one of those plants which is represented by two closely allied species in other quarters 
of the globe, one in Tasmania, the Tasmania aromatica, and the Driinys axillaris in New Zealand. There are many 
instances of genera having representatives in those three botanical regions, the species being in general mutually 
more related than to any others, such are afforded by the genera Far/us, Astelia, Abrotanella, by shrubby Veronicas 
and many others. This similarity in some of the botanical productions of countries, otherwise unlike in vegetation, 
is far more remarkable than a total dissimilarity between lands so far separated, or even than a positive specific 
identity woidd be at first sight ; because it argues the operation of some agent far above our powers of comprehen- 
sion, and far other from what we commonly observe to affect geographical distribution. 


1. BERBERIS, Linn. 

1. Berberis iUcifolia, Forst. ; ereeta, spinis tripartitis, foliis obovatis grosse spinoso-dentatis, pedun- 
culis folio brevioribus 4-6-floris, pedicellis elongatis subcorymbosis, floribus majusculis, baccis late ovatis 
lagenseforrnibus. B. ihcifolia, Forst. Comm. vol. ix. p. 28. Linn. Ml. Sitppl. p. 210. DC. Syst. vol. li. 
p. 12. Proclr. vol. i. p. 107. B. lagenaria, Fob: Did. vol. viii. p. 619. (Tab. LXXXVI.) 

Hab. Strait of Magalliaeiis on botli sides and throughout Fuegia ; Commerson, Forster, and all future 

This is certainly the handsomest species of the genus, forming a straggling bush, eight feet high, with deep 

FalMands, etc.] FLORA ANTARCTICA. 231 

green shining leaves and very conspicuous golden yellow flowers. The wood is pale yellow, affording a gamboge 
coloured dye, the berries of a deep steel blue colour, and few in comparison to the size of the flower. 

Plate LXXXVI. Fig. 1, a flower; fig. 2, a petal and stamen removed from the flower; fig. 3, pistil: — all 

2. Berberis bnxifolia, Lam. ; erecta, ramosa, spinis tripartitis, foliis oblongo-lanceolatis obovatisve 
planta juniore majoribus petiolatis pungentibus hie illic spinoso-dentatis seniore minoribus plerumque inte- 
gerriniis acutis post anthesin coriaceis, pedicellis 1-3-fioris, bacca globosa. B. buxifolia, Lamarck, Ittust. 
t. 253. f. 3. DC. Sj/st. Yeg. vol. ii. p. 15. Prodr. vol. i. p. 107. Hook, et Am. in Bot. MisceU. vol. iii. 
p. 136. B. microphylla, Forst. Comm. vol. ix. p. 29. B. dulcis, Sweet, Hort. Britann. 2nd Series, vol. i. 
t. 100. B. mermis, Ben.? Ench. vol. i. p. 387. DC. Broitr. vol. i. p. 107. 

Hab. Strait of Magalhaens and throughout Fuegia ; Commerson, and all subsecpient collectors. 

This is a variable species, especially in the foliage, exhibiting a difl'erent aspect at different seasons of the year. 
In spring, when the flowering commences, fascicles of new leaves are produced, which are pale green, membranous, 
and entire ; at this period the leaves of the former season begin falling whde those of the present year gradually become 
larger, stiffer, coriaceous, and generally mueronate or pungent at the apex. They are not fully developed till autumn, 
when they are generally quite entire, attenuated at the base, and shortly petiolate, about half an inch long, rigid and 
coriaceous, reticulated on the upper surface ; during the following spring these in their turn fall away. In seedling 
plants the leaves are larger than at any future time, on long petioles, broader, and here and there furnished with 
spinous teeth. The flowers are generally in threes, but sometimes solitary, pale yellow. The berries, about the size of 
a small pea, were much used for tarts by the officers of the ' Beagle ' and found excellent. The B. dtrfcis, of Sweet, 
agrees with the common form of this plant, except that the flowers are larger in that author's figure and the pubes- 
cence of the pedicels not visible in the wild specimens. The B. biennis seems a variety, some of the specimens 
being quite unarmed ; indeed the spines of this genus afford but an inconstant character. 

Plate LXXXVII. (Under the name of B. microphylla). Fig. 1, a flower ; fig. 2, petal and stamen removed 
from the same ; fig. 3, pistils : — all magnified. 

3. Berberis empetrifolia, Lam. Illustr. t. 253. f. 4. DC. Sj/st. Teg. vol. ii. p. 16. Prodr. vol. i. 
p. 107. Hook, et Am. in Bot. MisceU. vol. iii. p. 136. 

Hab. Strait of Magalhaens ; common in alpine woods ; Commerson. Port Famine ; Copt. King. 

This species is more characteristic of a dry chmate than of the moist wooded country of Fuegia and South- 
west Chili. The Strait seems to be its southern limit ; it inhabits neither the east nor west coasts, but is confined to 
the Cordillera itself, from many elevated parts of which range we have received it, gathered by Gillies, Cuming, 
Macrae, and Bridges ; it very probably therefore is a native of the whole length of that range, from lat. 34.° to lat. 54°, 
descending to the level of the sea at Port Famine, to which point the mountains are continued in one unbroken 

1. ARABIS, L. 

1. Arabis Macloviana, Hook. ; glaberrima, basi ramosa, foliis inferne dentato-serratis radicalibus longe 
petiolatis oblongis obtusis caulinis sensim minoribus, supremis sessilibus lineari-oblongis, floribus in corym- 
bum densum dispositis, sepalis obtusis extus hirsutis pedicellurn sequantibus, petalis albis spathulatis, siliquis 

232 FLOEA ANTAECTICA. [Fuegia, the 

racemosis erectis strictis linearibus stylo brevi valido terminatis, valvis concavis 3-costatis reticulatim venosis, 
seminibus plitrimis ovato-oblongis, testa atro-brunnea grosse punctata. A. Macloviana, Hook. Ic. Plant. 
t. 498. Brassica Magellanica, Poiret? (fide Gaudichaud in Ann. Sc. Nat. vol. v. p. 105.), non Juss. Pers. 
DC. et Delessert. B. Macloviana, IfUrv. in Mem. Soc. Linn. Paris, vol. iv. p. 616. Erysimum Maclovi- 
anum, Gay in Freyc. Toy. Bot. p. 136. 

Hab. Falkland Islands ; abundant on the sea coast ; GawVichaud, H Urville, &c. 

Herba basi lignosa, coriacea, spithamea ad tripedalem, interdum subglaucescens. Folia radicalia 2-3 ivncialia. 
Flores conferti, ampli. Siliquee 1 unc. longse, subtetragonse. 

la tlie form of tlie pod this is intermediate between Barbaraa and Arabis, the habit is however altogether 
that of the latter genus. The fact of a species of Brassica having been described as a native of the Strait of Magal- 
haens seems to have induced Gaudichaud to refer Ms probably incomplete specimens of this plant to it. D'Urville 
afterwards retained the generic name, but constituted this a new species. That the specimens of the former, and 
possibly of the latter voyager also, were incomplete, is evident from M. Gay's referring it to the genus Erysimum, 
from which as from Brassica it is far removed, though in the form of valves of the pods and habit it bears a simi- 
larity to some species of the first named genus. 


1. Caedamine hirsuta, Linn., Sp. PI. 915. D'Urville in Mem. Soc. Linn. Paris, vol. iv. p. 616. 
Gaudichaud in Freyc. Toy. Bot. p. 137. Hook, et Am. in Bot. Miscell. vol. iii. p. 137. Fl. Antarct. 
part i. p. 5. C. antiscorbutica, Banks et Soland. MSS. in Bill. Banks. C. glacialis, DC. Syst. Teg. vol. ii. 
p. 264. Prodr. vol.'i. p. 153. C. propinqua, Carmichael, in Linn. Trans, vol. xii. p. 507. Sisymbrium 
glaciale, Forst. Comm. Goett. vol. ix. p. 32. 

Var. nivalis ; foliis majoribus, pedicellis siliquisque elongatis erectis, stigmate sessili. C. nivalis, Gill. 
MSS. Hook, et Am. in Bot. Miscell. 1. c. 

Hab. Fuegia, tlie Falkland Islands, and Tristan d'Acunha ; abundant, especially near the sea. Var. /3, 
in various situations with the former ; Forster, Banks and Solander, Capt. Carmichael, &c. 

After what is said respecting this plant in the first part of the present work, it will not excite surprise that I 
now consider all the species quoted above as states or varieties of the universally diffused C. hirsuta. I have in vain 
sought for specific characters amongst the numerous specimens now before me, gathered in many parts of Chili, 
Patagonia, and Fuegia, at different positions on the coast and various elevations on the mountains. The ordi- 
nary form, which bears generally the name of C. glacialis, is a small, glabrous or slightly hairy plant, from 2-6 
inches high, sparingly branched, with the branches leafy or naked, sometimes of a robust habit. Leaves with 3-5 
pair of sinuated leaflets, the terminal one larger, cordate or attenuated at the base. Siliqua? on pedicels from two 
to three-quarters of an inch long, erect, about an inch long, with acuminated or rather obtuse styles, which are 
sometimes so short that the stigmata are nearly sessile. From the same locality, however, different specimens vary 
much, and when growing in a sandy soil the roots become tuberous and the whole plant often hairy. In moist situations 
the stems are leafy upwards and more succulent, resembling the Campbell's Island variety subcarnosa (vol. i. p. 5), and 
I have gathered individuals of a very small size on the hills of Hermite Island, with single pans of leaflets, answering 
to the C. glacialis, /3 of DC, and to Buenos Ayres specimens in Herb. Hook. Mr. Darwin has collected a form near 
Valparaiso, which is not distinguishable from a large state of the plant that inhabits the Island of Arran in Scot- 
land; it is the C. sylvatica and also Sisymbrium Nasturtium var. Chilense, of Bertero. Some of the Falkland Island 
specimens again, are identical with others gathered in Iceland, and as is the case in the Northern Hemisphere, 
the flowers produced in the colder latitude are generally the largest. I am not prepared to say how far the C. debilis 

FalkJ anils, etc.] FLORA ANTARCTICA. 233 

of New Zealand and a Tasmanian species, may ultimately prove distinct from this plant, which, besides being universally 
distributed throughout Europe, is abundant in North America under the names of C. hirsuta, C. Pennsylvanica, C.Yir- 
ginica, &c, whence it probably passes along the Andes into South America, for we have specimens from Colombia. It 
is likewise an inhabitant of the Pacific Islands, of Ceylon and the Indian Peninsula, and of the Island of Mauritius. 

The other Chilian species of this genus are : 1. 0. affinis, Hook, and Am. (Bot. Miscell. vol. iii. p. 137), this 
has the general appearance of C. hirsuta, but the flowers are considerably larger and the pods gradually acuminated 
into long styles, (a native of Conception) ; 2. C. tenuirostris, Hook, and Am. 1. c., similar to the last, but the pods 
are larger, the leaves more numerous and cut into many linear segments, (Conception) ; 3. C. tuherosa, DC. (Syst. 
vol. ii. p. 254 ; Deless. Icon. vol. ii. t. 29), this has simple large and orbicular leaves, cordate at the base ; the tuber- 
ous root in the genus frequently is owing to local causes (Valparaiso) ; 4. C. Chilensis, DC, 1. c, has the leaves entire 
or with one small lobe at the base, elliptical, obovate, and obtuse, (Chili, Bertero) ; 5. C. chenopodiifolia, Pers. 
(DC. Prodr. vol. i. p. 149), it and the preceding belong to the entire-leaved section ; the present has the habit of 
Arabia Maclovianu, but the valves of the pods are plane and entirely nerveless (it grows near rivulets on the Andes, 
altitude 8000-10,000 feet (Bridges); 6. C.fiaccida, Cham., Bertero's imperfect specimen bearing this name 
(Mus. Brit.) with the following note, " an nova species? C. macrorhiza, Bert., MSS." appears not to be a Carda- 
mine at all. 

2. Cardamine geraniifolia, DC. ; glaberrima, v. parce pilosa, radice lignosa, caule erecto subramoso 
folioso, foliis radicalibus longe petiolatis bipinnatisectis pinnulis petiolulatis late ovatis trilobis tripartitisve 
segmentis grosse dentatis dentibus obtusis subacutisve, floribus majusculis in corymbum pauciflorum clis- 

positis, sepalis pedicellum sequantibus, petalis amplis obovato-spatliulatis albis v. pallide roseis, siliquis ? 

(Tab. LXXXVIII.) C. ? geraniifolia, DC. Syst. Veg. vol. ii. p. 268. Prodr. vol. i. p. 153. Sisymbrium 
gerarnifoh'um, Poiret, Diet. vol. vii. p. 218. 

Hab. Strait of Magalliaens; Commerson. Port Famine; Capt. King. South part of Fuegia; C. 
Darwin, Esq. Hermite Island ; /. D. H., Mr. Davis. 

Spithamea et ultra, erecta, flaccida, subsucculenta, hie illic parce pilosa, rarius glaberrima. Radix majuscula, 
elongata, cylindracea. Folia radicalia 4-8 uncialia, petiolo gracili ; lamina circurnscriptione oblonga, pinnatisecta, 
pinnis plerumque 5-7 patentibus iirferioribus pinnatisectis ; pinnulis ternatim sectis, membranaceis, 3-5 lin. longis, 
segmentis ultimis varie incisis dentatisve : folia caulina radicalibus sirnilia, pro planta maxima. Flores magnitudine 
C. pratensis. 

In Peru this very distinct species is replaced by two or three similar, of which one grows at an elevation of 
10,000-12,000 feet on the Andes. They are more nearly allied to the C. chelidonia, Tenore, of Italy, than to any 
other of the genus. 

Plate LXXXVIII. Fig. 1, flower; Jig. 2, petal ; fig. 3, stamen and pistil : — magnified. 

3. DRABA, L. 

1. Draba incana, Linn., Sp."Pl. 897. 8m. Engl. Pot. t. 388. 

Var. Magellanica ; foliis integris, siliculis planis velutinis in stylum brevem attenuatis. Draba Magel- 
lanica, Lam. Diet. vol. ii. p. 328. DC. Syst. vol. ii. p. 349. Prodr. vol. i. p. 170. 

H.\b. Strait of Magalliaens, by the margins of alpine woods; Commerson (in Herb. Hook.). 

The only specimen of this plant that I have seen was derived from the Herbarium of M. Gouan, and is marked 
by him as received from Commerson ; it is quite undistinguishable from B. incana, under which name, I, alono- 
with Torrey and Gray in the Flora of North America, include B. confusa, Ehrh. The specimen is about 8 inches 

3 B 

234 FLORA ANTAECTICA. [Fuegia, the 

long and consists of a single stem (probably one of several from the same root) bearing linear, obtuse, and entire 
radical leaves, scarcely an inch long ; tlie ascending portion is erect and scarcely branched, with three sessile, ovato- 
oblong leaves ; the raceme 3 inches long ; pods erect, 4 lines long and less than one in breadth, borne upon stout 
pedicels shorter than themselves ; seeds immature, small, pale red brown. In this genus, characters taken from a 
solitary though complete specimen are invalid, and since it is undistinguishable from some North American and 
European states of B. incana, I am obliged to unite it with them ; for I can find no reason to suppose that they 
will eventually prove distinct. 

It is very singular that this plant, apparently identical with one so abundant throughout the Arctic regions 
and the elevated mountains of the north temperate zone, should not have been seen in the southern by any col- 
lectors save Dr. Gillies, who is stated (Bot. Miscell. vol. iii. p. 138), to have found a solitary specimen on the 
Andes of Mendoza, and Commerson. It certainly does not appear amongst the plants of the Colombian Andes that 
have been published by Humboldt, or more recently discovered by Col. Hall and Professor Jameson. Variable as 
the species of this genus are in the Northern Hemisphere, they are equally so in the Southern ; still, as they seem 
to present tangible characters, I have availed myself of them here in drawing up the subjoined list of the South 
American species known to me*. With regard to the sections proposed for these twenty species, they are tolerably 

* DEABA, L. 
§ I. Racemo inter folia summa sessili. 

1. D. cryptantlia, n. sp.; csespitosa, rarnosa, tota incano-tomentosa, foliis imbricatis obovatis obtusis, racemo 
foliaceo abbreviato inter folia suprema sessili paucifloro, floribus parvis brevissime pedicellatis, petalis spathulatis 
albis unguieulatis, siliculis longe pedicellatis ovatis incanis stylo brevi terminatis. 

Hab. Peru; Cerro Pasco; Mathews (v. 942). 

Caules robusti f— 2 imc. longi. Folia \ uncialia, ramis appressa. Flores ineonspicui. Sepala -i lin. longa, 
oblonga, obtusa. Petala sepalis vis longiora, apice emarginata. Silicidce 2-i liu. longa? ; seminibus parvis rufo- 

§ II. Subacatdes v. caulibus caspitosis, pedunculo nudo,fioribns corymbosis, stylo brevi. 

2. D. aretioides, H. B. K. ; Nov. Gen. et Sp. Arner. vol. v. p. 77. t, 435. 

Hab. Andes of Colombia; Antisana, 10,800 feet; Humboldt and Bonpland. Pichincha, 15,000-16,000 feet; 
Professor Jameson ; Hartweg, in Herb. Hooker (n. SS5.) 

3. D. obovata, Benth. ; Plant. Hartweg. p. 159. n. 885. 

Hab. Andes of Colombia; Antisana, 15,000 feet; Hartweg, (n. 885) in Herb.Bentliam. 

The species in the Hookerian Herbarium, received as n. 885, from M. Hartweg, is the same as Professor 
Jameson's B. aretioides and Humboldt's figure ; but it is not the B. obovata, n. 885, of Mr. Bentham's herbarium, 
apparently a very different species. 

4. D. depressa, n. sp. ; csespitosa, incano-tomentosa, caulibus brevibus prostratis ramosis foliosis, foliis confertis 
obovato-spathulatis apice rotimdatis integerrimis, racemis abbreviatis folia summa paulo superautibus, sepalis late 
oblongis dorso pubescentibus, petalis flavis, pedicellis fructiferis elongatis, siliculis latissime ovato-rotundatis acutis, 
stylo brevi, valvis planiusculis incanis, seminibus majusculis late obovatis. 

Hab. Colombia; Chimborazo, 17,000 feet ; Col. Hall. 

A D.cryptant/ta, cui proxima, difi'ert statura, racemo elongato, floribusque ter majoribus ; ad D.aretioidem statura 
accedit, sed folia incana obtusa patentia et laxius inibricata, siliculse minores latiores caulesque prostrati. 

Falklands, etc.] FLORA ANTARCTICA. 235 

natural, the styles and foliation forming very evident and nearly constant characters j though D. cryptantlta, in having 
the flowers entirely sessile amongst the leaves, stands alone in the genus : unfortunately the specimens of this are not 

5. D. siliquosa, n. sp. ; caule brevissimo basi ramoso, foliis versus apices ramorum rosulatis lineari-obovatis 
villoso-sericeis, pedunculo incano sursum pedicellis sepalisque dorso hirsutis, floribus in corymbum subcapitatuni 
nudum dispositis parvis albidis, petalis elongato-spathulatis unguiculatis retusis, siliquis linearibus obtusis glaber- 
rimis, stylo nullo. 

Var. /3, Antisana; foliis majoribus laxius confertis obtusis. 

Hab. Colombia; Cotopaxi, 13,000 feet ; Professor Jameson. Var. jS, on walls at the Hacienda of Antisana, 
Professor Jameson (n. 28.). 

Radix descendens, multiceps. Folia \ (in var. /3 f ) una longa. Pedunculi 1| unciales, simplices, nudi. Siliquee 
i lin. longs, lineares ; valvis planis, saspe purpureis ; seminibus oblongis, rufo-fuscis. 

6. D. Macleani, n. sp. ; incano-tomentosa, caule brevissimo diviso, foliis confertis obovato-oblongis obtusis, 
corynibo subcapitato nudo, floribus parvis breviter pedicellatis albidis, siliculis glaberrhnis ovatis in stylum brevis- 
simum attenuatis, valvis planis. 

Hab. Andes of Peru ; /. Maclean, Esq. 

A priori differt foliis incano-tomentosis, fonnaque valde diversa siliculamm attenuatarum. 

7. D. ajjinis. n. sp. ; caule brevissimo diviso, foliis confertis patentibus obovato-lanceolatis subacutis sericeo- 
hirsutis, pedunculo puberulo, floribus corymbosis subcapitatis parvis, siliculis pubescentibus pedicellatis elliptico-ob- 
longis stylo brevissimo terminatis, valvis subconvexis. 

Hab. Colombia; Hacienda de Antisana, on old walls, at an elevation of 13,400 feet; Professor Jameson. 

D. siliquosa proxima siliculis latioribus brevioribus pubescentibusque prsecipue difl'ert. Ha?c cum tribus praa- 
cedentibus habitu et statura omnino convenit. 

8. D. Falklandica, n. sp. ; vid. supra. 

Hab. Falkland Islands; Lieut. Robinson, R.N. 

Forma siliculae D. qffiui proxima, sed magnitudine, vahds convexis, stylo longiore, siliculisque raeemosis 

9. D.funiculosa, n. sp. ; vid. supra. 
Hab. Falkland Islands ; /. D. H. 
Species nulli arete aflinis. 

10. D. aicstralis, n. sp. ; annua, gracilis, caule simpliciusculo patenti-piloso, foliis radicalibus paucis rosulatis ob- 
longis oblongo-lanceolatisve plei-umque integerrimis obtusis supra subsericeo-hirsutis subtus stellatim pubescentibus, 
pedunculis glaberrimis nudis paucifloris, floribus albis pedicellatis, pedicellis fructiferis filiformibus silicida glaberrima 
lineari-oblonga utrinque obtusiuscula \ brevioribus, valvis planis, seminibus plurimis parvis. D. australis, Brown, 
MSS. hi Herb. Banks. 

Hab. Patagonia; Mus. Banks. BahiaBlanca; C. Darwin, Esq. 

Species D. lineari, Boiss., D. cimeifolia, Nutt., et D. micranthce, Nutt. similh'ma. 

236 FLOEA ANTAECTICA. \_Fuegia, the 

in fruit. In the second group the scape is entirely naked and the flowers are more or less corymbose, all have short 
styles and the B. aretioides and B. siUquosa are similar to the B. Aizoon in general appearance. The plants included 

5 III. Caulescentes ; scapo foliato, raceniis post anthesin elongatis, foliis radicalibus caulink diversis. 

11. D. radicata, n. sp. ; incana, caule brevi lignoso subdiffuse ramoso, foliis confertis lineari-obovatis v. spa- 
thulatis obtusis, scapo gracili nudo v. unifoliato, floribus subeoryrnbosis majusculis, petalis flavis calyce pubescente 
duplo longioribus, siliculis erecto-patentibus ellipticis utrinque attenuatis pubenilis pedicello longioribus, stylo 

Hab. Colombia; Andes of Quito, altitude 12,000 feet; Professor Jameson (n. 153). 

Radix elongata, lignosa, ramosa, multiceps. Caules 1-2 unciales, versus apices foliosi. Folia \-\ uncialia, 
patula, pube stellata. Scapi 1-2 unc. longi. Flores magnitudine varii. Petala sub 3 lin. longa, unguiculata ; 
lamina patente, rotundata. Silicula \— -J lin. longse ; valvis planis ; seminibus majusculis, late obovatis, atro-fuscis. 

12. D. grandijlora, Hook, and Am. ; incano-tomentosa, caulibus elongatis foliosis subramosis, foliis patentibus 
lineari-oblongis lanceolatisve integerrimis v. obscure dentatis, scapo nudo v. folioso, floribus amplis pedicellatis, 
petalis albis calyce plus duplo longioribus, siliculis ellipticis pubenilis plerumque tortis utrinque attenuatis pedicello 
brevioribus stylo elongato terminatis, seminibus 12-20 quoque loculo. D. grandiflora, Hook, et Am. in Bot. Misc. 
vol. iii. p. 137. sine descript. 

Var. /3; caide simpliciusculo, scapo nudo, siliculis glabriusculis subobtusatis pedicello brevioribus. D. grandi- 
flora, Hook, et Am. ; Benth. in Plant. Hartweg. p. 159. n. 883. 

Hab. Colombia ; Mr. Lobb. Chimborazo, 14,000 feet ; Professor Jameson. Var. 0, Chimborazo ; Professor 
Jameson, Hartweg, n. 883. 

Caules 3-4 unciales. Folia uncialia, in petiolum attenuata. Flores magnit. D. violacece. Silieulce plerum- 
que y unc. longae. D. violacea proxima sed ad hanc sectionem relata obscapum (prsecipue in var. (3), elongatum, 
a caule distinctum, racemumque nudiuscidum. 

13. D. incana, vid. supra. 

Hab. Strait of Magalhaens ; Commerson. 

14. D. Gilliesii, Hook, et Arn. in Bot. Misc. vol. iv. p. 137. 
Hab. Chili ; on the Andes ; Gillies, Cuming, Reynolds, Bridges. 

15. D. cheiranthoides, n. sp. ; radice magna fusiforrni, foliis radicalibus longissime lineari-lanceolatis sinuato- 
dentatis utrinque stellatim scabemlis caulinis multo minoribus, scapo ascendente puberulo subramoso, racemo elon- 
gato, floribus amplis aureis, pedicellis fructiferis elongatis patentibus, siliculis obovato-oblongis utrinque attenuatis in 
stylum elongatum desinentibus, valvis convexiusculis glabriusculis, seminibus paucis majusculis atro-fuscis. 

Hab. New Grenada ; Sierra Nevada, near the snow ; Purdie. 

Radix pollicem crassa, 3—4 unc. longa. Folia 3-5 uncialia, vix i unc. lata, fasciculata, longe petiolata, flac- 
cida. Rami seu scapi pedales, foliosi, divisi. Flores magnitudine et colore CheirantM ochroleuci. Pedicelli frueti- 
feri strict!. Siliada -j unc. longaj, pedicello -j breviores, sub lente puberidaj. Semina pro genere maxima, 2 vel 3 
quoque loculo, 1 lin. longa, compressa. — Habitu ad Vesicariam utricidatam accedit, sed stamina omnia vere edentula, 
silicula elliptica et semina exalata. 

16. D. volcanica, Benth. ; Plant. Hartweg. p. S2. n. 571. 
Hab. Colombia; Yolcan de Agua; Hartweg, n. 571. 

FalMands, etc.] FLORA ANTARCTICA. 237 

in the third group are scapigerous, but the peduncle is more or less leafy and the flowers racemose, the radical leaves 
are distinct from the cauline. The last division differs from the former only in for min g shrubs, the branches being 
leafy throughout their length, an artificial character, but sufficiently available so far as the included species are 

17. D. Tohuscetms, H. B. K., Nov. Gen. et Sp. Plant. Am. vol. v. p. 73. 

Hab. Mexico; Humboldt and Bonpland. Oaxaca, 12,000-13,000 feet ; Galeotti. 

18. D. Jorullensis, H.B.K., I.e. 

Hab. Mexico; Jorullo; Humboldt and Bonpland. 
An hujus seetionis ? 

§ TV. Fruticulosa, caule e bad ramoso, ramisfoliosis, foliis radicalibus a caulinis rum distinguendis. 

19. D. violacea, DC. ; D. Bonplandiana, H. B. K., 1. c. 

Hab. Colombia; Assuay, 13,000-14,000 feet; Humboldt and Bonpland, Professor Jameson. 

Fndiculus pedalis. Flores subcorymbosi, magnitudine et colore variabiles. PediceUi fructiferi silicula breviores. 
Silicula lineari-ovatee, incano-tomentosae, in stylum gracilem gradatim attenuate. Semina plurima, obloriga, atro- 

20. D. alyssoides, H. B. K., 1. c. non Benth. Plant. Hartweg. Hook, et Am. Bot. Hisceil. vol. i. p. 126. t. 32. 

Hab. Colombia; Province of Pasto ; Humboldt and Bonpland. Summit of Pichincha and Pillzhum ; Professor 

Flores albi, ampli. Silicula longiores stylique breviores quam in praecedente. Semina parva. 

I have retained the name given to this plant in the ' Botanical Miscellany,' (vol. iii. p. 137), and also so called 
by Professor Jameson. Mr. Bentham has considered my D. Hallii as the D. alyssoides of Humboldt and Bonpland, 
whose specific character does not allow of my deciding the question. 

21. D. Hallii, n. sp. ; fruticulosa, ramosa, incano-pubescens, foliis radicalibus nullis caulinis sessilibus lineari- 
oblongis oblongo-obovatisve remote dentatis supra sericeo-hirsutis subtus stellatim tomentosis, racemis elongatis, 
florilms amplis albidis, pedicellis basi bracteatis fi-uctiferis erecto-patentibus silicula brevioribus, siliculis lineari-ob- 
longis in stylum brevem attenuatis, valvis planiuseulis pubescentibus, seminibus plurimis majusculis. D. alyssoides, 
Benth. Plant. Hartweg. p. 159. n. 884. 

Hab. Colombia ; Chimborazo, Pichincha, and Antisana, near the snow limit ; Col. Hall, Professor Jameson, 

Pedalis et ultra, vage ramosa, caulibus basi nudis. Folia 1-2 uncialia. Silicula forma variae, pleraeque \ unc. 
longse, liueari- v w ovato-oblongae, glabriusculae, iuterdum lineares et f unc. longa?. 

22. D. Arbuscula, n. sp. ; fruticulosa, stellatim pubescens, ramosa, raniis adscendentibus inferne lignosis nudis 
superne foHosis, foliis parvis imbrieatis obovatis obtusis, petiolis vaginantibus dilatatis glaberrimis, floribus flavis, 
siliculis pedicello brevioribus adscendentibus anguste elliptico-ovatis in stylum brevem attenuatis, valvis planis gla- 
briuscuhs, semimbus plurimis majusculis. 

Hab. Caraccas; Linden (n. 439). 

Caulis basi crassitie pennae anatinae, superne in ramos plurimos adscendentes fastigiatos divisus. Rami basi 
nudi, foliis delapsis cicatricati ; ramulis 2-3 imcialibus, foliosis. Folia \ unc. longa, imbricata, ovata, in petiolum 

3 c 

238 FLORA ANTARCTICA. [Fuegia, the 

2. Deaba Falklandica, Hook. fil. ; caespitosa, incano-pubescens, caule brevissimo foliis rosulatis obo- 
vato-spatbulatis obtusis integerrimis, dense vestito, pedunculis plurimis robustis breviusculis pedicellisque 
patentim substellato-pilosis, siliculis corymbosis pedicellis ter longioribus elliptico-oblongis utrinque sub- 
obtusis in stylum non attenuatis, stylo brevi valido, valvis concavis stellatim pubescentibus, seminibus 
plurimis parvis, funiculis brevibus. 

Hab. Falkland Islands ; Lieut. Robinson, R.N. 

Radix lignosa, descendens, ad apicem fasciciduin rosulatum dense aggregatum foliorum subcoriaceorum gerens. 
Folia ■!■ uncialia, pubescenti-hirsuta, subtus pilis stellatis conspersa. Pedunculi 1-^—2 unciales, validi, nudi v. ima 
basi uniibliati. Silicida 3-4 lin. longse, stigmate brevi crasso terminatse. 

The most prominent characters of this species are the densely leafy short stem, or more properly cluster of 
abbreviated stems, which immediately surmounts the root ; the short stout scapes, with comparatively large corymbs 
of pods ; the latter are obtuse at both ends, but not abrupt, and the seeds are small, placed close to the margins of 
the valves and the opposite series separated by a very broad dissepiment. 

3. Deaba funiculosa, Hook. fil. ; glaberrima, caule breviusculo ramoso, ramis foliosis, foliis lineari-lan- 
ceolatis interduin oppositis basique subconnatis margine argute eiliato-dentatis, scapis gracilibus ad apicem 
paucifloris, pedicellis fructiferis brevibus, sibculis liuearibus utrinque obtusis, stigmate bilobo sessili, valvis 
planiusculis, seminibus plurimis oblongis, funiculis elongatis capillaceis. (Tab. LXXXIX.) 

Radix sublignosa. Catdes pluries divisi, ramis £— J unc. longis. Folia erecto-patentia, rigida, |— i- uncialia, 
basi in petiolum subdilatata. Scapi 2-3 unc. longi, floriferi breves. Flares parvi, 3-5, breviter pedicellati, albidi, 
inconspicm. Sepala ovata, obtusa. Petala calyce bis longiora, spathulata, ad apicem rotuudata. Staminum fda- 
mentis gracilibus. Ovarium oblongo-ovatum. Silicida foliis subaequiloiiga, linearis, valvis ter quaterve longioribus 
quam latis, medio obscure uninerviis. 

A very peculiar species and resembling the D. oligospermia, Hook., of Arctic America, most in habit, and par- 
ticularly D. lactea, Adams, a native of Siberia, in the form and eiliation of the leaves ; it has no near ally on the 
South American continent. 

Plate LXXXIX. Fig. 1, portion of a stem, with two leaves accidentally opposite and connate at the base; 
fig. 2, a flower ; fig. 3, petal ; fig. 4, flower, with sepals and petals removed ; fig. 5, a pod ; fig. 6, the same, with one 
valve removed ; fig. 7, a seed and its funiculus ; fig. 8, embryo : — all magnified. 

4. PRINGLEA, Anders., MSS. 

Petala nulla (Anders. MSS.). Staminum filamenta brevia, ddatata, edentula. Ovarium obovatum. Stylus sub- 
elongatus. Stigma capitatum. Semina plurima, biseriaba, oblongo-cordata, in rostrum breve producta ; testa 
crassa, subspongiosa, albida. Silicida oblonga, valvis convexis navicularibus, dissepimento nullo. Cotyledones 
accumbentes. — Genus nidli arete, ajjii/e Eutrernre/o/vwa seminiim dissepimentoque relracto accedens, sed potius Drabse 
indole silicida et structura embryonis relation. Herba magnitudine varia, pier unique elata. Rhizoma etongatum, pro. 
strata. Foba in capitulum magnum congesta. Peduncidi infra folia orti, erecti, foliosi. Siliculse plur ima majascula. 
Pringlea et Diaphoranthus, Anderson in Herb. Banks. 

vaginantem dilatata, superne patentia, obtusa, vix dentata, utrinque pube stellata tecta. Racemi unciales. Flares 
magnitudine et colore D. aisoidis. Silicida 4 lin. longse. 

Species tres sequentes verisimiliter non hactenus descriptse, sed exemplaria mala offerunt, nempe e collec- 
tione Lindeni n. 431, in Caraccas reperta, et n. 1341 Novse Grenadoe (stirps ruira) et e coll. Galeotti n. 4669 e To- 
lucca in Mexico allata. 

Falkland^, etc.] FLORA ANTAECTICA. 239 

1. Pringlea antiscorhdica, Brown, MSS. in Herb. Banks. (Tab. XC.-XCI.) 

Radix (seu rhi:oma) prostrata, longe repens, 2-3 pedalis, crassa, diametro 1-2 unc, teres, transverse annulata, 
sublignosa, sapore Cochlearia Armoracia, pra?cipue versus basin fibras crassas divisas rainosas ernittens, ad apicem 
foliorum capitulum magnum scaposque 1-2 elongatos gerens. Folia imbrieata, in capitulum, Brassicce oleracetB 
magnitudine fomiaque, referens disposita, 3-6 unc. longa, latissime obovato-spathulata, basi in petioliun latum 
attenuate, eamoso-coriacea, concava, margine integenima, ciliata, interdiun pubescentia, intus vasibus oleo subti- 
lissimo repletis percursa. Pedunculi infra folia e rhizomate orti, ascendentes, 2-3-pedales, foKosi, sulcati, crassitie digi- 
tis humana?, intus spongiosi, foliis plurimis imbricatis late obovatis sessilibus tecti. Racemus fructiferus elongatus, 
6 unc. ad pedalem, e siliculis perplurhrris dense congestis subclavatus. Pedicelli clavati, erecti. Sejxda oblonga, 
obtusa, dorso pilosa. Petala nulla ! (Anderson MSS.). Stamina parva, filamentis dilatatis. Silicula f— 1 unc. longa?, 
oblongo-lanceolata?, v. breviter oblonga?, erectse, pubescentes v. patentim pilosa?, pilis simpUcibus, rarius glabra? ; 
valvis coriaceis, dorso convexis, obscure uninerviis ; replo gracili, persistente ; placentis biserialibus, e dissepimento 
retracto fungosis. Semina perplurima, majuscula, 1 lin. longa, subimbricata, e funiculo valido arcuato pendula, 
ovato-cordata, subcompressa, deorsum in rostnun breve obtusum producta ; testa crassa, spongiosa, albida ; cotyle- 
donibus acciunbentibus, radieula mediocri a?quilonga. 

This is perhaps the most interesting plant procured during the whole of the voyage performed in the Antarctic 
Seas, growing as it does upon an island the remotest of any from a continent, and yielding, besides this esculent, 
only seventeen other flowering plants. 

I am unable to point out any very close affinity which this curious genus may have with others of the same 
natural family, and shall therefore confine myself to enumerating its peculiarities, and how far these may be common 
to others of the order to which it belongs. 

The long stout rhizoma is very similar to the root of the Coclrfearia Armoracia (Horse-radish), and not altogether 
different from that of the common kail or cabbage, which is however an annual plant, whilst the root-stocks of 
Pringlea and of the Horse-radish are perennial. In the forrn of the head of leaves, the resemblance to the 
common cabbage {Brassica oleracea) is most striking, and so is the use both are put to; but this analogy cannot 
be carried further ; our garden escident bears its flowers on a branching stem, that rises from amongst the leaves 
and is a continuation of the axis of growth of the plant, and it is chiefly owing to a check in the development of 
the parts connected with the inflorescence, or a complete suppression of those parts, that the annual leaves are in- 
creased in number and assume the densely capitate fonn ; here, on the other hand, the annual flower-stalks spring 
invariably from the base of the cluster of perennial leaves and are wholly independant of them, as occurs in the 
horse-radish, in various Drabas, in Arabk Macloviana, and in some other perennial Crucifera more frequently inhabi- 
tants of cold climates. But it is in the parts of the inflorescence that the most important botanical characters re- 
side, and by them the position of tliis plant must be determined in the natural series. The flowers though care- 
fully sought, escaped my observation, owing to the lateness of the season of our arrival. Broken sepals and small 
stamens, with short dilated filaments and oblong-lanceolate anthers, of a dark colour, were all I coidd detect ; the 
stigma is peltate and quite entire. 

The silicula accords in fonn with that of several Ali/ssinea, to which group in De Candolle's arrangement 
Pringlea must be referred. There is no marked difference, except size, between the valves in this genus and Cochlearia ■ 
the septum, wholly absent here, is fenestrate in C.fenestrata, Br., a native of Arctic America, whilst the clavate 
peduncle, short style and broad peltate stigma, are very characteristic of other species of that genus. The presence 
or absence of a dissepiment, at all times spurious in the order, and of which there is a partial suppression in a genus 
usually provided with a complete one, cannot be considered a character of the greatest importance though very 
conspicuous ; nor do we in any case find its absence in Crucifera with the more ordinary structure of seed-vessels to 
indicate any affinity between the plants thus characterized. In Cochlearia the septum is easily separable into the two, 
plates of which it is composed, as observed by Brown, and close to the septum the origins of these plates are remote, so 

240 FLORA ANTAECTICA. [Fuegia, the 

that the point of an instrument may be placed between them, each arises immediately from the insertion of the funiculi, 
separating the parallel rows of seeds, a space occupied in Prinijlea by a distinct groove or channel. The form of the 
seed and the thick spongy testa produced at the apex into a short rostrum, are far more characteristic of cruciferous 
plants with an incumbent than with an accumbent radicle; but that organ is here, as in Cocldearia, distinctly accumbent. 

The contemplation of a vegetable very unlike any other in botanical affinity and in general appearance, so emi- 
nently fitted for the food of man, and yet inhabiting one of the most desolate and inhospitable spots on the surface of 
the globe, must equally fill the mind of the scientific enquirer and common observer with wonder. The very fact of 
Kerguelen's Land being possessed of such a singularly luxuriant botanical feature, confers on that small island 
an importance far beyond what its volcanic origin or its dimensions would seem to claim ; whilst the certainty that 
so conspicuous a plant can never have been overlooked in any larger continent, but that it was created in all pro- 
bability near where it now grows, leads the mind back to an epoch far anterior to the present, when the vegetation 
of the Island of Desolation may have presented a fertility of which this is perhaps the only remaining trace. Many 
tons of coal and vast stores of now silicified wood (which I have mentioned in the introduction to this Part) are 
locked up in or buried under those successive geological formations which have many times destroyed the forests of 
this island, and as often themselves supported a luxuriant vegetation. The fires that desolated Kerguelen's Land 
are long ago extinct, nor does the island show any signs of the recent exertion of those powers, that have at one time 
raised parts of it from the bed of the ocean with those submarine alga? which once carpetted its shores, but which 
now are some hundred feet above, the present level of the sea. The Pringlea, in short, seems to have led an uninter- 
rupted and tranquil life for many ages ; but however loth we may be to concede to any one vegetable production an 
antiquity greater than another, or to this island a position to other lands wholly different from what it now presents, 
the most casual inspection of the ground where the plant now grows, will force one of the two following conclusions 
upon the mind ; either that it was created after the extinction of the now buried and for ever lost vegetation, over 
whose remains it abounds, or that it spread over the island froni another and neighbouring region where it was un- 
disturbed during the devastation of this, but of whose existence no indication remains. 

The illustrious Cook first discovered and drew attention to the " Kerguelen's Land Cabbage " during his first 
voyage, when accompanied by Mr. Anderson as surgeon and naturalist. The latter gentleman drew up an account 
of some of the more remarkable plants which he collected there and in other islands, which are preserved in the 
Banksian library ; the present he designated as Pringlea in honour of Sir- John Pringle, who wrote a work upon 
Scurvy. The latter circumstance has induced me, at Mr. Brown's suggestion, to assign the trivial name of anti- 
scoriutica. The Pringlea is exceedingly abundant over all parts of the island, ascending the lulls up to 1400 feet, but 
only attaining its usually large size close to the sea, where it is invariably the first plant to greet the voyager, like 
the Cocldearia or scurvy-grass upon many northern coasts. Its long rhizomata, often 3 or 4 feet long, lie along the 
ground ; they are sometimes 2 inches in diameter, full of spongy and fibrous substance intermixed, of a half woody 
texture, and with the flavour of horse-radish, and bear at the extremity large heads of leaves, sometimes 18 inches 
across, so like those of the common cabbage that if growing in a garden with then' namesakes in England they woidd 
not excite any particular attention ; the outer leaves are coarse, loosely placed and spreading, the inner form a dense 
white heart, that tastes like mustard and cress, but is much coarser. The whole foliage abounds with essential oil 
of a pale yellow colour, highly pungent, and confined in vessels that run parallel with the veins of the leaf, and 
which are very conspicuous on making a transverse section of the head. 

Dining the whole stay of the ' Erebus ' and ' Terror ' in Christmas Harbour, daily use was made of this vege- 
table, either cooked by itself or boiled with the ships' beef, pork, or pea-soup ; the essential oil gives a peculiar 
flavour which the majority of the officers and the crew did not dislike, and which rendered the herb even more 
wholesome than the common cabbage, for it never caused heart-burn, or any of the unpleasant symptoms which that 
plant sometimes produces. Invaluable as it is in its native place, it is very doubtful whether this plant will ever 
prove equally so in other situations. It is of such slow growth that it probably coidd not be cultivated to advan- 
tage, and I fear that, unlike the cow cabbage of Jersey, it woidd fonn no new heads after the old ones were removed, 

Falkland*, etc.] FLORA ANTARCTICA. 241 

even if it would survive the decapitation. Growing spontaneously and in so great abundance where it does, it is likely 
to prove, for ages to come, an inestimable blessing to ships touching at this far-distant Isle ; whdst its luxuriance 
amidst surrounding desolation, its singular form and appearance, striking even the casual observer, and the feelings 
of loneliness and utter isolation from the rest of the world, that must more or less oppress every voyager at first 
landing on its dreary and inhospitable locality, are circumstances likely to render the Kerguelen's Land cabbage, 
cabbage though it be, a cherished object in the recollection of the mariner : one never to be effaced by the brighter 
or luscious products of a tropical vegetation. 

Plate XC. — XCI. Fig. 1, — a young seed-vessel ; fig. 2, a side view of a mature silicula ; Jig. 3, front view 
of the same ; Jig. 4, the same with the valves removed, shewing the seeds ; fig. 5, a seed removed ; fig. 6, the same 
cut open vertically ; fig. 7, embryo, removed from the seed : — all magnified. 

5. THLASPI, Bill. 

1. Thlaspi Magellanicum, Pers. Ench. vol. ii. p. 189. Poir. Diet. vol. vii. p. 541. DC. Sgst. Teg. 
vol. ii. p. 381. Prodr. vol. i. p. 176. 

Hab. Straits of Magalhaens, in dry and open places ; "Baie Duclos" and " Baie Boucaut" ; Commerson. 

As far as I am aware, this exists in the Paris Museum only ; from whence De Candolle drew up his descrip- 
tion, according to which, it is sufficiently distinct from the only other South American species, T. Andicola, Hook, et 
Am., a native of the Andes of Chili. 


1. Sexebiera australis Hook. fil. j annua? parce patentim pilosa, caulibus diffusis ascendentibus ramo- 
sis, foliis subbipinnatifidis lobis incisis, siliculis longius pedicellatis majoribus didymis leviter reticulatis. 

Hab. Clionos Archipelago ; C. Darwin, Esq. 

Omnia 8. pinnatifida, sed racemis pedicellisque longioribus, siliculis dnplo majoribus leviterque reticulatis. 

I have examined specimens of S.piiuiatifida, from various parts both of North and South America, where it grows 
from Buenos Ayres in lat. 35° south, to Carolina in lat. 35° north ; and others from the old world, from the Cape of 
Good Hope in the same southern latitude, as far north as Gotldand in Sweden, (lat. 58° .N). Prom whatever lo- 
cality I have received it, and however much the leaves may vary, the size of the siliculaB and their form and reticula- 
tion are constant, through twenty specimens gathered in as many different parts of Europe, Africa, and America ; 
they do not approach the size of S. australis, though, except in size and the less reticulated surface of the pods of 
Chilian species, I can detect no difference of any importance. 

The existence of another species so nearly allied to S. pinnatifida, from the Chonos Archipelago, where we cannot 
suppose it to have been introduced, is an argument in favour of M. De Candolle's conjecture, that S. pinnatifida, 
though now abundantly diffused throughout the warm and cultivated parts of Europe, Africa, and both Americas, 
is probably a native of the new world alone. It is impossible to say how far the S.piiuiatifida may be naturalized, 
even in the new world ; it seems remarkably plentiful at Buenos Ayres and along that coast to South Brazil and 
Rio ; but I am not aware of its having been found on the western side of America, except at Valparaiso, and near 
Quito, whence Humboldt and Bonpland's specimens are described by M. Kunth as S. pectinate. 

On the East of North America, according to Torrey and Gray, S. australis inhabits only the Southern United 
States, growing in fields and along the banks of rivers. M'Fadyen mentions it in his Flora of Jamaica, as an abundant 
native of that Island, in common with many other cruciferous plants, whose recent introduction is far less equivocal. 

The parts of the old world inhabited by the S. pinnatifida, are strictly the Eastern, as is to be expected in an 

3 D 

242 FLORA ANTARCTICA. \Fuegia, the 

immigrant from the westward. The south of Scotland and England, South Sweden, the western Pyrenees, and 
Atlantic shores of Spain are its principal European habitats, but it is not found in the vast Russian dominions, in 
any portions of Asia, or of Sicily, the Eastern Archipelago, or other mediterranean regions. It inhabits all the 
Atlantic Isles, the Azores and Canaries, and I have gathered it in Madeira, Ascension and St. Helena. In the Tro- 
pics and south temperate zone it extends no further east than the Cape and Mauritius, but re-appears in New Holland, 
according to De Candolle, though it is not mentioned by Brown, nor have I seen it in that country. Erorn the above 
enumeration it woidd seem that this plant has, to a certain extent, been distributed by the agency of ships, but we 
are at a loss to conceive, why a species so readily transplanted to inhabited spots, as the Atlantic Islands, shoidd have 
not been also introduced upon the much frequented coasts of Asia ; the disinclination it manifests to proceed by land 
further east than the shores of those countries which it has so readily gained, is another fact connected with the geo- 
graphical distribution of the present and some other